insoluble in water, "but soluble in hydrochloric acid and in the gastric juice
forming antimony trichloride. It is readily soluble in tartaric acid, and in a
boiling solution of hydrogen potassium tartrate (cream of tartar) forming
potassium, antimonyl tartrate or tartar emetic.
3. Antimony Trichloride (Butter of Antimony), SbCls.—TTiis is a
colourless, deliquescent, crystalline substance, fusing to a yellow, oily liquid
at the temperature of 73.2°C. It dissolves unchanged in a small quantity of
water, but a white powder of oxychloride (SbOCl) is formed if an excess of
water is added. When dissolved in hydrochloric acid, it is known as a
'bronzing liquid, and is employed in the arts and in farriery. It was formerly
employed by quacks as an escharotic, but it is now used mainly in veterinary
4. Antimony Trisulphide (Black Antimony), Sb2S3.—This is known
as Surma in the vernacular. It occurs native as the steel grey ore, and is
also formed as an orange red or brick red powder when sulphuretted
hydrogen is passed through a solution of antimony trichloride or tartar
emetic. The orange variety is an ingredient of Plummer's pill and antimony
sulphuratum. The mineral often contains arsenic as an impurity.
Antimony Hydride (Antimonturetted Hydrogen or Stibine), SbH3.—This
is obtained, when a soluble salt of antimony is brought in contact with zinc
and hydrochloric acid. It is a colourless, offensive, poisonous gas, which
burns with a bluish-green flame, producing white fumes of antimony trioxide.
It closely corresponds to arseniuretted hydrogen but it differs from the latter
in being less poisonous.
Organic Preparations.—Organic preparations, such as Stibenyl, Stiba-
mine, Urea Stibamine, Stibosan (Von Heyden '471'), Neostibosan (Von
Hey den *693b'), Stibophen (Fouadin) Solustibosan have been introduced in
medicine in recent years for the treatment of kala-azar and other protozoal
diseases. Most of these preparations are used intravenously or intramus-
Proprietary Medicines.—Dixon's pills contain 0.06 grain of tartar emetic
in each pill, while Johnson's pills and Mitchell's pills contain 0.002 to O.OOS
grain of tartar emetic per pill.
Acute Poisoning.—Symptoms.—The symptoms usually appear from a
quarter to half an hour after taking a poisonous dose of tartar emetic. The
first symptom is a strong TugtaUu^teste followed by a burning sensation in
the mouth and cesopEagus with a feeling of constriction in the throat. This
is immediately followed by nausea and incessant vomiting with pain in the
stomach and abdomen. The ejected matter at first consists of the stomach
contents and later becomes fluid, tinged with bile and blood. The patient
complains of intense thirst and difficulty of swallowing, as the lips, mouth
and throat become swollen and sore. In some cases there is salivation.
These symptoms are followed by profuse diarrhoea with bloody stools and
suppressed urine. The pulse is small, rapid and imperceptible, and the res-
pirations become laboured and painful. There are cramps in the lower
extremities, sometimes accompanied by tetanic spasms. The skin is cold and
clammy. The patient then faints away, is greatly prostrated, becomes
unconscious and lastly dies from heart failure. In some cases the patient
becomes delirious and comatose before death occurs.
When taken internally, antimony trichloride acts as a strong corrosive
poison, producing erosion of the lips, tongue and throat, severe burning pain
in the mouth, throat, gullet and stomach, violent grumous vomiting and
collapse. Sometimes, there may be symptoms of narcotic poisoning.
When antimony salts are injected intravenously, the poisonous symptoms
which are commonly met with are fits of coughing and retching, j^ddiness.