534 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE spasm of the glottis soon after she had swallowed a strong solution of copper sulphate.79 A young lady80 died about an hour after the onset of symptoms of poisoning. On analysis copper sulphate equivalent to 38 grains and methylene blue were detected in the stomach and its contents. A Maho- metan female,81 24 years old, died within 2 to 2£ hours after she had taken copper sulphate with intent to commit suicide. Treatment.—There is no need to use emetics, as vomiting occurs in five or ten minutes after taking the poison. Wash out the stomach with water containing potassium ferrocyanide, which forms insoluble cupric ferro- cyanide. Administer white of egg or milk as an antidote. The albumen contained in them will form an insoluble salt, albuminate of copper. Give demulcent drinks. Relieve pain by injecting morphine hydrochloride hypodermically, and use diuretics if the urine is suppressed. Give castor oil to remove the poison from the intestines. Support the patient by giving nutrient enemata, and by using stimulants hypodermically. Post-mortem Appearances.—The skin may be yellow owing to jaundice. The mucous membrane of the alimentary canal may be congested, swollen, inflamed and excoriated. The contents of the stomach are green or blue, and so is the colour of its mucous membrane. The mucous membrane of the duodenum may present the same appearance. The colon sometimes shows large ulcerations, and the rectum may be perforated. The liver may be soft and fatty. The kidneys may show the signs of parenchymatous inflammation. Chronic Poisoning.—This may occur among workers in copper and its salts or its alloys owing to the inhalation of copper dust. It may also occur from food being contaminated with verdigris obtained from dirty copper vessels. Symptoms.—These are a green or purple line on the gums, a constant coppery taste in the mouth, giddiness, headache, dyspepsia, vomiting, diarrhoea with colicky pain, laryngitis, bronchitis, ansemia, peripheral neuritis and atrophy of the muscles. i The skin becomes jaundiced; the hair, urine and perspiration become green. Mallory82 of Boston points out that chronic copper poisoning causes the symptom-complex known, under the different names, as haemochromatosis, bronzed diabetes and pigment cirrhosis. Treatment.—Remove the cause, and use massage and warm baths. Keep the patient in fresh air, and attend to his diet and dyspepsia, Copper vessels used for cooking purposes should be tinned, and kept scrupulously clean* Post-mortem Appearances.—The chief post-mortem appearances are fatty degeneration of the liver and degeneration of the epithelial cells of the kidneys. Chemical Tests.—1. Hydrochloric acid and hydrogen sulphide give a brownish-black precipitate, insoluble in. ammonium sulphide, but soluble in potassium cyanide, and freely soluble in warm nitric acid. 2. Ammonium hydroxide gives a greenish-blue precipitate, soluble in excess forming a blue solution. 3. A few drops of potassium ferrocyanide solution added to a neutral or faintly acid solution of a copper salt produces a reddish-brown precipitate of cupric ferrocyanide, soluble in warm dilute nitric acid. '79. Wachhoiz Ztchr, j. Med. Beamte, 1893, VI, p. 397; Witthaus, Manual of Toxicology, Ed'. IT, p, 708. SO.- U.B.-Chemieal Examiner's Annual Report, 1930, p. 5. 81. Bengal Chemical Examiner's Annual Report, 1931, p. 7. 82. Archives of Internal Medicine,, Chicago, March 15,* 1926, p. 336.