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CADMIUM                                                         567

cough, headache and a metallic taste in the mouth. After a latent period of twenty to
thirty-six hours dyspnoe, severe pain in the chest, tachycardia, fever, vomiting,
diarrhoea and occasionally salivation occur. Giddiness, loss of consciousness and death
may occur in rare cases.

The symptoms occur within an hour after ingestion. They are cough, headache, dry-
ness of the mouth and throat, nausea, severe vomiting, colicky pain in the abdomen,
diarrhoea, pain in the lower limbs, collapse and rarely death,

Fatal Dose.—From his experiments on animals Blyth85 considers 4 grammes to be
a dangerous dose of a soluble salt of cadmium for adults.

Fatal Period.—The usual period is 5 to 7 days.

Treatment.—Evacuate the stomach contents by emetics, or wash out the stomach
with the stomach tube. Deep intramuscular injections of 2.5 mg. of a 5 to 10 per cent
solution of B.A.L. in arachis oil per kilogramme of body weight at frequent intervals is
regarded beneficial. Treat the symptoms. Preventive measures in factories must
consist of proper ventilation and wearing of respirators by workmen.

Post-mortem Appearances.—These are congestion and inflammation of the mucous
membrane of the throat, oesophagus, stomach and intestine. The brain and lungs are
congested. There may be fatty degeneration of the heart and liver. The kidneys may
be inflamed.

Chemical Tests,—Hydrogen sulphide gives a yellow precipitate of cadmium sulphide,
soluble in hydrochloric acid, but insoluble in ammonia.

I a drop of cadmium salt solution is treated with a drop of a solution containing
10 per cent caustic soda and 10 per cent potassium cyanide, a drop of a 0.1 per cent
alcoholic solution of dinitro-diphenyl carbazide and 2 drops of 40 per cent' formaldehyde
solution, a bluish-green precipitate or colour is formed.

A cadmium salt forms a brown incrustation, if heated in the reducing flame of a
blow pipe on a piece of charcoal.

Medico-Legal Points.—Poisoning by cadmium is extremely rare, but may occur as
an industrial disease, as it is used in smelting.

Accidental poisoning by cadmium has occurred from eating acid foods, such as
fruit juices kept in cadmium plated cooking utensils. A case86 is recorded in which
62 airmen suffered from cadmium poisoning by drinking fruit juice prepared by dissolv-
ing 6 oz. of dehydrated lemon powder and 46 oz. of canned grape fruit juice in 8 gallons
of water and ice contained in a galvanized metal vessel. The fruit juice was contami-
nated by cadmium which was present in the zinc used for galvanizing the inner lining
of the vessel and was dissolved by the high acidity of the mixture. Each patient must
have ingested about 56 mg. A case is also reported where 300 persons developed food
poisoning after eating in a workers' canteen. The poisoning was caused by wine which
had been kept for several hours in cadmium lined containers. The wine was found
to contain 100 to 180 mlg. of cadmium per litre.8?

After absorption cadmium is mainly found in the lungs, liver and kidneys.


Gold Chloride (Auric Chloride), AuCla.—This occurs as soluble, deliquescent, brown

crystals, and is used in photography.

Gold and Sodium Chloride.—This is a non-official preparation, known as Auri et
Sodii Ckloridum. It consists of equal parts of anhydrous gold chloride and anhydrous
sodium chloride and contains about 50 per cent of gold. It is an odourless orange-yellow
powder, soluble in water and having a saline, metallic taste. The dose 1/30 to 1/12 grain
increased to J grain in a pill with kaolin ointment.

Sodium Aurothiosulphate (Sanocrysin, Aurobin or Crisalbine).—This is a double
thiosulphate of gold and sodium occurring in odourless, colourless crystals and having
a sweet taste. It is freely soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. It contains about
37 per cent of gold. It is a B.P.C. preparation, known as aurii et sodii thiosulphas, and
is recommended in phthisis in doses of 0.025 to 1 G. in 5 per cent solutions in distilled
water intravenously at intervals of a week.

The other proprietary compounds of gold are allochrysine, lopion, myocrisin, neo-
solganal, solganat, etc. which are used intramuscularly in the treatment of rheumatoid

85.   Poisons, Ed. V, p. 630.

86.   G. G, Jenner and J. A. K. Cunningham, N. Z. Med, Jour., Dec. 1944, p. 282; MecU
Leg. and Criminol. Rev., 1945, Vol. XIII, Part II, p. 108.

87.   E. Monnet and F. Sabon, Presse Medicate, Paris, Oct. 19, 1946, 55, p. 677.