576 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE (ii) Side-view.—The cells are about 160 micro-millimetres long, and about 9 micro-millimetres wide without any appreciable tapering The cells show a uniform lumen varying from about 1 to 3 micro-millimetres in diameter. The cell-walls do not show a ribbed appearance owing to the absence of fine transverse strise. Tests.—Physiological.—A watery infusion of abrin or a decoction of the seeds, if dropped into the eye, causes purulent ophthalmia. A thin emulsion of the bruised seed in distilled water, when injected hypodermically into a fowl, produces inflammation and necrosis at the seat of injection and kills the bird in about twenty-four to thirty-six hours. The following method is used for extracting abrin from the seeds : — The kernel left after the removal of the seed envelope is rubbed in a mortar with 4 per cent sodium chloride solution in which abrin is soluble. It is allowed to settle when the sodium chloride solution of abrin is separated out. This process is repeated twice or thrice. The combined extracts are filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. They are then acidified with acetic acid and saturated with sodium chloride to precipitate the abrin. The precipitate is separated and purified by dialysis in a parchment dialyzer for several days. Lastly, the residual abrin is dried in vacuo over sulphuric acid, when an amorphous powder is obtained. Agglutination Test.—If one or two drops of abrin solution made by dissolving 0.1 g. of the substance in 10 cc. of 4 per cent sodium chloride solution are added to 2 cc. of defibrinated blood in a small test-tube, the red blood corpuscles agglutinate into a mass resembling sealing wax. If a drop of abrin solution mixed with a drop of defibrinated blood is placed on a microscopic slide, agglutination of the red blood corpuscles will also be visible under the microscope. Medico-Legal Points.—The seeds of Abrus precatorius are usually employed criminally for destroying cattle, and occasionally for homicidal purposes. The seeds alone, or mixed with dhatura, opium and onion, are worked with a small quantity of spirits into a paste, which is made into spikes or "suis ", and then hardened in the sun. These spikes which weigh, on an average, 1J to 2 grains, are then placed in a wooden handle, and thrust with great force into the skin of the animal intended to be killed. For homicidal purposes the spike is kept between two* fingers, and is pushed into the skin while slapping a person. The spikes thus prepared are less active than the freshly powdered seeds. One spike weighing two grains on being rubbed up with water and injected subcutaneously into a chicken does not usually produce a fatal result till after the lapse of thirty-six hours; whilst half a grain of the freshly powdered seed produces death in about eighteen hours.17 Cases of human poisoning by " sui" pricking, though very few, have occurred especially in the district of Drug, C.P,, and in the districts of Bareilly, Hlibhit and Shahajahanpur, UP. In his annual report for the year 1908, the Chemical Examiner of the United Provinces mentions the following case of human "sui" poisoning, which occurred in the district of Drug: — The deceased was sleeping on a charpoy. Someone came into the room and gave him a slap on his right cheek. A wound was found in this position, in which were pieces of the foreign substance. More pieces of the foreign body were found on the charpoy These pieces were found to be fragments of a " sui" as used in " sui" poisoning of cattle, and contained ground-up seeds of Abrus precatorius. Death occurred in aid moyutiT tlurteen hours a*1** ti16 symptoms of inflammation in the chest, eyes, neck 17. Warden and WaddeD, Loc. Cit.; Ind. Med. Gaz.> July 1884, p. 189.