584 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE The fresh leaves and stalks of these plants, when crushed, exude a thick, acrid, milky juice which, according to Rajagopal Naidu,35 has a specific gravity of 1.021, is acid in reaction and contains 14.8 per cent of solids. The juice forms into a white clot or coagulum leaving a clear, straw-coloured serum after it is heated or allowed to stand for some time. The coagulum yields a yellowish-brown resin and a snow-white, crystalline substance, having the formula O^H^Cfe. The resin is slightly poisonous, about eight milligrammes being necessary to kill a frog, weighing- about 20 grammes, while the white crystalline substance is insoluble in water and is non- poisonous, but it is soluble in most of the organic solvents, such as alcohol, acetone, ether and petroleum ether, and still more soluble in chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. The serum contains 3 per cent of solids, and is highly toxic, 0.05 ml. being sufficient to kill a frog, weighing about ten grammes, in a few minutes. N. Pitchandi36 of the Department of the Chemical Examiner, Madras, has isolated from this serum a white, crystalline substance, named giganiAn, having the formula C24H3609 and melting with decomposition at 323°C. It is soluble in alcohol, but sparingly soluble in water and is one of the most virulent poisons, being about fifteen to twenty times as poisonous as strych- nine. It acts locally as an irritant poison and, after absorption, acts as a cerebro-spinal poison. A dose of 0.5 mg. per kilogramme of body weight injected peritoneally proves fatal to a dog, the symptoms being retching, purging, extreme restlessness and severe respiratory embarrassment with anxious expression and prominent eyes. A dose of 0.2 to 0.25 mg. per kilo- gramme of body weight injected intravenously kills a dog in sixty minutes. When applied to the skin, madar juice acts as a local irritant poison, producing redness, inflammation and vesication, It irritates the eyes and may cause inflammation involving eye- sight when dropped into them. When administered internally, it acts as a gastro- intestinal irritant and also as a cerebro- spinal poison. When used in the form of snuff, the powdered madar root may cause death. In his annual report for the year 1938, the Chemical Examiner, Bengal, mentions a case in which a man, about 44 years old, who had been suffering from chronic pain in the lumbar region for about a year, was given by a village herbalist powdered madar root in mistake for powdered indrayan (colocynth) root to be used as snuff. After about half-an-hour he deve- loped symptoms of poisoning, gradually became unconscious, and died soon after- wards. The rapid death was probably due to the patient's idiosyncrasy to the drug. Fig, 175.—Calotropls Gigantea. Symptoms.—When taken internally, madar juice gives rise to an acrid, bitter taste and a burning pain in the throat and stomach, These are followed by salivation, stomatitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, dilated pupils, tetanic convulsions, collapse and death. Sometimes, there may be delirium. 35. Madras Chemical Examiner's Annual Report, 1936, p. 13; see also Ibid,, 1932, p. o J lulu., l&Sdj p. 11. 36. Jour, and Proc. Just, Chem., Vol. XX, March 1948, p. 34.