CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA AND PROCERA 585 Fatal Dose.—Not determined. Fatal Period.—This is usually a few hours varying from half an hour to eight hours. Treatment.—Lavage the stomach cautiously. Administer demulcent drinks. Give morphine hypodermically to relieve pain and to prevent con- vulsions. Administer diffusible stimulants to combat collapse. Post-mortem Appearances.—Signs of irritation in the stomach and intestines. In a case from Tonk where madar juice was found in the viscera of a baby, three months old, the post-mortem appearances were the signs of stomatitis in the mouth; the stomach was perforated in a few places, and milk was found on the surface of the intestines.37 In the case of a woman 3S who died within one hour after madar juice had been swallowed, post- mortem examination showed bloody discharges in the nostrils and mouth. The stomach was congested and contained about 2 ounces of chime-like fluid. The small intestine was congested. The liver, spleen and kidneys were con- gested. The trachea was injected. The heart was empty. -Hie brain and its membranes were congested. Tests.—Col. Black, late Chemical Examiner for the Punjab, recommended to Mr. Chatterji, late Chemical Examiner for the Central and the United Provinces, the following test as successfully employed by him: — The material under examination is heated for a sufficiently long time with absolute alcohol under a reflux condenser. If now the alcoholic extract is allowed to evaporate spontaneously characteristic cauliflower-like masses separate out and are readily identified. But Mr. Chatterji has found the masses which separate out as "nodular", and he relies on the following tests for the identification of madar juice : — 1. The suspected material is digested with absolute alcohol for about an hour under a reflux condenser. The extract is distilled with the addition of a little 50 per cent (by volume) sulphuric acid in the presence of alcohol. The distillate has a characteristic fruity odour. This should be compared with the odour obtained from madar juice under similar conditions. 2. Treated with strong hydrochloric acid, the residue from an alcoholic extract gives a .greenish-blue colour which disappears on keeping or heating. With strong sulphuric acid it gives a green colour, changing to brown and violet.39 In his annual report for the year 1936, the Chemical Examiner, Madras, describes the following scheme of examination which is used in his laboratory in suspected cases of madar juice poisoning: — " The alcoholic extract of the viscus or other suspected material is divided into two portions (a) and (b) — (A) Portion (a) is saponified with alcoholic potash and extracted with petroleum ether. The petroleum ether extract is evaporated to dryness, taken up with a little chloroform, treated with a slight excess of a solution of digitonin in rectified spirit, evaporated again to dryness and extracted wHh ordinary ether. This ether solution on evaporation gives a crystalline residue in the presence of madar juice. A little taken on a watch glass placed over a porcelain slab and treated with concentrated sulphuric acid gives a red colour. Addition of a few drops of chloroform and a few drops of acetic anhydride to this red colour changes it to a beautiful purple. The alkaline alcoholic solution after extraction with petroleum ether as above is evaporated nearly to dryness, taken up with absolute alcohol and 37. XJ.P. Chemical Examiner's Annual Report, 1922, p. 3. 38. Beng. Chem. Examiner's Ann. Rep., 1936, p. 12. 39. Chatterji, The Analyst, Nov. 1930.