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CALOTROPIS   GIGANTEA   AND   PROCERA                                    585

Fatal Dose.—Not determined.

Fatal Period.—This is usually a few hours varying from half an hour to
eight hours.

Treatment.—Lavage the stomach cautiously. Administer demulcent
drinks. Give morphine hypodermically to relieve pain and to prevent con-
vulsions. Administer diffusible stimulants to combat collapse.

Post-mortem Appearances.—Signs of irritation in the stomach and
intestines. In a case from Tonk where madar juice was found in the viscera
of a baby, three months old, the post-mortem appearances were the signs
of stomatitis in the mouth; the stomach was perforated in a few places, and
milk was found on the surface of the intestines.37 In the case of a woman 3S
who died within one hour after madar juice had been swallowed, post-
mortem examination showed bloody discharges in the nostrils and mouth.
The stomach was congested and contained about 2 ounces of chime-like fluid.
The small intestine was congested. The liver, spleen and kidneys were con-
gested. The trachea was injected. The heart was empty. -Hie brain and
its membranes were congested.

Tests.—Col. Black, late Chemical Examiner for the Punjab, recommended
to Mr. Chatterji, late Chemical Examiner for the Central and the United
Provinces, the following test as successfully employed by him: —

The material under examination is heated for a sufficiently long time
with absolute alcohol under a reflux condenser. If now the alcoholic extract
is allowed to evaporate spontaneously characteristic cauliflower-like masses
separate out and are readily identified. But Mr. Chatterji has found the
masses which separate out as "nodular", and he relies on the following
tests for the identification of madar juice : —

1.    The suspected material is digested with absolute alcohol for about
an hour under a reflux condenser.   The extract is distilled with the addition
of a little 50 per cent (by volume) sulphuric acid in the presence of alcohol.
The distillate has a characteristic fruity odour.   This should be compared
with the odour obtained from madar juice under similar conditions.

2.    Treated with strong hydrochloric acid, the residue from an alcoholic
extract gives a .greenish-blue colour which disappears on keeping or heating.
With strong sulphuric acid it gives a green colour, changing to brown and

In his annual report for the year 1936, the Chemical Examiner, Madras,
describes the following scheme of examination which is used in his laboratory
in suspected cases of madar juice poisoning: —

" The alcoholic extract of the viscus or other suspected material is
divided into two portions (a) and (b) —

(A) Portion (a) is saponified with alcoholic potash and extracted with
petroleum ether. The petroleum ether extract is evaporated to dryness,
taken up with a little chloroform, treated with a slight excess of a solution
of digitonin in rectified spirit, evaporated again to dryness and extracted
wHh ordinary ether. This ether solution on evaporation gives a crystalline
residue in the presence of madar juice. A little taken on a watch glass
placed over a porcelain slab and treated with concentrated sulphuric acid
gives a red colour. Addition of a few drops of chloroform and a few drops
of acetic anhydride to this red colour changes it to a beautiful purple.

The alkaline alcoholic solution after extraction with petroleum ether as
above is evaporated nearly to dryness, taken up with absolute alcohol and

37.    XJ.P. Chemical Examiner's Annual Report, 1922, p. 3.

38.    Beng. Chem. Examiner's Ann. Rep., 1936, p. 12.

39.    Chatterji, The Analyst, Nov. 1930.