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616                                             MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE

plex body, containing about twenty-five alkaloids, combined with meconic,
lactic and sulphuric acids. Of these the most important is morphine which
occurs in combination with rneconic acid. Next in importance are codeine,
narcotine, papaverine and thebaine. Opium yields from 6 to 23 per cent of
morphine, 0.3 to 2 per cent of codeine, 2 to & per cent of narcotise, 1 per
cent of papaverine and 0.3 to 1 per cent of thebaine.

The Indian variety of opium which is known as the Banaras opium is a
mixture of opium obtained from Madhya Pradesh and from the districts of
Banaras, Ghazipur, Lucknow, Azamgarh, etc. in the Uttar Pradesh, The
morphine content of opium from these several places varies from 7 to 14
per cent, but the Banaras opium is standardized in the Government Opium
Factory at Ghazipur to contain about 10 per cent of morphine, The total
alkaloids of this opium usually go upto 40 per cent in which codeine is
present to the extent of 1.8 and narcotine 6,4 per cent,

Morphine, CirHioOsN.—This is the principal alkaloid to which the
poisonous properties of opium are chiefly due. It occurs as a white powder
or in white, shining crystals, having a bitter taste and alkaline reaction. It
is very sparingly soluble in cold water, but soluble in 400 to 500 parts of
boiling water. It is slightly soluble in ether and alcohol, but dissolves
in acetic ether and amyl alcohol. It readily dissolves in dilute acids and in
solutions of caustic alkalies and alkaline earths. It forms crystalline saltsy
of which morphine hydrochloride and morphine sulphate are pharmacopoeial
preparations and morphine acetate is a non-official preparation, the dose of
each being £ to 1/3 grain. These salts are bitter in taste, neutral in reaction
and freely soluble in water.

Morphine has a specific action on the nerve-cells of the brain, and has a
narcotic effect.

Heroin  (Diacetyl-morphine or Diamorphine), Dionin  (Ethyl-morphine)
and   Peronin   (Benzoyl-morphine)    are   artificial   alkaloids   derived   from
morphine ^id are used in medicine to allay cough in phthisis and asthma.
Hydrochloride of heroin is now official under the name, Di&vnorphino& Hydro-*
chloridum, the dose being 1/12 to 1/6 grain.

Dilaudid (Dihydromorphinone hydrochloride) is an oxidation product of
morphine. It is a colourless, crystalline substance, freely soluble in alcohol
and water, but insoluble in ether. It is used as a substitute for morphine
in 1/24'to 1/12-grain doses by mouth or in 1/30-grain doses subcutaneously.

Codeine, Ci8H2iO3N.—This is chemically methylmorphine, and occurs in
nearly colourless trimetric crystals. It is soluble in 120 parts of water, in
2 parts of alcohol and in chloroform. It is soluble in aqueous ammonia, but
insoluble in excess of pQtash or soda solution. It dissolves easily in dilute
acids, and forms neutral salts. Codeine and its salt, codeine phosphate, are
pharmacopoeial preparations, the dose of each being 1/6 to 1 grain. TabelUe
cadeinae composite (Compound tablets of codeine or tablets of aspirin,
phenacetin and codeine) and Tabellae codeinae phosphate are the official
preparations of codeine phosphate.

Narcotine, papaverine and thebaine are not important from a toxico-
logical point of view. Narcotine and its salt, narcotine hydrochloride, are
non-official preparations, the dose of each toeing 1 to 3 grains. Narcotine is
much less poisonous than either morphine'or codeine, and produces toxic
effects only in very large doses.

Papaverine resembles codeine in its effects on man. One gramme might
cause dangerous symptoms. It appears to undergo complete destruction irx
the tissues.