616 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE plex body, containing about twenty-five alkaloids, combined with meconic, lactic and sulphuric acids. Of these the most important is morphine which occurs in combination with rneconic acid. Next in importance are codeine, narcotine, papaverine and thebaine. Opium yields from 6 to 23 per cent of morphine, 0.3 to 2 per cent of codeine, 2 to & per cent of narcotise, 1 per cent of papaverine and 0.3 to 1 per cent of thebaine. The Indian variety of opium which is known as the Banaras opium is a mixture of opium obtained from Madhya Pradesh and from the districts of Banaras, Ghazipur, Lucknow, Azamgarh, etc. in the Uttar Pradesh, The morphine content of opium from these several places varies from 7 to 14 per cent, but the Banaras opium is standardized in the Government Opium Factory at Ghazipur to contain about 10 per cent of morphine, The total alkaloids of this opium usually go upto 40 per cent in which codeine is present to the extent of 1.8 and narcotine 6,4 per cent, Morphine, CirHioOsN.—This is the principal alkaloid to which the poisonous properties of opium are chiefly due. It occurs as a white powder or in white, shining crystals, having a bitter taste and alkaline reaction. It is very sparingly soluble in cold water, but soluble in 400 to 500 parts of boiling water. It is slightly soluble in ether and alcohol, but dissolves in acetic ether and amyl alcohol. It readily dissolves in dilute acids and in solutions of caustic alkalies and alkaline earths. It forms crystalline saltsy of which morphine hydrochloride and morphine sulphate are pharmacopoeial preparations and morphine acetate is a non-official preparation, the dose of each being £ to 1/3 grain. These salts are bitter in taste, neutral in reaction and freely soluble in water. Morphine has a specific action on the nerve-cells of the brain, and has a narcotic effect. Heroin (Diacetyl-morphine or Diamorphine), Dionin (Ethyl-morphine) and Peronin (Benzoyl-morphine) are artificial alkaloids derived from morphine ^id are used in medicine to allay cough in phthisis and asthma. Hydrochloride of heroin is now official under the name, Di&vnorphino& Hydro-* chloridum, the dose being 1/12 to 1/6 grain. Dilaudid (Dihydromorphinone hydrochloride) is an oxidation product of morphine. It is a colourless, crystalline substance, freely soluble in alcohol and water, but insoluble in ether. It is used as a substitute for morphine in 1/24'to 1/12-grain doses by mouth or in 1/30-grain doses subcutaneously. Codeine, Ci8H2iO3N.—This is chemically methylmorphine, and occurs in nearly colourless trimetric crystals. It is soluble in 120 parts of water, in 2 parts of alcohol and in chloroform. It is soluble in aqueous ammonia, but insoluble in excess of pQtash or soda solution. It dissolves easily in dilute acids, and forms neutral salts. Codeine and its salt, codeine phosphate, are pharmacopoeial preparations, the dose of each being 1/6 to 1 grain. TabelUe cadeinae composite (Compound tablets of codeine or tablets of aspirin, phenacetin and codeine) and Tabellae codeinae phosphate are the official preparations of codeine phosphate. Narcotine, papaverine and thebaine are not important from a toxico- logical point of view. Narcotine and its salt, narcotine hydrochloride, are non-official preparations, the dose of each toeing 1 to 3 grains. Narcotine is much less poisonous than either morphine'or codeine, and produces toxic effects only in very large doses. Papaverine resembles codeine in its effects on man. One gramme might cause dangerous symptoms. It appears to undergo complete destruction irx the tissues.