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622                                               MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE

the heart is full of blood, and the left is empty. Sometimes, both the cham-
bers are full with venous engorgement. The brain and its membranes are
congested. Similarly, the abdominal organs are largely congested, and
exude dark fluid blood on section. The bladder is generally full of urine.

In the case1G of an adult Hindu who died of opium poisoning, about four
ounces of partly clotted blood were found in the *pericardial cavity and the
substance of the brain was found congested. There was extravasation of
blood in the skin of the neck and chest and both sides of the abdomen. On
the front of the chest the haemorrhages were at intervals, while on the sides
of the abdomen and neck the haemorrhages were continuous. There were
haemorrhages in the skin at intervals on the face and forehead, There were
also haemorrhages in the skin of the back as far as the suprascapular regions
from the nape of the neck. There were a few haemorrhages in the skin on
both the feet.

Chemical Analysis.—To ascertain whether the suspected article contains
opium or not, it is necessary to detect the presence of meconic acid and
morphine, if possible.

Test for .Meconic Acid.—A neutral solution of ferric chloride gives a
blood-red colour, which is not destroyed by boiling or by adding hydro-
chloric acid (distinction from acetates and formates) or mercuric chloride
solution (distinction from thiocyanates). The red colour disappears on the
addition of stannous chloride, but it reappears on the addition of nitrous

Tests for Morphine.—1. Marquis's Test,—A drop of a mixture consist-
ing of 3 cc. of concentrated sulphuric acid and three drops of formalin (40
per cent formaldehyde solution) added to a fragment of the suspected residue
produces a purple-red colour, which changes gradually to violet and finally
to blue, if morphine is present. Codeine and apomorphine produce a violet
colour- changing to blue, but not the initial purple-red, Narcotine produces
a violet colour, but it becomes olive-green and finally yellow* Oxydimor-
phine gives a green colour. Dionin gives a dark blue violet colour, while
heroin produces the same colours as morphine,

2.    One or two drops of neutral ferric chloride solution added to a
neutral solution of a morphine salt produces a blue colour*

3.    Husemann's Test.—If two or three drops of concentrated sulphuric
acid are added to the morphine residue, and the mixture is heated on a water
bath for about half-an-hour, a reddish or reddistx-browix or black colour
appears.   On cooling and on adding a drop or two of concentrated nitric
acid or a crystal of potassium nitrate a reddish-violet colour appears which
changes immediately to blood-red and then to reddish~yellow and finally
fades away.

4.    Frohde's Molyb&c Test.—One  or two drops of freshly prepared
Frohde's reagent (0,1 g. of ammonium or sodium molybdate dissolved in 10
cc. of concentrated sulphuric acid) added to a fragment of the dry morphine
residue on a white porcelain dish produces a violet colour which changes to
blue, green and finally to pink or rose-red.

5.    Porphyroxine  Test.—The alkaline  ether  extract obtained by  the
Stas-Otto process is allowed to evaporate spontaneously in a small porcelain
dish.   To the dry residue a few drops of hydrochloric acid are added, and
the dish heated over a flame, when, a pink or rose-red colour shows the
presence of porphyroxine, a neutral constituent of opium, first described by
Merck.   This test was thought to be peculiar to Indian ppium only, but

16.   Bombay Chemical Analyser's Annual Report, 1929, p. 7,