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OPIUM                                                625

who sliould obtain a permit from the Excise Department. Anyone found
.smoking without a permit after March 1934, will be prosecuted and oa con-
viction will have to undergo six months' imprisonment combined with a fine,
As a result of the recommendation of the Opium Enquiry Commute in
Bengal, since January 1, 1933, the limit of the possession of opium by a
person has been reduced from one tola to 12 grains. Anyone purchasing it
in excess o the quantity upto 90 grains, i.e. half>a-tola, must obtain a per-
mit from the Excise Department, These permits are to be issued only on
the certificate of a medical practitioner and in no case a quantity exceeding
90 grains is to be sold to any one consumer.

Similar opium smoking acts have also been passed in Bihar and the
Uttar   Pradesh,   These   acts   forbid   the   registration   of   habitual   opium
smokers under the age of twenty-five years.   The Bombay Opium Smok-
ing Act as amended by the Bombay Act XLIII  of 1949 provides that
a person who opens, keeps or uses any place for the purpose of an opium
smoking assembly or in any way assists in conducting the business of any
place used or kept for the purpose aforesaid, or being the owner, occupier
or having the use or eare or management or control of any place knowingly
permits it to be opened, kept or used for the purpose of an, opium smoking
assembly, shall, on conviction, be punished with imprisonment of either des-
cription for a term which may extend to six months or with line which may
extend to Rs.  1,000 or with both.   Recently, the majority  of the  State
Governments in India have declared certain dry areas where the use of
intoxicating drugs, especially alcohol, opium and bhang (including ganja and
charas) has been prohibited without special permits issued to the addicts on
the recommendation of a registered medical practitioner.  The Government
of Bombay have prohibited the use or consumption of intoxicating or nar-
cotic drugs, such as any alcoholic liquor, toddy, opium and cannabis indica
including bhang> chams and gauja throughout the whole province of Bom-
bay, but may allow certain individuals to use or consume foreign liquor
under special permits granted by the Commissioner or the Officer authorized
or the Committee appointed for the purpose (Me the Bombay Prohibition
Act, 1949),

An infusion ~fl of poppy capsules is habitually drunk by some people in
certain districts in the Punjab and parts of Rajputana States, especially
Jaipur, A preparation, known as Bhujri, and made by frying green, ripe
capsules in butter or ghee (clarified butter) is eaten by the addicts, A
sweet, called Haltoa, and prepared from the juice extracted from green poppy
capsules, is also used.

Opium is believed to increase the duration of the sexual act Hence it
is often taken by young men, who get accustomed to the drug by constant
use* It is also used to steady the nerves for doing some bold deed requiring
special courage. For instance, in ancient times the Rajputs used to take the
drug before they took part in battles,

The morphdne habit in Western countries is usually acquired by those
who are advised to take the drug either by the mouth or subcutaneously as
a remedy for some excruciating pain, as of sciatica* Heroin is also a habit-
forming drug, and is used by addicts either hypoderraically or as a snuff
like cocaine, In India, the habit is acquired usually by young people of
certain classe$ in consequence of the belief that morphine produces the
sense of euphoria and that it has remarkable power as an aphrodisiac. Once
the habit is formed, it is difficult to give it up In fact the victim has to take

28,   Chopra, Grewal and others, Indian Jour, of MedieaZ .Research, April 1880* p $85,