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Full text of "Medical Jurisprudence And Toxicology"

MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE

Medico-Legal Points.-Poisoning by sulplumilamide is mostly ueddtmtal
SulDhanilamide,  when given by the mouth,  is  rapidly  ab.sorbod  from the small
^fee ^TfouAd in the blood, ccrebro-spmul fhud and all Iho NoerHum* and tissues
Vx irboo^ except bone and fat.   It is excreted m the unite partly unchanged and partly
as acetyl sulphanilamide.

ANILINE  (PHENYLAMINE OR ANILINE OIL),  Crtl!*NHa

TVm is a coal-tar derivative, and is prepared by reducing tutrobtw.cw by means of
nascent hydrogen. It is a colourless, oily liquid, becoming brown on exposure to air
^t i^t Tt has a peculiar aromatic odour and a bununtf taste. It is .soluble with
Sfficulty in water, but freely in alcohol, ether and chlorofonn. It is chiefly used in the
arts' formaking several aniline dyes. It is also a ferns oC some synthetic drugs, such as
^etaSlide or antifebrin and exalgin. Commcrcml umlmo contains umlmc, toluidine,
nitrobenzene, and other benzene derivatives.

Svmutoms —These usually appear immediately after nwalkwing a poisonous dose,
hut mav sometimes be delayed for an hour or more. The nymptoma are nausea, vomit-
I'm? headache giddiness, drowsiness soon deepening into coma, »low, laboured breathing,
tmall feeble and irregular pulse, and remarkable cyanonui of tbe lips, face, fingers and
toes 'and sometimes of the whole body, largely due to the formation of methtenoglobin,
The'skin is cold and clammy; the pupils are usually dilated, but are contracted in some
cases Very often convulsions occur before death. In subucute cii«c»8 the urine is
coloured dark and dysuria and jaundice may occur.

Fatal Dose.—Six drachms have proved fatal, but a wnuller do.se oC IE to 15 grains
may cause death.

Fatal Period.—Uncertain. Death may occur in a few hourn or may be delayed for
two or three days.

Treatment.—Give emetics or wash out the stomach UH quickly an possible. Administer
stimulants hypodermically or per rectum, Inject intruyoncWHly 10 to 20 mk of a 1 per
cent solution of methylene blue (methylthionine chloride) to eomhnt cyanosis, Inhala*
tion of oxygen and artificial respiration, Venesection, «nlim* iufunUm ami transfusion
of blood may be necessary in severe cases*

Post-mortem Appearances,—Not characteristic. Hypcnemlii and contention of the
bronchial tubes, as well as the stomach. The blood m chocotoU* coloured. There may
be fatty degeneration of the liver, kidneys and heart,

Chemical Analysis.—Aniline may be separated from tin* nuwpouted organic material
by making strongly alkaline and then distilling the mixture* with Htcnm, The distillate
is rendered alkaline by adding sodium hydroxide and shttken up with uthflf. The ether
is evaporated to dryness and the residue contains ttnlllnu which may he examined by
the following tests : —

1.   If 5 or 6 drops of strong sulphuric acid and a drap of n &atitrated solution of
potassium bichromate are added to a little of the residue in a porcelain capsule, the edge
of the mixture begins to show a pure blue colour In a few mlnutctt,   On the addition of
a few drops of water the whole mixture becomes uniformly blue,

2.   A few drops of sodium hypochlorite solution or a, fnmhly prepared solution of
calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder) added to an aqueous uolutlon of aniline produces
a purple or violet-blue colour, which changes to reddish-brown or dirty rod.   If a few
drops of dilute phenol solution and some ammonia are added, a blue colour in formed,

3.   A few drops of bromine waller added to an aqutoun solution of aniline produce
a flesh-coloured precipitate of tribromaniline.   On standing, the colour turns yellow.

4.   Heated with chloroform and alcoholic potash, the oUtwivti odour of phenyliso-
cyanide is noticed.

Medico-Legal Points.—Aniline is a blood poison. It dWntegratosi tha r©d blood
corpuscles and causes the formation of metheemoglobin, which may bo readily recognized
by its characteristic spectroscopic appearance. Aniline is partly changed in th© human
body into aniline black, In severe aniline poisoning fine blue-black granules may be seen
in every drop of the blood and also in the urine, Aniline ii oxidized in Uw tissues to
para-aminophenyl-sulphuric acid, which is then eliminated in the urine m m alkaline
salt. A part of aniline may be found unchanged in th© urine,

Aniline is occasionally taken internally for the purpoa© of committing suicide, but
does not seem to have been used for homicidal purpose. Recently, a ea§e occurred in
Bombay, where a Mahomedan male killed his wife by inflicting leverai utab wounds
on her body, and then committed suicide by taking paramtra-anillne, a derivative of
aniline. 92                                                                                                                            ;

92.   Private communication dated Sep. 26, 1946 from the Chemical Analywr, Bombay,