OIL OF TURPENTINE am t»71 copoeial preparation is Oleum terebinthince (Rectified oil of turpentine) , the d which is 3 to 10 minims. It is contained in the official preparation of Liui™^ terebinthince (63 to 70%). ^^meutum When purified by distillation with lime, oil of turpentine is known as e Sanitas is a watery solution of turpentine oxidized by exposure to the air. Hv^ ^^ peroxide is its active principle. yo.ro gen Symptoms. — A poisonous dose of oil of turpentine causes a burning pain 5 -"h mouth, throat and stomach, thirst, vomiting, diarrhoea, contracted pupils, g^- drowsiness, cold skin, excitement, convulsions, coma and death. Owing to its irrit t action on the kidneys, the patient complains of pain in the loins, difficulty of micturit n strangury and passes scanty high-coloured urine, which contains blood and possesses a smell of violets. When a large quantity is taken, the urme >~ completely suppressed. may Applied to the skin, oil of turpentine produces redness and irritation, follOwec} vesication. Inhalation of turpentine vapour produces irritation of the eyes, headache, and irritation of the respiratory passages or even pneumonia. It sometimes irritation of the kidneys. Fatal Dose. — Four and six ounces of oil of turpentine have respectively killed adults. A teaspoonful has killed an infant, five months old, and half-an-oujnce ha proved fatal to a child, fourteen weeks old. On the other hand, recoveries have occurred in adults and in children from much larger doses. Fatal Period. — Death may take place in from a few minutes to twelve or fifteen hours. Treatment. — Give emetics or wash out the stomach. Administer demulcents and magnesium sulphate if diarrhoea has not occurred. Keep up the warmth of the bodv Apply hot fomentations to the loins. Give morphine, J grain, hypodermically to relieve pain. Post-mortem Appearances. — The stomach usually shows hsemorrhagic spots some- times with erosions of its mucous membrane. The stomach contents may smell stronfilv of turpentine. The kidneys show degenerative changes. The lungs are acutely congested The brain and its meninges are congested. In the case^ of an adult male, aged 39* who died after drinking six ounces of spirit of turpentine, post-mortem examination showed that the stomach contained four ounces of turpentine, and its raucous membrane was completely macerated and lying in small pieces in the gastric cavity. The wall of the stomach felt like leather due to the action of the turpentine. Chemical Analysis. — This substance may be separated from organic mixtures bv distillation and by extracting the distillate with ether, petroleum ether, chloroform or benzol. It is recognized by its odour. With strong hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride it gives a rose colour, which changes to violet-red and blue on standing, "With strong sulphuric acid it produces a deep reddish-brown colour. When, mixed with a f &w crystals of iodine, oil of turpentine explodes, Medico-Legal Points. — Oil of turpentine is not an active poison. A few accidental cases of poisoning have occurred from its medicinal use as an anthelmintic or from its administration by mistake. It has been taken to procure abortion, but has "been, rarelv used for homicidal purposes, while it has been swallowed with suicidal intent. & case ^7 is recorded in which a young man committed suicide by taking turpentine. About three ounces of turpentine were recovered by distillation from the viscera usually preserved for chemical analysis. Toxic symptoms occurring from the continued inhalation of turpentine vapour are occasionally observed in painters or in persons sleeping in a newly varnished room Seamen who were engaged in painting in enclosed spaces on one of H.M. ships suffered from turpentine poisoning by inhaling its vapour. The symptoms arose after one or two days* work, seven men reporting sick within a week. They complained of scalding pain at the end of micturition, and in some cases, of frequency ; the urine contained blood and had an odour of violets. They all recovered after some time.28 Turpentine is eliminated by the lungs, and imparts its characteristic odour to the breath. It is eliminated by the kidneys and appears in the urine in combination with glycuronic acid. The urine acquires a smell of violets and reduces Fehling's solution Turpentine is also excreted to some extent by the skin. EUCALYPTUS OIL This is distilled from the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus dumosa and other species of Eucalyptus, N.O. Myrtacese. It is a colourless or pale yellp-y^ volatile 26. Maitland, Brit. Med, Jour., July 11, 1931, p. 77. 27. Madras Chena. Examiner's Annual Rep., 1939, p. 3. 28. H. Wilks, Jour, Royal Nav. Ked. Service, Jan. 1930, p. 53; Lancet, Feb. 8 1930 p. 307. .'