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Treatment—Wash out the stomach. Give morphine hypodermically. Keep up the
body warmth and use stimulants.

Post-mortem Appearances.—The mucous membrane of the stomach and small intes-
tine is congested, and may sometimes be inflamed.

Chemical Analysis.—Solanine is extracted from the viscera by the Stas-Otto method,
but as it is practically insoluble in ether and chloroform, warm amyl alcohol is used for
the final extraction from ammoniacal solution. The following are the most useful

tests 26 : —

1.   A concentrated solution of the alkaloid in amyl alcohol sets  to  a  jelly-like

2.   Phosphomolybdic acid gives a cream-coloured precipitate.

3.   Nitric acid gives a purple colour on warming.

4.   Ethyl sulphuric acid gives a red colour.

5.   Concentrated sulphuric acid with bromine water gives a red  colour forming
in streaks.


This plant belongs to N.O. Urticaceae, and grows all over India, but its
cultivation is restricted to certain districts only owing to the monopoly of
State Governments. It yields an amorphous resin, cannabinone, which
consists chiefly of cannabinol, a colourless, oily liquid. When treated with
p-nitrobenzoyl chloride in pyridine solution, cannabinol forms two com-
pounds, crystalline cannabinol-p-nitrobenzoate, and non-crystalline canna-
binol-p-nitrobenzoate. The crystalline compound is highly poisonous, and
causes convulsions and death soon after injecting into a rabbit a dose of
more than 2 mg. per kilogramme of body weight of 0,5 per cent acetone
solution. The non-crystalline compound yields on hydrolysis an oily liquid,
which causes sleep and later death without convulsions, if a dose of 5 mg.
or more per kilogramme of body weight is injected into a rabbit.

The forms in which cannabis sativa is used in India


1. Bhang, Siddhi or Sdbji.—This consists of the dried leaves and fruit-
ing shoots. It is used as an infusion
in the form of a beverage, which
produces intoxication of a sensuous
character. It is prepared by rub-
bing on a stone slab sugar, black
pepper and dried leaves, and is
taken in the form of a bolus or pill,
or is mixed with water and strained
through a muslin cloth before it is
drunk. This is the favourite bever-
age, especially of the Hindus, in the
northern parts of India.

The intoxication produced by it
is of the most cheerful kind causing
the individual to sing and dance, to
eat food with great relish and to
seek sexual enjoyment. The in-

Fig. 186.—Cannabis Sativa.

toxication lasts about three hours
when sleep supervenes, J

2. Majun—This is a sort of confection prepared from bhang after
treating it with sugar, flour, milk and butter. It has an agreeable odour and
a sweet taste It is sold in the bazaar in small lozenge-shaped pieces. One
to three drachms are enough to intoxicate a person, who feels great appetite

26.  H. Lowe, Analyst, 1929, p. 153; Jour, of State Med., June 1929, p. 368.