684 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE Treatment—Wash out the stomach. Give morphine hypodermically. Keep up the body warmth and use stimulants. Post-mortem Appearances.—The mucous membrane of the stomach and small intes- tine is congested, and may sometimes be inflamed. Chemical Analysis.—Solanine is extracted from the viscera by the Stas-Otto method, but as it is practically insoluble in ether and chloroform, warm amyl alcohol is used for the final extraction from ammoniacal solution. The following are the most useful tests 26 : — 1. A concentrated solution of the alkaloid in amyl alcohol sets to a jelly-like consistence. 2. Phosphomolybdic acid gives a cream-coloured precipitate. 3. Nitric acid gives a purple colour on warming. 4. Ethyl sulphuric acid gives a red colour. 5. Concentrated sulphuric acid with bromine water gives a red colour forming in streaks. CANNABIS SATIVA OR INDICA (INDIAN HEMP) o This plant belongs to N.O. Urticaceae, and grows all over India, but its cultivation is restricted to certain districts only owing to the monopoly of State Governments. It yields an amorphous resin, cannabinone, which consists chiefly of cannabinol, a colourless, oily liquid. When treated with p-nitrobenzoyl chloride in pyridine solution, cannabinol forms two com- pounds, crystalline cannabinol-p-nitrobenzoate, and non-crystalline canna- binol-p-nitrobenzoate. The crystalline compound is highly poisonous, and causes convulsions and death soon after injecting into a rabbit a dose of more than 2 mg. per kilogramme of body weight of 0,5 per cent acetone solution. The non-crystalline compound yields on hydrolysis an oily liquid, which causes sleep and later death without convulsions, if a dose of 5 mg. or more per kilogramme of body weight is injected into a rabbit. The forms in which cannabis sativa is used in India are— 1. Bhang, Siddhi or Sdbji.—This consists of the dried leaves and fruit- ing shoots. It is used as an infusion in the form of a beverage, which produces intoxication of a sensuous character. It is prepared by rub- bing on a stone slab sugar, black pepper and dried leaves, and is taken in the form of a bolus or pill, or is mixed with water and strained through a muslin cloth before it is drunk. This is the favourite bever- age, especially of the Hindus, in the northern parts of India. The intoxication produced by it is of the most cheerful kind causing the individual to sing and dance, to eat food with great relish and to seek sexual enjoyment. The in- Fig. 186.—Cannabis Sativa. toxication lasts about three hours when sleep supervenes, J 2. Majun—This is a sort of confection prepared from bhang after treating it with sugar, flour, milk and butter. It has an agreeable odour and a sweet taste It is sold in the bazaar in small lozenge-shaped pieces. One to three drachms are enough to intoxicate a person, who feels great appetite 26. H. Lowe, Analyst, 1929, p. 153; Jour, of State Med., June 1929, p. 368.