CANNABIS SATIVA OR INDICA 685 and a sexual desire. He also feels quite happy and contented as though he belongs to some .Raja's family, and has got all what he wants. Sometimes datura is mixed with majun. 3. Ganja.—This has a rusty green colour and a characteristic odour and consists of the flowering or fruiting tops of the female plant coated with resin and grown on the plains. It is mixed with a little tobacco, and is usually smoked in a pipe (chilam). The person using the smoke feels heavy and lazy, and indulges in pleasant reveries, though he is able to discharge his ordinary duties. It is largely indulged in by Sadhus and Fakirs. The leaves and flowering tops of the American hemp plant (Cannabis Americana or Marihuana) are rolled into cigarettes called "reefers" and smoked. The flowering tops (Ganja) are the constituents of the official prepara- tions of Extractum Cannabis (dose, J to 1 grain), Tinctura Cannabis (dose, £ to 1J minims), and Cannabinoa Tannas (dose, 4 to 8 grains). 4. Charas.—This is of a dark green or brown colour and is commonly known as hashish. It is the resin exuding from the leaves and stems of the plants, which grow on mountainous regions from six to eight thousand feet above the sea-level. It is smoked with tobacco in a pipe or a hukka, and is the most potent of all the forms. Symptoms.—Persons not accustomed to its use or from an overdose suffer from toxic symptoms. They appear soon after smoking ganja or charas and within half an hour after swallowing bhang, and are characterized by two stages : stage of intoxication and stage of narcosis. The first stage is characterized by excitement with visual hallucinations, euphoria, laughter, talkativeness, marked increase in appetite and purpose- less muscular movements. The patient loses all perception of time and space, gets dreadful hallucinations, becomes wildly delirious, and sometimes has a homicidal tendency. He feels giddy, atoxic, complains of tingling and numbness of the skin, becomes drowsy, suffers from muscular weakness and then passes into the second stage of narcosis with dilated pupils. In severe poisoning there may be general anaesthesia. Recovery usually follows deep sleep. Death, although extremely rare, may occur from respiratory failure. Chronic Poisoning,—This occurs from the excessive consumption of can- nabis1 sativa in one or more of its forms for a prolonged period. The symp- toms are loss of appetite, general weakness, emaciation, trembling, loss of sexual power, slothfulness, moral and mental deterioration, and insanity (mania, melancholia or dementia), In insanity caused by cannabis sativa the patient may suffer from hallucinations and delusions of a persecuting nature and sexual infidelity, which lead to crimes of violence. The patient is sometimes overpowered by an irresistible impulse to destroy wilfully life and property of which he has no recollection afterwards, Fatal Dose.—Unknown. Eight ounces of Neurosine equivalent to 4.8 grains of cannabis sativa taken in two days-and-a-half produced alarming symptoms in a woman.27 About one-and-a-half grains of the extract may produce poisonous symptoms. Fatal Period.—Death is very rare, but it has ensued in twelve hours, and may be delayed for several days. Treatment.—Evacuation of the stomach, cold affusions to the head, stry- chnine hypodermically and artificial respiration. Post-mortem Appearances.—Not characteristic. 27. Q, Creswell Burns, Jour. Amer. Med, Assoc., Apffil 11, 1931, p. 122i.