(594 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE ernment forbids the possession of cocaine without a licence. When, owing to the First Great War, supplies of smuggled cocaine became difficult to procure, aneesthesin (ethylester of para-amino-benzoic acid), a synthetic preparation of cocaine, was used instead. A solution of it was applied to , the glans penis before intercourse. It is possible that a 5 per cent solution \ of this drug, thus used, might be found of benefit in cases m which, owing to excessive excitability, the sexual act cannot be properly performed. Prostitutes sometimes inject a solution of cocaine into the vagina, by means of a douche can. This gives the individual a sense of local con- ' striction and the general systemic effects appear immediately.46 In England, some persons are accustomed to use cocaine hypodermlcally. In Paris certain classes of people use it in the form of snuff, and addicts use large quantities—about a drachm a day on an average. The snuff produces irritation of the nasal mucous membrane. The irritation causes inflammation and ulceration which may occasionally lead to perforation of the nasal septum. Cocaine is rarely smoked with the cigarette or pipe tobacco. During the smoking one observes, "a euphoric mood, and an agreeable feeling of lightness and coolness in the head." 4T A very small portion of cocaine is eliminated in the urine. It is largely decomposed in the human system; hence it is difficult to be detected in the viscera. ARTEMISIA MARITIMA (WORM-WOOD, KIRMANI OWA) This plant belonging to N.O. Compositse grows on the coasts of England, and yields an active principle, santonin, chiefly from santonica or wormseed, the dried unoxpanded flower heads. The other varieties, Artemisia brevifolia and Artemisia vulgaris, grow in Kashmir and the hilly tracts of Uttar Pradesh. Santonin is a glycoside and occurs as flat, glittering, prismatic crystals. It is either tasteless or faintly bitter. It is colourless, but becomes yellow on exposure to sunlight, It is slightly soluble in water, more soluble in hot water and is easily soluble in alcohol, •chloroform, ether and alkalies. It is chiefly used as an anthelmintic lor intestinal round- worms, the dose being 1 to 3 grains. Symptoms.—Headache, giddiness, singing in the ears, pain in the stomach, nausea, vomiting, yellow vision (xanthopsia), dilated pupils, cold skin bathed in perspiration, feeble and slow pulse and respirations, convulsions, delirium, stupor, coma, and death ending the scene from failure of the heart or respiration. The urine is usually increased in quantity, and it is saffron-yellow in colour. Sometimes, strangury and hsematuria are observed owing to irritation of the kidneys. Fatal Dose and Fatal Period.—Two grains of santonin administered twice killed a child, five-and-a-half years old, in twelve hours. In his annual report for the year 1924, the Chemical Analyser, Bombay, records a case in which a girl, 4 years old, died in about^48 hours after she was given 2\ grains of santonin. A Hindu girl, aged 16 years, died in about an hour after taking an overdose of some " worm powder" containing santonin.4* Recovery has taken place in the case of a child after ten grains and in the case of an adult after an ounce taken in mistake for Epsom salts, Treatment—Give emetics or wash out the stomach and give calomel as a purgative. Give demulcent drinks, but avoid oils and fats. Administer stimulants to combat collapse and potassium bromide and chloral hydrate to control convulsions. Intra- venous short-acting barbiturate is also useful. Post-mortem Appearances.—Not characteristic. There may be signs of gastro- intestinal and kidney irritation. Chemical Analysis.—Santonin may be separated from an acid aqueous solution by shaking out with chloroform, and is identified by the following test: — A little dilute sulphuric acid is added to some santonin, and gently heated until a yellow colour is produced; when cold, a few drops of a very .dilute solution of ferric chloride are added, and on again warming a blue or reddish-violet colour develops, i£* S*-1!" P101?? ^ G* S* ch°Pra» Indian Jour, of Med. Research, Jan. 1931, p. 1013. 47. toch -Lescnke din. Toxic., Eng. Transl. by Stewart and Dorrer, 1934, p, 208. 48. Bom. Chem. Analyser's Annual Rep., 1935, p, 5.