698 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE tion o£ the liver, kidneys and heart may also be found. In cases of neurotic symptoms congestion of the brain vessels, and subpleural and subpericardial haemorrhages are likely to be met with. Medico-Legal Points.—Amanita muscaria in small quantities pro- duces flushing of the face, spirit of exhilaration, talkativeness, ludi- crous laughter and intoxication. It is used by the poor people of Siberia and Kamaschatka to manu- facture an intoxicating beverage. The poison is excreted in the urine which possesses intoxicating pro- perties and is sometimes drunk by persons to produce intoxication. In India accidental cases of poisoning sometimes occur from the ingestion of mushrooms. Greval56 reports that in the year 1950 twelve cases of poisoning followed by seven deaths occurred in Ootaca- mund, and fifteen serious cases with ten deaths in a tea estate near Dibrugarh in Assam- Some poisonous fungi lose their toxic properties when they are boiled, or when they are steeped in salt and vinegar for some time, while the edible ones become poisonous by being warmed some time after they have been cooked once. Some edible fungi are rich in water and albumen and are, there- fore, apt to decompose and may thus produce poisonous symptoms. It is also possible that owing to idiosyncrasy some persons may be poisoned by eating edible mush- rooms. Frossard57 records the case of a healthy young woman of 30 years who died in about five hours after eating some of the raw mush- rooms which she was preparing for family breakfast. Along with her the other members of the family Fig, 193.—Amanita Phalloides, ate them after they had been properly cooked, but none of them developed any poisonous symptoms. POISONOUS FOOD GRAINS Lathyms Sativus (Kesari Dal, Teora, or Buttorah H pal),—This is a variety of pulse, belonging to N.O. Leguminosse, and is used as an article of diet by the common people in Sind, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and some parts of Madhya Bharat and Madhya Pradesh. Its continued use gives rise to a disease characterized by spastic paraplegia, known as lathyrism or vetch-poisoning. Anderson, Howard and SimonsenBii have car- ried out investigations, and are of opinion that Kesari Dal (Lathyrus Sativus) is by itself harmless and that the danger of the disease lies in its contamination with Akta, a leguminous weed, called Vicia Sativa. Acton and Chopran£> confirmed the work of Anderson and his co-workers by carrying out further investigations, but McCombic Young60 and Mellanby61 each put forward the theory that lathyrism was due to the 56. Ind. Med. Gaz., Nov. 1950, p. 513, 57. Brit. Med. Jour., Feb. 10, 1906, p. 319. 58. Indian Jour,, of Med. Research, April 1925, p. 613, 59. Causation of Lathyrism by Vicia Sativa. Abstract of Papers. Far Eastern Associa- tion o£ Tropical Medicine, 1927,,p. 104. . . 60. Ind. J. Med. Res., 1927, 15, p. 453. 61. Brit. Med. J., Vol. I, 1930, p. 677; see also Jacoby, Ind. Med. Gaz., 82, Feb. 1947, p. 53.