718 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE a dog, weighing about 4.1 kilogrammes, kills it within an hour, the symp- toms being progressive paralysis starting from hind limbs, defecation, retch- ing, and froth at the mouth. About one-eighth of a milligramme of strychnine is about the average minimum fatal dose for a frog, weighing about 10 grammes; hence nerin appears to be about six times as poisonous as strychnine to a frog. Symptoms.—Difficulty of swallowing and articulation, abdominal pain, vomiting, profuse frothy salivation and diarrhoea. The pulse is first slowed and later becomes rapid and weak. The respirations are hurried from the beginning. These are followed by dilated pupils, muscular twitchings, tetanic spasms, drowsiness, unconsciousness, coma and death. Lock-jaw is frequently present, while diarrhoea is occasionally absent. Fatal Dose.—Uncertain. More than a quarter of a tola (1 tola = 180 grains) of the fresh root bark have produced poisonous symptoms. Two hundred and fifty grains (about half an ounce) of the root may be con- sidered to be an average fatal dose for an adult.22 Fatal Period.—Uncertain. Death may take place in about twenty-four to thirty-six hours. A Hindu female, aged 20 years, who took oleander root as an abordfacient, died in two or three hours.2a Treatment.—Evacuation by washing out the stomach. Give stimulants, such as ether, and treat the symptoms. Post-mortem Appearances.—Not characteristic. There may be con- gested patches in the stomach and upper portion of the small intestine. Tests.—When dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, a minute frag- ment of the acid ether extract of the root bark or leaves of Neriurn odorum obtained by the Stas-Otto process produces an immediate crimson colour which assumes a deeper tint on standing. It also gives Keller's test—a slow green colour appearing in the acetic acid layer and an immediate crimson colour in the sulphuric acid layer. Both the colours are stable for several days. Keller's test is performed by dissolving the extract in 1 ca of glacial acetic acid containing 5 per cent ferric sulphate and floating this solution on the surface of a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid (100 parts) and 5 per cent ferric sulphate (1 part). This extract does not reduce Fehling's solution but, after hydrolysis either with hydrochloric acid or with emulsin, it reduces Fehling's solution. Medico-Legal Points.—The root is used internally by ignorant people as a remedy for venereal diseases. Hence accidental poisoning, sometimes with fatal consequences, have occurred from the administration of the root or its decoction. Two Mahomedans drank each a cupful of a strong decoc- tion of the root as an anodyne for pain in the loins. One of them died in about 36 hours, and the other recovered after prolonged illness.24 In the form of a paste the root is used in the treatment of cancers and ulceration. The decoction of the leaves is applied externally to reduce swellings. Criminally, the root is used as an abortifacient both as a local application and as an internal administration. The root and the leaves are often used as a paste or decoction for suicidal purposes, especially in Western and Southern India. A case is recorded in which a man first took oleander and then to hasten his death he hanged himself on the same tree of oleander.2* 22. C. L. Bose, Indian Med. Gaz., Nov. 1901, p. 412. 23. Bengal Chemical Examiner's Annual Report, 1929, p. 13. 24. Kali Mohan Sen, Ind. Med. Gaz., April 1899, p. 118 25. Bengal Chemical Examiner's Annual Report, 1923.