724 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE -reaction pseudaconitine presents a close analogy with aconitine, and on hydrolysis splits up into acetic acid, veratric acid and pseudaconine. Aconitum chasmanthum is the chief source of the aconite which is known as Bisk or Bikh in the market of Calcutta. It yields an alkaloid, indaconi- tine. Aconitum spicatum is often called Aconitum ferox and contains an alkaloid, "bikhaconitine. Of these three alkaloids derived from the Indian species of aconite pseudaconitine is the most toxic. Indaconitine and bikhaconitine are less toxic than the former, but are more poisonous than aconitine. The root of the Indian species of aconite, when dried and steeped in oil, Is a black, plump, heavy tuber, 2 to 4 inches long, and has a disagreeable odour like hydraceum, and a reddish-brown resinous fracture. It is known in the vernacular as Bish, Telyabish or Bachnak, and is extensively used both externally and internally by Vaids and Hakims in the treatment of muscular rheumatism, neuralgia and paralysis. It is administered in J to i-grain doses, after it is soaked in cow's urine for at least three days, where- by it loses much of its poisonous property. Aconitum heterophyllum is a non-poisonous variety of aconite, and is known in the vernacular as Atis. It grows in the sub-Alpine and Alpine zone of the Himalayas. Its tuberous root is used in Indian medicine as a tonic and anti-periodic. The root contains a non-poisonous, amorphous alkaloid, atisiue, and aconitic acid. [ Symptoms.—The symptoms supervene immediately, or within a few minutes, after swallowing a poisonous dose of aconite or aconitine or any of its preparations. These are severe burning and tingling of the lips, tongue, mouth and throat, followed by numbness and anaesthesia of these parts. Nausea, salivation, pain in the abdomen and vomiting usually occur,* but diarrhoea is rare. Later, tingling and formication spread over the whole body, causing great uneasiness to the patient. The pupils contract and dilate alternately, and vision is impaired. The patient complains of vertigo, rest- lessness, great prostration, and pain and weakness of the muscles with twitchings and spasms. The pulse is slow, feeble and irregular, and the respirations are first rapid, but soon become slow, laboured and shallow. The skin is cold and damp, with sub-normal temperature. Death occurs usually from syncope, or in some cases from asphyxia, In most cases con- sciousness is retained till near the end, but sometimes delirium or convul- sions, insensibility and coma have been observed. Fatal Dose.—Fifteen grains of Indian aconite root would produce alarm- ing symptoms, and twenty to thirty grains would probably 'prove fatal. Thirty-five and sixty grains of the root of Aconitum napellus have each caused death. One drachm of the tincture and twenty minims of the lini- ment have respectively proved fatal, but recoveries have followed half an ounce of the tincture and two ounces of the liniment, One-thirtieth to one- tenth grain of pure aconitine is probably a fatal dose. One-fifteenth grain of aconitine nitrate has produced a fatal result. Fatal Period.—The usual fatal period is from one to five hours, but may sometimes be delayed for twenty hours. A boy, 12 years- old, died in thirty minutes after having been given some sweet containing aconite by one of the " antiparty ",34 In non-fatal cases the symptoms of numbness and ting- ling persist for a long time after the severe toxic symptoms have subsided. : ,. ^?afcnent—Use emetics or wash out the stomach with a solution of iodine in potassium iodide, or a solution containing animal charcoal or tannic t 34. Bengal Chem. Examiner's Annual Report, 1927, p. 13.