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Full text of "Memoirs of the Queensland Museum"

Memoirs 



OF THE 



Queensland Museum 





BRISBANE 
FEBRUARY, 1985 



VOLUME 22 
PARTI 




Memoirs 

OF THE 

Queensland Museum 



Brisbane 



© Queensland Museum 

PO Box 3300, SouthBrisbane 4101, Australia 

Phone 06 7 3840 7555 

Fax 06 7 3846 1226 

Email qmlib@qm.qld.gov.au 

Website www.qm.qld.gov.au 

National Library of Australia card number 
ISSN 0079-8835 

NOTE 

Papers published in this volume and in all previous volumes of the Memoirs of the 
Queensland Museum maybe reproduced for scientific research, individual study or other 
educational purposes. Properly acknowledged quotations may be made but queries regarding 
the republication of any papers should be addressed to the Editor in Chief. Copies of the 
journal can be purchased from the Queensland Museum Shop. 

A Guide to Authors is displayed at the Queensland Museum web site 

A Queensland Government Project 

Typeset at the Queensland Museum 



Kiem Qrf Mas 11{\\: 1—73. [19S3| 



A REVISION OF THE FISHES OF THE FAMILY SILLAGINIDAE 

Roland J. McKay 
Queensland Museum 

ABSTRACT 

Swimnladder morphology, cranial osteology and vertebral counts are shown to be of value 
tHAonomically, The suimbladder is used la assess relationships between species and a 
systematic revision is proposed. The genera SHhgO, StilagfaQpSti and Siltan intuits are retained 
with three subgenera of SHlagO (SWaxtrwpodys, HuntstHueo Mibaen. now. and Silfaun). 
Twern'wive species arc described including seven new speoes and one new subspecies. 



INTRODUCTION 

The family Sillaginidae consists of three 
genera, three subgenera. Twenty-five species and 
five subspecies Of small to moderate sized fishes 
distributed in the shallow coastal waters of the 
Indian and western Pacific Oceans. The whitings 
or sand smelts form the basis of small but 
commercially important fisheries throughout 
their range. 

The systematic position of the family has been 
conjectural. For Cuvier it was within the family 
Gobioides, but transferred later to the Percoides. 
Richardson (1846) erected a new family to 
accommodate it, but later placed it in the 
Uiaiioseopidae. Gtinther (I860) placed the genus 
Sit/ago into his family Trachinidae due to the 
number of vertebrae and long anal fin, but 
remarked that the structure of the skull is that of 
a Sciaenotd fish and in a footnote states The 
physiognomy of the fishes of this genus has a 
sir iking similarity to Pachyurus, a Sciaenoid 
genus'. Gill (1862a) reviewed the relationships of 
the family and although noting its resemblance to 
several families, concluded that 'its true 
relationship is rather difficult to be decided'. Gill 
observed howevei , that 'By its cavernous skull, it 
suggests the Sciaenoids and the Acerinae among 
the Percotds. but from both, it is at once- 
separated by the lone anal fin which is nearly 
equal to the dorsal, and by other morphological 
and anatomical characters, which the description 
of the family given above will at once suggest. 
Among the Percoids, it most resembles the species 
usually known under ihe name of Acenna 
fchr&ftzer, hut as will readily be learned on 
comparison, the resemblance is simply analogical. 
Amony the Sciaenoids> the most analogous forms 
appear to be the genera Pacfiypops of Gill, and 
Pachyurus of Agassiz, or Lepipterus of Cuvier 
The squamation of the fins, characteristic of the 



Sciaenoids, in addition to the shortness of the 
anal fin of those genera and the peculiarly dense 
squamation of the caudal fin of Pachyurus, 
evidently show that they are true Sciaenoids and 
exclude the entertainment of any strict or close 
affinity to the Sillaginoids. From the Trachinoids 
and the allied Forms with which the family has 
been associated by Dr Gunther, it is at once 
separated by the form and structure of the head 1 . 

Gill also comments on Bleeker's earlier 
placement of the Sillaginidae with the family 
Sciaenidae where he subdivides the Sciaenoidci 
into the subfamilies Acerinaeformes (gener.. 
Acer ma (- Gy/nnocephalus) and Copiodun ( = 
Tilapia), Si llagini formes (genera, Sillago, 
SMaginichfhys ( - SMIaginopsis) and Appro ( - 
Z'mgel))) and Sciaeniformes. Gill then remark 
'The characters which distinguish the 
Sillaginoidae from the Sciaenoidae have been 
previously enumerated. The difference between 
them and Aspro are still more decided. As 
previously remarked, the resemblance to Acer'ma 
is much greater', 

Boulenger (1901) placed the family Sillaginidae 
close to the Sciaenidae and 'In the high number of 
vertebrae (12-14+14-20) they approach 
Collichthys (11 + IS) and lanchurus (10+19)' 
and slates 'The oblong and elongated cavernous 
head, with the praeoperele bent inwards below, 
covering a considerable part of the lower surface 
of the head, recalls Aspro among the Pereidae, 
with which genus SiitagO has been associated Ivy 
Blecket in 1859*. 

The Sillaginidae differ from the Percidae Jn 
having thtec predorsal bones instead of one oi 
none; no teeth on palatines; a spur on the 
posteriormosi proeurrent ray vf the caudal fin; a 
variously developed subocular shelf, and a 
median pit containing two pores in addition to tic 
pan of pores on the lower jaw. Gymnocephalus, 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



especially t,. acaflttus (Guldcnstadn 
remarkably similar to the Sillaginidae in having 

two anal spines, the cavci nous skull, the lower 
pan of ihc preopercle bent inward*, 2 pores on 
the chilli one spine on operelc* the lateral line 
extending on to the caudal (in, dorsal fins muted, 
6-7 branchioslegal rays, vertebrae 33--3S, and the 
sw imbladder is present. The otolith o\' C. acertna t 
and Io a lesser extent Zingei Tinsel, is remarkably 
like 1 He sillaginidae and from an 'otolithological 
q til ol view those ol Aspro (= Zingef) oniv 
differ from sillaginids in a lest ' reduced 

iofsai Held and a slightly deepened sulcus, which 
otherwise exhibits all characters typical for 

sillajiinids. 1 have little doubt thai Aspm ( = 
Zi/i^f) re.iiiy i. the doscel relative to the 
sillaginids {W. Schwar/hans pets, comm. 
17.1.1982)'. Ii appears thai the family 
Sillaginidae is related to the Seiaeoidae. Percfdae, 
and io a lesser extent the Haemulidae, and 
exhibit 7 , many plcsiomorphic characters .i 

Of their relationship with the above families is in 

This study commenced as a revision of the: 
Western Australian species, but was expanded 
when it he came obvious thai a world wide 
revision was necessai y 

Because many species are veiy similar in 
external morphology a search was made for 
additional taxonbinii characters ihai would 
permii the Identification of species and local 
populations The structure of the swimbladder, 
the cranial osteology , and the axial skeleton are o( 
n value in the diagnosis of species. 

The swimbladder was also of value in 
determining relationships in those species where 

I organ was present, and proved to he a most 
complex structure in many species. Most species 
have a duet-like process arising from the ventral 
surface ol (he swimbladder thai extends ro the 
urogenital opening. The 'duct' has not yet boefl 
full) investigated but it appears CO be B tubular 
extension with a lew blond capillaries that run 
posteriorly along the inner ventral surface of the 
swimbladder and then down the tube towards the 
urogenital opening where the due? appears to end 
blindly above and adjacent to the urogenital 
aperture: on the dorsal opening of the duct inside 
the swimbladder is an overlying valve-like process 
thai almost bloeks the entrance. Although sound 
production has been reported for the Sillaginidae, 
the complex nature of swmibladders with lateral 
and anlenor projections, particularly those 
extensions thai terminate on the basioccipitai. 
and those with overlying modified vertebrae at 
posterior tapering portion of the 



swimbladder. thai sound itiou and 

perhaps amplification is involved. No sQntfti! 
muscles are associated with the swimbladder and 
it is ptobab-Iy not used to produce sound. 

The axial skeleton is highly modified in all 
species with a posterior tapering extension of the 
swimbladder. This peculiar modification was 
reported by Hotta (l%l. p. 62) and Ttfkatiasfcl 
{1962, p. 24, fig. 117). The vertebrae overlying the 
swimbladder posteriorly from the first haemal 
arch have the parapophyses joined to form a 
bridge that partly surrounds the swimbladder, 
thus reinforcing the posterior tapering extension 
of (liar organ; such modified caudal vertebrae 
extend posteriorly to the terminal u>u o1 the 
swimbladder where the bifurcate tips fuse to form 
the more normal haemal spines. This modified 
section of the axial skeleton permits the 
separation of the vertebral column into three sec- 
tions in most species of the genus SMogO, I he 
tripartite separation ol i he vertebrae number is a 
mosl useful taxonomic character that has been 
extensively employed in delimiting species. 
Vertebral counts were found to be variable in 
mosl species examined but with surprisingly little 
overlap between species and no geographic clinal 
variation. Environmental factors may influence 
the number of vertebrae in teleosts (Barlow, 1961; 
Fowler, 1-970), and in some species the vertebral 
numbei mav show considerable variation whereas 
in others it may be species specific and 
characteristic of particular populations wlthb) a 
species. In the family Sillaginidae the vertebral 
numbei is a valuable aid io specie:, and subspecies 
recognition in many cases, and may well prove to 
be of value in population analysis and in 
delimiting populations of widespread spei i* 

The cranial osteology was examined for ulmoa 
ill i ies and its value as a Laxonoime cl.aracter 
is without doubt. The width and shape oi I 
sensory canal bi idges on the frontals, the shape of 
the subocular shelf on the third suborbital bone 
and the conhgutation ol the otoliths are of 
particular value. 

The caudal skeleton shows some differences 
between species and is being fully investigated. 
The complete osteology and relationships of the 
family Sillaginidae is now under study and will be 
presented in a forthcoming paper. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

This study is based on an examination of 
preserved specimens, fresh material and 

radiographs made available by many museums, 
scientific institutions, fisheries departments. 



MtrKAY; REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAF 



GQl NTS 

The dorsal and anal fin spines and rays wvn. 
counted. The last dorsal and anal fin 
ptervgiophore normally supports rwo rays 
counted us u single clement. The anal spines wfifC 
invariably two in number, the first anal spine may 
be reduced in si?e and requires careful dissection 
111 some small specimens. In all type specimens the 
fin elements were counted from radiographs. The 
dorsal and anal rays were regarded in association 
and the fin ray counts are the number of 
specimens which had that particular fin ray 
formula. 

Pectoral fin rays were normally 15-17 except S. 
ptwijus (20-22). The gillraker counts ranged from 
I -5 + I + 6- 1 2 and were of no value in separating 
■pccies. 

I ateral line scales bearing pores were counted 
from the upper margin oi" the operculum to the 
caudal flexure al the posterior margin oi the 
hypural. When lateral line scales were missing it 
was sometimes possible to continue the count 
above the damaged region by using scale rows and 
then return to the pored scales beyond. 

Transverse scale rows were counted from the 
origin of the dorsal fin in an oblique row to, but 
nni including, the lateral line scales, and then 
from (he origin of the anaL fin obliquely loi m 
and upwards to the lateral line scales. 

Number of cheek scale rows were counted from 
\v the eye to the margin of the preoperele. 

The vertebrae were counted whenever possible 
from boiled and defleshed unfixed specimens 
preserved by refrigeration, salting, or in some 
cases filleted specimens obtained from fish 
markets. Preserved specimens were cleaned and 
stained using a modified Hollister method 
(Hollister, 1934), or radiographed using industrial 
X-ray film. The axial skeleton was subdivided 
into Lhree sections, the abdominal vertebrae 
from the base of the skull to the first haemal arch, 
the modified vertebrae overlying the swimbladder 
posteriorly (including the vertebrae bearing the 
first haemal arch which may be well developed, or 
almost of hair thickness and easily broken when 
dissecting specimens), and the caudal vertebrae 
bearing straight haemal spines. The conical 
terminal segment (urostylar vertebrae) Is 
tided. 

Ml ASUO MINIS 

Thi made along the longitudinal axis oJ 

ill', body using a fish measuring board or a set 
square and a metre rule. Dial calipers were used to 
determine head, eye, snout and dcpfh 
measurements. Twenty body dimensions weie 



chosen at the commencement of the study but 
reduced to the following for species description: 

Standard length (SL) was taken from the tip of 
the snout behind the upper lip to the caudal 
flexure at the hypural margin. 

Head: from the tip of the snout to the posterior 
margin of the fleshy opcrclc. 

Snout: from tip of snout to anterior fleshy 
.... .■.■■■ 

Eye: the horizontal diameter between the flesft} 
margins of the orbit. 

Inteiorbiial width: the least width of the bony 
interorbital space. 

Snout to first dorsal fin: from tip of snotn 
line perpendicular lo tiic origin o\ the spin 
l fin 

-mi mi lo second dorsal fin; horn tip of snout to 
a line perpendicular from the origin of the sp 
preceding the rayed dorsal fin. 

SnouL to anal fin; from tip of snout to a line 
perpendicular to the origin of the first anal spine. 

Greatest body depth; at middle o\' body. 

Least depth of the caudal peduncle. 
Swimhi ADOEH 

Specimens were dissected by a cut down the 
middle of the ventral surface from the isthmus to 
a few mm from the vent, thence circumventing 
anus and urogenital aperture along the side 01 the 
vertebral column to expose the full length of the 
swimbladder. The gills and viscera were removed 
and the thin peritoneum carefully pulled av 
from the surface o\' the intact swimbladder. Caic* 
should be taken not to damage any anterior 
lateral appendages to the swimbladder nor break 
the duct-like process from the ventral surface of 
tlte organ to the urogenital aperture. The tubulai 
'duct' is quite firm in fixed specimens especially 
larger examples and is not connected to the 
alimentary canal (Fig. I A). 
ABBREVIATIONS OF INSTITUTIONS CITED 

AMNH American Museum o^ Natural 

llisioiy. New York. 
ANSP . ademy of Natural SctCtt 

Philadelphia. 

AM Australian Museum, Sydney. 

rm British Museum (Natural History), 

I ondon. 
BPBM ice P; Bishop Museum. 

Honolulu. 
California Academy of Scicm 

I ijiicisco. 
CMFRl Central Marmc Fisheries Research 

I mute, Cochin 
CSIRO TSIRO Division of Fisheries and 

Oceanography, Cronulla, N.S.W. 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



FRSK Fisheries Research Station, Kanudi, 

Papua New Guinea. 
HUJ Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. 

MNHN Museum National d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. 
NSMT National Science Museum, Tokyo. 
QM Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 

RUSI Rhodes University, J.L.B. Smith 

Institute of Ichthyology, 

Grahamstown, South Africa. 
SAM South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

SOSC Smithsonian Institution 

Oceanographic Sorting Centre. 
SU Stanford University, Division of 

Systematic Biology, California. 
THUP Biology Department, Tunghai 

University, Taichung, Taiwan. 
UMMZ Museum of Zoology, University of 

Michigan. 
USNM National Museum of Natural History, 

Division of Fishes, Washington. 
USMK Universitetets Zoologiske Museum, 

Copenhagen. 
WAM Western Australian Museum, Perth. 

ZSIC Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 

ZUMT Zoological Department, University 

Museum, University of Tokyo. 

Family SILLAGINIDAE 
Type genus: Sillago Cuvier, 1817. 

The family Sillaginidae is represented by 3 
genera, 3 subgenera, 25 species and 5 subspecies. 

Body elongate, only slightly compressed, head 
tapering with terminal mouth; lower part of the 
preoperculum separated by a deep channel, 
directed horizontally, bent inwards to almost 
meet that of the other side. Body covered with 
small or moderate sized ctenoid scales, those of 
cheeks and opercles cycloid or ctenoid; lateral line 
scales simple. 

Mouth with band of small villiform teeth; with 
an outer row of caninoids in one genus; maxillary 
concealed by large broadly triangular lachrimal 
bearing raised central dome-like arch that greatly 
increases the membranous infraorbital 
Ialerosensory canal; 5 suborbital bones present; 
third suborbital with subocular shelf of species- 
specific shape; operculum with small sharp spine; 
cranium elongate, somewhat pointed anteriorly; 
prevomer expanded anteriorly and laterally, 
flattened dorsally without a ridge, anterior lower 
surface with inverted V-shaped series of caninoid 
or villiform teeth. 

Ethmoid a low flattened ridge anteriorly 
bearing poorly developed ethmoid processes in 



most species; frontals rise medially to a high keel, 
clasp ethmoid posteriorly and extend well back to 
form a high ridge that divides and forms a 
variously developed bridge on each frontal 
overlying the supraorbital laterosensory canal 
that continues anteriorly along the deeply 
grooved nasals to emerge as small oblique slits on 
the tip of the snout; supraoccipital arises between 
the flat parietals and continues in low profile 
posteriorly where it broadens; epiotics project 
posterolaterally, their lateral edges forming a 
ridge overlying deep groove between epiotics and 
pointed autopterotics. An open deeply grooved 
supratemporal-intertemporal canal formed above 
each autopterotic; emergence of temporal- 
supraorbital laterosensory canal through open 
groove laterally or enclosed circular foramin. 
Parasphenoid with a sharp ventral keel; anterior 
opening flares forward to receive posterior part of 
prevomer; posterior end widens and flattens 
above basioccipitals which are thin, and broadly 
expanded to house enlarged otolith; posterior 
part of myodome may open as narrow 
longitudinal slit or be completely closed. 
Osteocranium dominated by an extensive and 
highly developed sensory canal system; dermal 
roofing bones of cranium frequently elevated to 
accept laterosensory canal system; infraorbital 
laterosensory system highly developed and 
broadens at the lachrimal bone; preopercular 
system ventral and broadly developed to occupy 
most of ventral surface of head. The receptive 
areas anteriorly are enormously extensive and are 
characteristic of the family. 

Two dorsal fins, first consisting of 10 to 13 
slender spines, second of one slender spine and 
16-27 rays; anal with 2 small slender spines and 
14-26 rays; caudal emarginate; unpaired fins with 
membranes scaly, pectoral fin normal without 
scaly process at axil; ventral thoracic with 1 spine 
and 5 rays, modified in one species. Lateral line 
almost straight, continuing on caudal fin and with 
50 to 141 pored scales to caudal flexure. 

Swimbladder absent, poorly developed, or 
highly complex, with anterior and lateral 
extensions, and tapered posteriorly to form 1 or 2 
slender extensions that project well into the 
caudal region. A unique duct-like process from 
the ventral surface of the swimbladder to the 
urogenital opening present or absent. 

Vertebrae 32 to 44; caudal vertebrae modified 
where they meet the posterior extension of the 
swimbladder in many species. 

Shore fishes of small to moderate size 
frequenting the Indo-Pacific region. 



McKAV: REVISION OF SILLAG1NIDAI: 



Kt-> ft) GEM K,\i)l SllLA-GlMOAf 

1. — Snout and head not depressed; second 
dorsal spine noi elongate; eve-, normal; 
swimbladder present 2 

— Snout and head depressed; second doi I 
-pine elongate, eyes small and almost COVCl*Cd 

in fleshy orbit; swimbladder vestigial or 
absent Siliaginapsb (p. 47) 

2. — Lateral line scales 50 r«- *4 . Si/lauo (p. 5) 

— Lateral line scales 129 to 147 .. 

Siifagfnodes (p 46) 

Genus Sillago Cuviet, 1817 

Siilago Cuvier, 1817, type by .subsequent designation, 
Gill, 1861, Silfaga silwrnu (IForsM, I ) 

Diagnosis 

Sillaginidae in winch the swimbladder is 
present, variously formed, simple or complex, 
with a duct-like process normally present on the 
ventral surface; lateral line scales 50 to 84. Dorsal 
spines 10 to 13, normally 1 1 or 12. 



KEYTi SGENEttA ot SlLLAuo 

I — Ventral fin spine vei> small and situated at 
the base of a thickened club-shaped outer 
ventral ray; swimbladder reduced, no duct- 
like process; .10 modified caudal vertebrae 
Silioinnopi u!y\ 

— Ventral fin spine normal; swimbladder 
divided posteriorly into two taperirt] 
extensions; duct-like process pi< 
modified caudal ver lebrae present Siltago. 

— Ventral fin spine normal; swimbladder 
with [he posterior extension single and 
tapering to a fine point, or rounded; duct -like 
process present; modified caudal vertebrae 
fM sent or absent ....Parasitlago subgen. now 

Subgenus Sillaginopodys Fowler, 1933 

Siliaguiopodys fowler. 1933. type by original 
designation Sillago chondropus Bleefcer, 1849. 

Diagnosis 

First ventral fin ray modified into a laterally 
compressed thickened club-like structure (Fig. 
IB). Swimbladder reduced in size, no duct-like 
process from the ventral surface to the urogenital 
aperture. One species. 

Sillago ( Sillaginopodys ) chondropus Bleeker 

Club-foot Whiting 
(Figs. IB, 2A, 8B, 17) 



SiilagO chondropus Bleeker. 1849, p. 61 (Batavia). 1X49, 
PP. 5, N. 10; 1674, p. 65; 1877. Pi. 389. fig. 2. 
Giiniher, I860, p. 246. Gill, 1861. p. 504. Gilchrist 
rhompaon, 1908. p. 193; I9l7.p. 248. Regan 
I90S, p. 24^. Barnard. 1927, p. 508. Weber and de 
Beaufort, 1931, p. |76, tig, 34 Fowler, 1933, pp 
430 J; 1949. p. 96. Hcrre. 1939. p, 112, 1953, p. 
478. Smith, [949, p. 204, fig. 469. Palckar and Bal. 
1955, p. 128. Mur.ro, 1958, p 178; 1967. p. 346 
Dutt and Suiaiha. 1980. p. 372. McKay, 1^80. pp. 
3K2-*. 

Materia) foi imini u 

T\ pi : The location of the holoiype is unknown. 

Othlr MatbHIA! South Africa U), SOSC480, KUS1 
469, Durbar. Pakistan (8), SOSC 23, Held No. LW-I, 
177 miles west of Karachi at west end of Astola Island, 
India (3); ZSlt 6068 2, Caha Bead., I io*J SOSC 381, 
ThirumillivasaL Madras State; AM B8095, Madras. 
New Guinea (3); CSIRO C790, Mmga Creek, Wewak; 
CSJRO C7M0, Likei River, Manus Mand, FRSK Fu 
1405 Rarn.i River, QM 112914. Chantaburi. Gulf of 
Thailand. Philippines (6); USNM 145340 (3) Abuyog, 
Leyte; USNM 145095. Lingayan Gull', Luzon; USNM 
145341, Daet, Luzon; USNM 1451 15, Camiguin Island, 
Babuyan Island 

DlAGNfjst- 

First ventral ray modified into a laterally 
compressed club-like structure which overlaps a 
much reduced ventral spine at the base of the tin 

Description 

Dorsal fins Xl-Xll, I, 20 22; anal tin II, 
22-23 (Table I). Lateral line scales 66-73 (Table 
2); TR 6 above. M0 below. Cheek scales in 3-4 
rows, ail ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL; 
greatest depth of body 15-16; head length 25; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 26-2> snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 28-29; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin origin 50 51, snout tip to anal 
origin 47-50; least depth of caudal peduncle 
7.9"-8.4. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
length of snout 32-35, horizontal diameter of eye 
19-22; least width of interorbttal 14-17. 

VERTEBRAE: 12-13 abdominal. 22-23 caudal, 
total 35 (see Table 3i 

COLOUR IN Alcohoi . Pale sandy brown, 
above, paler below, scale margins dusky; a dull 
silver-grey mid-lateral band usually present, 
frequently with a wide dusky band below on 
lower sides. Fins hyaline, the spinous dorsal 
tinged brown with a fine dusting of black spots at 
the tip. 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Swimbladder: (QM 112914) commences as a 
very Rattened presumably non functional 
structure just behind the axis vertebrae and then 
rather abruptly narrows to a fine point 
terminating on the ninth abdominal vertebra (Fig. 
8B). No duct-like process from the ventral surface 
is present, as the posterior extension terminates 
well before the first haemal arch. Modified caudal 
vertebrae are not present. 

Palekar and Bal (1955. p. 128) examined 12 
specimens from near Karwar and stated that the 
swimbladder was absent. 

DISTRIBUTION 

South Africa, Mozambique, West Pakistan, 
India, Burma, Indonesia, New Guinea, Thailand 
and Philippines (Fig. 17). Not recorded from 
southern New Guinea or Australia. 

Remarks 

A number of authors (Gunther (1860), Gill 
(1861), Fowler (1933), Palekar and Bal (1955, 
etc.)) have described the vcntraJ fin spine as 
thickened and united with the first ray. Weber 
and de Beaufon (1931) state that this spine is 
normal, not thickened, but very slender and 
consolidated with the much thickened first ray, 
both forming a single body. Smith (1949] 
describes the spine as short and adnate to the 
thickened recurved first ray. 

Figure IB shows the ventral spine to be short 
and situated below the thickened recurved pad of 
the first ventral ray; the second ventral ray is 
unmodified. The reduced swimbladder and 
modified ventral fin indicates that this species is 
demersal and may use the ventral fin pads 
somewhat like sled runners on the bottom. 

Palekar and Bal (1955, p. 128) found that in 12 
specimens the first haemal arch invariably 
occurred on the thirteenth vertebra. Additional 
vertebrae counts taken throughout the range o( 
this species may show some local populations to 
exist as I find 12 to 13 abdominal vertebrae. 



I Alii Q I: Frequency Distributions oi D< ■■■ u 

and Anai FtN Kays Oy Stu icf i ; ' ■■ ■ -'■■- i 



Dorsal rays 


20 


21 


1\ 


n 


Anal f&ys 


23 


n 


23 


23 


South Africa 


1 


_ 


t 


_ 


P/ikistan 


! 


- 


4 


2 


India 


- 


- 


1 


1 


New Guinea 


- 


- 


1 


-> 


Thailand 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Philippines 


-i 


- 


4 


3 



TABLE 2: FREQUENCY Distkibuikins OF LaTERAI 

i.!m Scales oi SillaGq crtoiWHOfuS 

Lateral line scales 66-67 68-69 70-71 72-73 

Soutn Africa 

Pakistan 1 

India 

New Guinea - 

Thailand 

Philippines 



TABLF 3: VfelOEBftAl COUNTSOF Siu ago 
CHONBHQPi S 



t 

3 


1 

2 


2 


1 


■i 


1 

4 



Abdominal 
Caudal 



13 



South Africa 

Pakistan 

India 

New Guinea 

Thailand 

Philippines 



Subgenus Sillago Cuvier, 1817 

Sillago Cuvicr, 1817, type by subsequent designation, 
'.ill, ISM, StttQgQ sihama (Forskal). 

Diagnosis 

Swimbladder present and divided into two 
tapering extensions posteriorly. Sillago 
megaeepftalitf is poorly known and is tentatively 
included in this subgenus. 

Kiv roSpi.c ilshi rHE SUBGENUS Sillago 

1. — Dorsal spines 12-13; 79-84 lateral line 
scales; 35-39 vertebrae . Sitlago parvJsqUonds 

— Dorsal spines 1 1; 66-72 lateral line scales; 
33 vertebrae , 2 

2. — Body With a longitudinal row of dark 
spots below the lateral line and a series of 

dark .saddle-like blotches on back 

Silktxo inter wcttius 

— Body uniform in colouration 3 

3. — Head length 24-30 percent of standard 
length; vertebrae 33 Sillago sihamu 

— Head length 33 percent of standard length: 
vertebrae unknown .-/? Sillago megacephalus 

Sillagu (Sillago) sihama (Forskal) 

Northern Whiting or Sand Smelt 
(Figs. 2B, 6AB, UA, 15) 

Atherirta sihama Forskal, 1775, p. 70 (Lohaja, Red 
Sea). Bonnaterre, 1788, p. 178. Gmclin. 1789, p. 
13%. LftCcpeitei 1803, pp. 371, 373. 



McKAY: REVISION OF S1LLAGINIDAE 



P/atycephalus sihamus: Bloch and Schneider, 1801, p. 

60. 
Sciaena malabarica Bloch and Schneider, 1801, p. 81, 

pi. 19 (Tranquebar). 

Sillago acuta Cuvier, 1817, p. 258 (Sea of the Indies). 
Bleeker, 1849, pp. 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 14,69; 1853, p. 4; 
1859, p. 158. Gunther, 1864. p. 308. Kner, 1865, p. 
128. Jouan, 1868. p. 252. 

Sillago sihama: Ruppell, 1825, p. 9, pi. 3, fig. 1 
Gunther, 1860, p. 243; 1861, p. 221; 1880, p. 56 
Gill, 1861, p. 504. Bleeker, 1864, p. 56; 1865, p. 56 
IS74, p. 67; 1876, p. 332; 1878, p. 46. Day, 1865a 
p. 18; 1865b, pp. 47-8; 1868, p. 299; 1870, p. 686 
1878, p. 265, pi. 57, fig. 3; 1879, p. 35. Schmeltz 
1866, p. 8; 1969, p. 16; 1879, p. 44. Playfair, 1867 
p. 861. Klunzinger, 1870, p. 818; 1879, p. 369 
1884, p. 123. Peters, 1877, p. 836. Macleay, 1883 
p. 360. Steindachner, 1893, p. 237. Elera, 1895, p 
500. Rutter, 1897, p. 87. Jordan and Snyder, 1901 
p. 109; 1902, pp. 486-7. Jordan and Evermann 
1902, p. 360. Johnstone, 1903, p. 295. Fowler 

1904, p. 549; 1925, p. 248; 1927, p. 286; 1928a, p 
235; 1928b, p. 709; 1930, pp. 611, 654; 1931a, p 
337; 1931b, p. 302; 1931c, p. 337; 1933, pp 
417-21; 1934a, p. 422; 1934b, p. 474; 1935, p. 150 

1937, p. 238: 1939, p. 50; 1949, p. 50. Pellegrin 

1905, p. 83; 1907, p. 203; 1914, p. 225. Jordan and 
Seale, 1905a, p. 782; 1905b, p. 12; 1907a, p. 12 
1907b, p. 25. Jordan and Starks, 1905, p. 205 
1917, p. 455. Gilchrist and Thompson, 1908, p 
192; 1916, p. 275; 1917, p. 348. Regan, 1908, p 
245. Jordan and Richardson, 1909, p. 192. Jenkins 
1910, pp. 132, 136. Seale, 1910, p. 281; 1914, p. 69 
Weber, 1913, p. 267. De Beaufort, 1913. p. 119 
Jordan, Tanaka and Snyder, 1913, p. 187. Jordan 
and Metz, 1913, p. 41. Jordan and Thompson, 
1914, p. 259. Maxwell, 1921. p. 33. Fowler and 
Bean, 1922. p. 68; 1927, p. 8. Chaudhuri, 1923, p. 
721. Hora, 1924, p. 489. Vinciguerra, 1926, p. 583. 
(?) Paradice and Whitley, 1927, p. 89. Barnard, 

1927, pp. 507-8. Reeves, 1927, p. 10. Whitley, 

1928, p. 12; 1964, p. 43. Mori, 1928, p. 6. Gudger, 

1929, p. 528. Duncker and Mohr, 1929, p. 70. 
Weber and de Beaufort, 1931, pp. 172-3. Borodin, 
1932. p. 85. Herre, 1933, p. 4; 1939, p. 112; 1953, 
pp. 479-80. Martin and Montalban, 1934, pp. 
222-4. Umali, 1934, p. 371. Hardenberg, 1936, p. 
246; 1941, p. 227. Villadolid, 1937, p. 192. Blanco, 

1938, p. 507. Domantay, 1940, p. 98. Gopinath, 
1942, p. 337; 1946, pp. 13, 19. Chako, 1949a, p. 33; 
1949b, p. 95; 1950, p. 171. Smith, 1949, p. 203, fig. 
467; 1955, p. 44. Suvatti, 1950, p. 395. Tripathy, 
1952, pp. 80, 84. Radhakrishnan, 1954, p. 196; 
1957, pp. 254-83. Palekar and Bal, 1955, p. 128; 
1961, pp. 76-93. Munro, 1955, p. 121; 1958, p. 
178; 1967, p. 347. Tomiyama and Abe, 1958, p. 
1176. Scott, 1959, p. 56. Menon, 1961, p. 387. 
Khalaf, 1961, p. 80. Smith and Bailey, 1961, p. 
359. Misra, 1962, pp. 232-3. Nadkarni, 1963, pp. 
164, 166. Smith and Smith, 1963, p. 18. Marshall, 
1964, p. 170. Grant, 1965, p. 88; 1972, p. 243. 



Alfred, 1966, p. 100. Arnoult and Fourmanior, 
1967, p. 137. Macnae and Kalk, 1969, p. 132. 
Krishnamurty, 1969, pp. 295-303. Ramamurthy 
and Dhulkhed, 1977, pp. 283-4. James, Verghese 
and Devaraj, 1978, pp. 212-20. Shao and Chang, 
1978, p. 9, pi. 1, fig. 3, pi. 2, fig. 3; 1979, pp. 
695-705. Dutt and Sujatha, 1980, pp. 371-75. 
McKay, 1980, pp. 381-2, fig. ID. 

Sillago erythraea Cuvier, 1829, p. 409 (Suez, Red Sea). 

Sillago malabarica Cantor, 1849, p. 1003. Bleeker, 
1853, p. 34; 1859, p. 2. Gill, 1862, p. 504. Pohl, 
1884, p. 32. 

Silago ihama (misprint), Fowler, 1928b, p. 16. 

Material Examined 

TYPES: Atherina sihama Forskal. Holotype registered 
No. 71 in the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. 
Kiausewitz and Nielsen (1965, p. 27, pi. 38, No. 71, 
photograph and radiograph) have recorded 18 anal 
rays, but a re-examination (Nielsen, pers. comm. 
25 .xi. 1966) shows a few additional detached dorsal rays, 
the cycloid cheek scales. No vertebrae count is possible 
as the holotype consists of a dried skin with the skull in 
situ. The suborbital bones could not be examined. 
Sciaena malabarica Bloch and Schneider. Type not 
examined. 

Sillago acuta Cuvier. Radiographs of four syntypes in 
the Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, were 
kindly forwarded by Dr M. Blanc. Three paralectotypes 
registered A. 31 18 from Batavia have vertebrae counts 
of 14-5-15 (2), and 14-6-14 (1). The specimen 
registered A. 5270, collected by Dussumier, 
Coromandel, India, SL.177 mm is here designated 
lectotype. Two dried paralectotypes registered A. 5427, 
from Pondicherry, with the vertebral column removed, 
were not radiographed. 

Sillago erythraea Cuvier. Two syntypes in the Museum 
National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Radiographs 
forwarded by Dr M. Blanc. One specimen registered 
A. 3137, collected by Mr Ehrenberg at Mer Rouge (Red 
Sea) has a vertebrae count of 14-3-17 and is here 
designated lectotype. A. 3127, a paralectotype from 
Suez has a vertebrae count of 14-3-17. 

Other Material; South Africa (8); RUSI 7487, East 
London; RUSI 7179, Isipingo; WAM P19237-43, 
Durban. Mozambique (45); SOSC 476 (10), 
Mozambique; SOSC 476 (17), Delagoa Bay; SOSC 476 
(8), Lourenco Marques; SOSC 476 (2) Ponta Maboul; 
USNM 72868 (6), Changane; SOSC 170, near Zambezie 
River. Zanzibar, WAM P0177; WAM P15353. 
Malagasy (42); SOSC 54, Ampora Village; SOSC 54 (9), 
Baie dAmboro; SOSC 54 (29), Nossi Be; SOSC 134, 
Nossi Be; USNM 171079, Anjouan; SOSC 145, Mayotte 
Island, Comores. Kenya (8); AMNH 19619, Kenya; 
RUSI 467, M883, Malindi; SOSC 145 (5), Duruma 
River. Seychelles (4); USNM 12634 (2), Seychelles; 
SOSC 145, Mahe Island; RUSI 467, Sey. 132, South 
Mahe. Somali, AMNH 8175 (3). Ethiopia, USNM 
49324, Massawa. HUJ F7134, Abu Zenima, Gulf of 
Suez, Red Sea. Muscat, BM 87 ii.ii.226. Persian Gulf, 
USNM 147959 (2). Pakistan (29); SOSC 23 (19), 177 
miles west of Karachi; WAM P15559-68 (10), Karachi. 



MEMOIRS OF till: -CAND MUSE! -i 



:■! 223 rji fol arpcms . ■ QM 

113220 | i Lse Bay, Pi w 2536, AM 

II -. '■■„:. qm i4S<4, rgmwffle, . donia 18); 

vvavi Pi56«-y, (Moumci iaata Crm fcla/tf. &M 

IA2BS3. Vanito i I ' l< 252 (32). rhailand 

(214) QM im:i9 pi] ChantaburK SOSC 4 (58), 
i Bay, Phuket. Indian Oceans SOSC 56 (32), Koli 

i irar Nua. Indian Oi... !07, Pa 

■ i ■ . ' ; ■ CAS 

14179 (4), S&ngkhta Channel; Chumphon Proving 
CAS 1 i*i I "■ ■ I I I '.''ii SapJee, I 

i 1193 (4); Dan rhup i ID •: 4 I I I&U8D 

Zl 13), CAS 
CM- .VOi, Ro vl:i'.tp<»:Mi, ( V-.-'.v't 'I'M hv 1 1 l.nrn; 

taclwap, KJilrf Khan 

India (122); SOSC 334 (4) Cochin, Kerala Slate; t ISNM 

\ ■ BCD, Tmvancore; SOSC U4 f4) 

['nndi.;l-;-rv, Madras States \vam P157I5 ft, 

M.i..,-. , 50SC?8I (83), Porto Novo; SOSC M4 (2), 
' »SC 354 (3); BflDDl 

Japan) Camp: SOSC 334, 

|4> rhirumulli Vasal Village; SOSC 334 (4), 

.,,■ V\! \!.iui.i, USNM V, 

India. Sri Lanka SOSC TI7d 304, SOSC n ty 
(16;, SOS' in ffi), Colomoo; SOSC CCK69- <> (2), 
Payngsla Maljj as I23fc wam PM553 7 2, wam 
PI4864. AM R5046 (2). PttMTOg. Singapore, USNM 

■ ■ |C I. il I i4>; AMNH 1563, AMNH I 

AMNM 19798 9, USNM 72692, Batavia (Djakarla); 

i'SNVI HN009-IG (43). Benkoden, Sumatra; N I 

Borneo (Sabab* {5>« USNM 145121: Net i ui a (55); 
csiko A t"3 Pul CSiRp ci3i King Ring, Mew 

Britain; FRSK (4), Kerevat. New Britain 

1780, l.ihei River, MaWK Wand; CSIRO 
{ lf.CS, Vihrupa, CSIRO i U pa; CSIRt I C<M4, 

kapa Kapa; CSIRO cuno. Oro Bay; FRSK FD1054 !4j. 

Yule r»land;PRSK 12) Hall i. FRSK F0149I 

i u i ia sfi v KSk m.M4:_\ New Brtw a 

FRSK (7)Oranuaic Bay; FRSK (2), Senil River; FRSK 
1 CM ^07 (2), Kanm KJver; i RSK I 0625, South ol Kamu 
i FRSK Ftf38S (3), Darapap, Madanji amnh 

and; QM N321J tew Nand; AM 

1 .m|, Ncv. Guineq; UNSM 50583 (2), New CiuJnca, 

*Vw ■ ■■'■ - ' SIRO C2362, Dar ui 

pelago; WAM P0M4* 73, Niehol Bay; WAM 
P13990-2; Broom*: CSIRO A1300, am ih 

rklgc Creek, Norlhurii Territory (132); AW ia 
1517, \M 1142*9, Darwin; USNM 174066, I mites 
nonh oi I j rvWn I ;, '.i II 156(50 Pwin Ea 

i DM 1131 E] [M IJ3J6I (31, QM [13169 44), 
OM 113160 (2), QM IJ3I63 [4), QM LI3159 (20) i 
113163 (6). QM K3W ( (> ». I13UU 11 ' 
hsnm ! MOft [ISl I i I Bi ( ii rw; I "Siko A2i 
A2555, Notiliciu K-n-uoiA. Queensland {UV, QM 
115176, QM 111108, cairn:., QM I6130-I, 
(. (L'vcland.i 5IROA194J ■ ll ' Kivu, Wcipa: V i I 

( AS 14181, Mae Nam Prasae River; CAS 
14192(3). Viae Nam Mae Klcwg Kfver; ( As-tiM' 1595, 

MdC Man Welu River at Ban klong Sent- Village: CAS 
14177(9), AoaRtong Son* Baj north ndol Ko Chang 
1 m I; ■ AS urn [3), Ko Dram Nol hland near ICo 
: il ... | \S-QVf 146) (2). Ko Dram Island; 



CASrO> r 3541 (3). Choi Buri; CAS I II 

Buri Bay; KM, Ko Can Inland; • 

K.iv^np Say, Sanahip Baj \ 14190, CAS 14189(3), 

( AN-OVF 2174 Ql Ran t\u- K$yODg PfOVlnM CAS 

iaked Island; CAS-C,\T 2124 (2) Rayon>; 

i ■ ' IVF 1470 (2). Ko Samel Man I ■ 
14187 |5i,TheChabcp Harbour. Cbaataniiri Prgvim 
14158 (10), Ko M;ik Island nc-ar ■ , 
■■ 14188 (2), Lam Son Village, south of "Inn ! .> 

, , wam P19226 ;-. wam P0600, 
WAM P0974-5, Vung Tail. China (7); USNM 87031, 
i 1 B6368 I?), Foochow, KuklciK HM 35.12.25.51)1 
- muoa; BM 60.7.20.37 (2). CblOft, Hooj Kortg (I »J 
WAM PiS549-2TT, CSNM 145122. Korea, USNM 
5I50H raiwan (7); THUP nou4 (4) (WAM coll I 
., WAM P0473-4, TuugUntg; USNM 208325, 
KM, No No hiiwan, Philippines (161); 
Mmdjnao. CSNM 145120 FiiMuhuiam. L'SNM 145112. 
; £42 {2), Da' I i I MM L45W3 Parang 
IM 145101 Cnrahnto; Palawan, USNM 
M509O (7) Verd I ! NM 150858 (14), USNM 

12290 LJSNM 143107 ManfciguJn Bay CSNM 

!4Mi', hn . StraUi L'SNM 145104 Malarapaya 

"• L4I7S (3) NegtOS IsWl USNM 51989 
sonth Ne^ros; Cebu, USNM 84181; Leyte, USNM 
1 50655 Hfounangan Beach, USNM i 45 1 09 1 3 1 
Hinnnangan Bajft UNSM 145100 Abuyo t *,, USNM 
145091 (h» Malaga River; USNM J450K7 (5) Outfi 

Island; Panay, USNM 102475. USNM 106803, USNM 
14510 103, ISNM 106863, USNM 10 

JM lO^ftft, CSNM 102672, USNM 102547, 

IM 102696 u), USNM ID6867, Hoiin; Mindcsfo 
14 : |9 1 r )SahlayajiBa>, USNM 145108 Paluan 
Samar, USNM 145092 (3i I d ld; i n/tai. 

■ • i M ■ !/■. .-■■! in as Bay, USNM 145084(B) Ragay 
River, USNM 145097 Matnog Bay, USNM 145114 
Dagypan, USNM 145094 Bala USNM 145110 
Dumaca River, USNM 145111 Las nm - lulf, USNM 
145U. , Bay, USNM 145096 (2) Yava Riwt, 

M 145106 san Fernando, USNM 145086 (13] St. 

VliKCMe Harbour. USNM 145088 (6) Daet Point, 

M 145098 Caringa Island, I VM 145099 (2», 

4M 562M6 13) CiVltt, USNM 145089 (5) CSNM 

&3082i USNM 145083 ( li >. USNM IS0656 (2), USNM 

L3>, WAM P2IM2 19. AMNH 

■ 'i M ini)q, USNM ?227fi(i) ■ i ugang I ISNM 
145093 i?) rati: ammm I3928 (2) Philippines, 



DlAtiN 

Darwil rim xc 1 :c aftaj Dn il, 21 

•I hnc NL-alcs 66-72, total vertebrae 34. 
Morphologically similar to Silfttgo japortica and 
Silluy.o litieu bul dlffci - mu two posterior 

nsioilK in I ht* swinibladtJct , vvidcr houial 
arches on (he skull, and :n the vtrtebrfte count'; 
which are 33-35 in S. httea, 35 ia S.jupomca and 
34 in this M'eties. From 5. rnegaeephaius this 
species differs in the .-ly smaller head 

(24-3()"V» insltad pf ^3 a "o in S megacephalus). 



McKAY: REVISION OF S1LLAGIN1DAE 



Description 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 20-23, anal fin II, 21-23 
(Table 4). Lateral line scales 66-72 (Table 5). TR. 
5-6 above, 10-12 below, 4-5 (usually 5) scales 
between lateral line and spinous dorsal fin origin. 
Cheek scales in 2 (rarely 3) rows, all cycloid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body 16-20; head length 24-30; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 28-32; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 32-35; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin origin 54-57; snout tip to anal 
fin origin 54-58; least depth of caudal peduncle 
7-8. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 35-42; horizontal diameter of eye 
21-26; least width of interorbital 16-21. 

Vertebrae: 14 abdominal, 2-8 modified, 
12-18 caudal; 14 + 20, total 34 (see Table 6). 
Juvenile specimens from the Northern Territory 
have 13 abdominal vertebrae and a very fine 
almost hair-like first haemal arch. Adult 
specimens have the normal 14 abdominal 
vertebrae. 

Colour in Alcohol: Body light tan, silvery 
yellow-brown, sandy-brown, or honey coloured; 
paler brown to silvery white below; a mid-lateral, 
silvery, longitudinal band normally present; 
dorsal fins dusky terminally with or without rows 
of dark brown spots on the second dorsal fin 
membrane; caudal fin dusky terminally; no dark 
blotch at the base of the pectoral fin; other fins 
hyaline, the anal fin frequently with a whitish 
margin. After long preservation the colouration 
may become a uniform light brown. 

Swimbladder: Two anterior extensions extend 
forward and diverge to terminate on each side of 
the basioccipital above the auditory capsule; two 
lateral extensions commence anteriorly, each 
sending a blind tubule anterolateral^ and then 
extending along the abdominal wall below the 
investing peritoneum to just posterior of the duct- 
like process; two posterior tapering extensions of 
the swimbladder project into the caudal region, 
one usually longer than the other. The lateral 
extensions are normally convoluted and have 
blind tubules arising along their length (Figs. 
6AB) but in smaller examples may be more or less 
convoluted with fewer or no blind tubules. Some 
variation has been observed in the shape of the 
lateral extensions, but all specimens examined 
have the lateral extensions convoluted to some 
extent. The swimbladder of Sillago sihama is 
similar to that of Sillago parvisquamis but the 
lateral extensions are always much more simple 
than the latter species. Specimens from northern 



Australia have relatively longer posterior 
extensions than specimens from the Red Sea or 
New Caledonia, and have a greater number of 
modified caudal vertebrae. 

Geographic Variation 

The vertebrae counts show some geographic 
variation (Table 6); specimens from the northern 
coast of New Guinea have two or three modified 
caudal vertebrae whereas from the southern coast 
and northern Australia four to eight modified 
vertebrae are usual. A large series of specimens 
from both areas should be examined. 

Distribution 

A wide ranging species throughout the Indo- 
West Pacific region. Although Sillago sihama has 
been recorded from Japan by numerous authors 
(see S. japonica) it appears that all such records 
refer to Sillago japonica. The two species can be 
positively identified by reference to the 
swimbladder morphology, and the total vertebrae 
counts (33 in S, sihama, 34 in 5. japonica, see also 
Tables 6 and 45). 

Biology 

Sillago sihama is a nearshore species that 
frequently penetrates estuaries for considerable 
distances. The species has been recorded from 
freshwater by Gunther (1861, p. 221) and 
Macleay (1883, p. 360), despite the absence of 
renal corpuscles or tubules in the kidney 
(Nadkarni, 1963). In northern Australia S. 
sihama is common along the beaches, sandbars, 
mangrove creeks and estuaries; it is very rarely 
captured by prawn trawling vessels. 

Large schools may be found in shallow water 
where they are captured by seine-net. Important 
commercial fisheries have been developed on 5. 
sihama in Pakistan, India and the Philippines, 
and throughout the range of the species it is an 
important food fish of delicate flavour. The 
maximum size attained is approximately 25 to 31 
cm (Radhakrishnan, 1954; Fowler, 1935; 
Chacko, 1949), but larger specimens may occur as 
Day ( 1 865) mentions specimens that were 
reported as being 3 feet in length (Albulal) 

The biology of S. sihama has been reported by 
a number of authors, principally Gopinath, 1946 
(fishery), Chacko, 1949a, 1949b (food and 
feeding), 1950 (spawning, eggs, larvae), Tripathy, 
1952 (parasites), Radhakrishnan, 1954 (growth), 
Palekar and Bal, 1955 (fishery), 1961 (maturation 
and spawning). 

Like most members of the family, S. sihama 
may bury itself in the sand when danger 



10 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



approaches (Maxwell, 1921) and commonly 
avoids seine-nets by employing this behaviour. 

Remarks 

Sillago sihama is commonly confused with a 
number of uniform coloured whiting species. All 
identifications must involve an examination of 
the swimbladder after careful removal of the dark 
brown or black peritoneum in addition to lateral 
line scale and fin ray counts; this was not always 
possible with the material examined above as 
many specimens were forwarded to me on loan, 
therefore radiographs were taken and the shape 
of the suborbital shelf was checked whenever 
possible (see Fig. 14A). Large samples had one or 
two specimens carefully dissected and fresh 
material was obtained when available. 

Sillago (Sillago) intermedius Wongratana 

Thai Whiting 
(Figs. 2C, 8A) 

Sillago intermedius Wongratana, 1977, pp. 257-262. 

(East coast, Gulf of Thailand). 
Sillago maculata: Dutt & Sujatha, 1980, pp. 372-4 (non 

Sillago maculata Quoy and Gaimard). 



Material Examined 

ParatypeS: QM 113606, BMNH 1976-11-17-1, 
BMNH 1976-11-17-2. 

Other Material: QM 113795, east coast Gulf of 
Thailand via Bangkok Fish Market, 1975, T. 
Wongratana, S.L. 100 mm. (4) Visakhapatnam, India, 
March 4, 1982, K. Sujatha, S.L. 70-79 mm. 

Diagnosis 

Two posterior extensions to the swimbladder; 
anterior margin with two divergent blind tubes 
that extend to the basioccipital above the auditory 
capsule; an anterolateral extension on each side, 
each sending a blind tubule anteriorly and then 
curving posteriorly along the abdominal wall as a 
simple tube to terminate just posterior to the 
duct-like process. Sides of body just below lateral 
line with a longitudinal row of dusky black spots, 
and a series of saddle-like dusky black blotches. 

Description 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 21-22; anal fin II, 21-22. 
Lateral line scales 67-70. TR. 6-7 above, 8-9 
below, 6-7 scales between lateral line and spinous 
dorsal fin origin. Cheek scales in 2 rows, all 
cycloid. 



TABLE 4: Frequency Distributions of Dorsal and Anal Fin Rays of Sillago sihama 



Dorsal rays 


20 


20 


21 


21 


21 


22 


22 


23 


Anal rays 


21 


22 


21 


22 


23 


22 


23 


23 


South Africa 


2 


3 


_ 


2 


1 


1 


- 


- 


Mozambique 


2 


2 


- 


17 


3 


7 


- 


- 


Zanzibar 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Malagasy 


1 


3 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Kenya 


2 


1 


- 


3 


2 


- 


- 


- 


Seychelles 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Somali 


- 


- 


- 


2 


! 


- 


- 


- 


Pakistan 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


1 


6 


- 


India (West Coast) 


- 


- 


1 


6 


- 


2 


2 


- 


India (East Coast) 


- 


1 


- 


19 


6 


3 


19 


2 


Sri Lanka 


2 


1 


1 


19 


I 


- 


1 


- 


Malaysia 


- 


5 


- 


11 


4 


- 


- 


- 


Indonesia 


2 


4 


4 


10 


! 


1 


- 


- 


Sabah 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


New Guinea (North Coast) 


1 


3 


3 


5 


2 


- 


- 


- 


New Guinea (South Coast) 


- 


3 


1 


20 


5 


i 


- 


- 


Western Australia 


1 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


-» 


- 


Northern Territory 


- 


- 


- 


61 


5 


- 


1 


- 


Queensland 


- 


_ 


- 


10 


- 


- 


1 


- 


New Caledonia 


- 


- 


1 


4 


- 


3 


- 


- 


Santa Cruz Is. 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Thailand 


5 


6 


4 


70 


6 


7 


- 


- 


South Vietnam 


- 


- 


3 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


China 


- 


1 


- 


5 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Hong Kong 


3 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


- 


Taiwan 


- 


4 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Philippines 


28 


30 


17 


111 


22 


5 


8 


- 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAG1NIDAE 



11 



TABLE 5: Frequency Distributions of Lateral Line Scales of S/llago sihama 



Lateral line scales 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


Mozambique 


_ 


2 


14 


12 


5 


1 


_ 


Zanzibar 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Malagasy 


- 


2 


4 


6 


- 


- 


- 


Kenya 


- 


3 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Seychelles 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Pakistan 


- 


- 


4 


5 


2 


- 


- 


India (West Coast) 


- 


1 


- 


4 


3 


2 


- 


India (East Coast) 


- 


1 


10 


S 


7 


12 


5 


Ceylon 


- 


5 


8 


11 


1 


- 


- 


Malaysia 


- 


1 


5 


7 


3 


4 


- 


Indonesia 


- 


! 


2 


2 


1 


- 


- 


North Borneo 


_ 


2 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


New Guinea (North Coast) 


- 


2 


2 


8 


- 


- 


- 


New Guinea (South Coast) 


- 


4 


8 


11 


1 


2 


1 


Western Australia 


- 


- 


2 


! 


- 


- 


- 


Northern Territory 


2 


7 


1 


13 


13 


1 


1 


Queensland 


- 


2 


6 


1 


1 


1 


- 


New Caledonia 


_ 


1 


3 


3 


1 


- 


- 


Santa Cruz Is. 


- 


- 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


Thailand 


! 


5 


32 


38 


16 


1 


- 


South Vietnam 


- 


1 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 


China 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hong Kong 


- 


1 


6 


3 


- 


- 


- 


Taiwan 


- 


3 


4 


2 


2 


- 


- 


Philippines 


11 


19 


28 


33 


3 


1 


- 


TABLE 6: Vertebrae Counts of 


Sill ago 


SIHAMA 










Abdominal 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


Modified 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Caudal 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


South Africa 


_ 


1 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Mozambique 


- 


- 


3 


3 


2 


- 


- 


Zanzibar 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Malagasy 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Kenya 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Seychelles 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Somali 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


Red Sea 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Pakistan 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


- 


- 


India (West Coast) 


- 


3 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


India (East Coast) 


- 


- 


1 


2 


1 


1 


- 


Ceylon 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Malaysia 


- 


- 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


Indonesia 


- 


- 


2 


2 


1 


- 


- 


North Borneo 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


New Guinea (North Coast) 


3 


13 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


New Guinea (South Coast) 


- 


- 


2 


1(1 


12 


7 


3 


Western Australia 


- 


- 


- 


6 


16 


2 


- 


Northern Territory 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


Queensland 


- 


- 


2 


5 


1 


- 


- 


New Caledonia 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Santa Cruz Is. 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Thailand (Pacific Ocean) 


- 


1 


21 


20 


2 


- 


- 


Thailand (Indian Ocean) 


1 


8 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


South Vietnam 


- 


- 


- 


3 


2 


- 


- 


Hong Kong 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Taiwan 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


Philippines 


- 


- 


8 


7 


2 


- 


- 



12 



MEMOIRS DP THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depih of body 16-19; head length 30-31; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 31-33; snout tip of 
spinous dorsal Fin origin 36-37; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin c il S6' t snout tip to anal fin 
origin 5S-60; least depth of caudal peduncle 7. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
■th ol" snout 37 -10, horizontal diameter of eye 
22-26; least width of interorbital 18. 

VERTEBRAE 14 abdominal, 5 modified, 15 
caudal; 14 + 20, total 34. 

Colour in Lilt- Pale silvery, darker on back; 
top of snout black to blackish; opercle. 
preopercle, preorbital around nostrils and base of 
pectoral bright silver; supracleif hral region with a 
short black almost vertical streak; sides of body 
jusi below iateral line with a longitudinal row of X 
to 9 dark spwK or blotches, the first present of 
absent on !he opercle, the next 2 or 3 below the 
spinous dorsal fin, the following 4 or 5 below 
second dorsal fin and one on caudal peduncle; 
with a series of saddle-like dusky blotches 
the first 2 on nape, 2nd and 3rd below spinous 
dorsal fin, 5th to 9th blotches below second 
dorsal fin and one on the upper lobe of the caudal 
fin; a silvery lateral band present or absent, 
spinous dorsal fin greyish, second dorsal fin 
translucent with a series of 2 to 4 darker spots on 
membranes and a black spot at the base of each 
dorsal ray: caudal greyish wifb the upper and 
lower rays darker; other tins hyaline. 

SWIMB! adder Two anterior extensions extend 
forward and diverge to terminate on each side of 
the basioccipital above the auditory capsule; two 
lateral extensions commence anteriorly, . 
sending a blind tubule anteriorly and then 
extending along the abdominal wall adjacent to 
the '-.wimbladder below the investing peritoneum 
i. jusi posterior to the duct-like process; two 
posterior tapering extensions of the swimbladder 
project into the post-coelomie region (Tie. 8A). 
The lateral extent re simple and show no 

tract of the convolutions present in §, sihama. 

Distribution 

Known only from the east coast of the Gulf of 
Thailand, and India. 

Bioto A 
Unknown. 

Remab 

Sit/ago intermedins is similar to 5 wiwrnu but 

be distinguished by the colouration and the 

simple lateral tubular extensions of the 

swimbladder. The lip of the Inwardly projecting 

sub-ocular shelf on the third suborbital \>o\\t has 



a small spine-like process pointing posteriorly in 
S, intermedins. 

Sillago (Sillago) parvisquamis Gil 

Va-gisu 
(Figs. 2D, 7A. 13B, 14B ? i$) t 

satdgo parvisqaamis Gill, IS61, p. 5U5 (Ka.naga.wa, near 
Yokohama) Jordan and Snyder, 1913, p. 187. 
Jordan and Hubbs, 1925. p. 248. fowler, 1933. pp. 
427-8. Tomiyama and Abe, 1958, pp. 1176-7. 
.and Chang. l978,pp.5-6; 1979, pp. 695-705. 
?0 siharrtu, fanaka, 1913, p. 241. pi. ft*, fig, 244 
(non Si/logo sihamo I oiskat). 

Materia] E ■■ iminfb 

tyre& StUtigo porvtsquamu Oil!. Acad. Nat. Sci 

Philadelphia i not examined. 
niiMK Materia! usnm 177416, raip& Taiwan, 

SL 7092 lokvo, Japan. ZUMt 5724, off Haneda. 
Tokyo Bay, Japan 

Dtai i I 

Dl XII XIII. 1. 20-22; anal fin II, 

22-24; lateral line scales 70-84, 39-40 vertebrae; 
swimbladder with two posterior extensions. 

Description 

(Based on 2 examples from Tokyo, and 2 
examples from Taiwan. SL 191. 143, 1% and 175 
mm). 

Dorsal fins Xli-XIIL 1. 20 22; anal fin II, 
22-24. Lateral line scales 79-84, TR, 7 above, 
11-12 below; 6-7 scales between L. lat. and 
spinous dorsal fin origin. Cheek scales in 3 rows, 
anterior ones cycloid, the posterior scales ctenoid 
(mostly ctenoid cheek scales). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body 14-17; head length 
24.6-25.2. snout tip to ventral fin origin 27-29; 
snout tip to spinous dorsal fin origin 31-33; snout 
tip to second dorsal fin origin 54-55; snout tip to 
anal fin origin 54 56; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 5,3-6 3 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 3S-43; horizontal diameter of eye 
18-19 least width of interorbital 18-21. 

VhKihBRA! --. 16 abdominal, 5-6 modified, 
17-19 caudal; 16 + 23-24, total 39-40. Tomiyama 
and Abe (!°5S, p. 1176) have recorded a total 
vertebrae count of 39. Japan 16-6-17 (2); Taiwan 
16-6-17 (1), 16-5-19 (1). 

COLOUR in Alcohol: Pale brown to dull 

brown abovej lighter below; a faint mid-lateral 

bandusuallv present, dorsal fins dusky terminally 

with five or six rows of dusky spots on second 

,' fin membranes, other fins hvaline. 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGIN1DAE 



Swimbladder: Two anterior extensions arise 
medially, diverge, and terminate on the 
basioccipital; two lateral extensions commence 
anteriorly, each with a blind tubule 
anterolateral^, and curve to invest the abdominal 
walls with a complex networklike arrangement of 
blind tubules; a duct-like process extends from 
the lateral surface to the urogenital aperture; two 
posterior tapering extensions project into the 
caudal region (Fig. 2D). The swimbladder is 
similar to that of Sillago sihama but the lateral 
arms have a more complex system of tubules. 

Distribution 

Tokyo and Yokohama, Tokyo Bay, Japan; 
Taiwan. 

Biology 

Little known, the flesh is reported to be inferior 
to that of Sil/ago japonica (Tomiyama and Abe 
1958, p. 1176). 

Remarks 

Sillago parvisquamis is an elongate species with 
well developed frontal arches and an elongate 
otolith (Fig. 14B). In the high number of dorsal 
spines and vertebrae it approaches the genus 
Sillaginodes but the true relationship of the 
species appears to be with Sillago sihama as the 
swimbladder is remarkably similar in structure. 

Sillago (Sillago) megacephalus Lin 

Large-headed Whiting 
(Fig. 2E) 

Sillago megacephalus Lin, 1933, p. 96, fig. 3 (Paoping 
Harbour, Hainan, China). Fowler, 1949, p. 51. 

Diagnosis 

Very similar to Sillago sihama, but with the 
head length 33 percent of standard length. 

Description (from Lin 1933) 

Dorsal fins XI, 22; anal 23. Lateral line scales 
about 70. TR. 5 above 10-11 below. Depth in 
length 6, head 3.1. Eye in head 4.7; snout 2.3; 
postorbital space 2.7; interorbital 6.4. 
Preopercular limb denticulated. 

Colouration uniform; the tip of spinous dorsal 
blackish. 

REMARKS 

This species is known only from the unique 
holotype No. 883, 158 mm in SL, in the 'Fisheries 
Experiment Station', Canton. Efforts to locate 
the type were unsuccessful. Sillago megacephalus 
is unusual in having the head length 33 percent of 
the body length. Sillago sihama rarely has the 



head length to 30 percent, and in most specimens 
the head length is about 27-28 percent of SL. The 
dimensions from the figure of S. megacephalus 
give a head length of about 27 percent SL. The 
swimbladder structure and vertebral count is 
unknown. 

Subgenus Parasillago subgen. nov. 

Type species Sillago ciliata Cuvier, 1829. 

Diagnosis 

This new subgenus differs from the subgenus 
Sillago in having the posterior extension of the 
swimbladder a single tapering projection or in one 
species a rounded posterior margin, instead of 
two posterior extensions. From Sillaginopodys 
this new subgenus differs in having the ventral fin 
without a club-like structure, swimbladder well 
developed, and a duct-like process from the 
ventral surface of the swimbladder to the 
urogenital aperture. 

Remarks 

Sixteen species and four subspecies are included 
in this subgenus. The swimbladder in Sillago 
macrolepis and Sillago attenuata lack a well 
developed posterior extension to the 
swimbladder, and in the former species modified 
caudal vertebrae are absent. The swimbladder of 
Sillago argentifasciata and Sillago microps sp. 
nov. is unknown at present, and these species 
have been provisionally placed in this subgenus 
pending further investigation. All other species 
have a single posterior tapering extension to the 
swimbladder. 

Key to the Species of the Subgenus 
Parasillago 

1 . — A dark brown, dusky or blue-black spot or 
blotch on or just preceding the pectoral fin 
base 2 

— No dark mark at base of pectoral fin 
although a bright yellow or orange spot may 
be present 6 

2. — Body with dark blotches or rusty brown 
bars 3 

— Body uniform colour in adults (juveniles 
up to 90 mm may have darker blotches along 
the sides and back) with the snout bluish in 
some large specimens; dorsal fins XI, 1, 
16-18; anal fin II, 15-17; lateral line scales 
60-69; vertebrae 14-15 + 5-8+11-14, total 
32-34, swimbladder with rudimentary tubules 
projecting anteriorly and a series of sawtooth 
like pockets laterally (Fig. 9E-H) 
Eastern- Australia Sillago ciliata {p. 15) 



11 



MEMOIRS OF THH QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



3 _ Body with X- 1 I obliQUC well-defined rusty- 
brown I >> lorsally; dorsal Hns XI, i, 17-iy, 
anal fin JI, 16-18; lateral line scales 
65-70; vertebrae 13- 14 ^ 8-12 + 7-10, total 
32-34; swimbladder with a median anterior 
projection and very rudirnc .lateral 

projections (Fig. IOC). Western Australia 

_ ..Sillago vittatanew species (p. 20) 

— Body without well defined rusty brown 
hars ~ 4 

4. — Upper and lower dark blotches on sides 
joined at least posteriorly; dorsal tins XI 
(rarely XII), 1, 19-2); ana! fin II, IK 20; 
lateral line scales 69-75; vencbiae 
13-15 + 8-11 + 10-14, total 34-36; 
swimbladder with a short median exiCTW 
anteriorly and a complex anterolateral 
extension that continues posteriorly \o the 
le\ el of the duct-like process (Fig. 7B). 
Eastern Australia 

Sillago maculaia maculaia (p. 22) 

— Upper and lower dark blotches separate; 
swimbladder without complex anterolateral 
extensions extending posteriorly to duet-like 
process 5 

5. — Four rudimentary anterolateral extensions 
that are normally convoluted (Fie. 1 0B); 
usuall\ W-20 anal rays; usually 35 vertebrae. 
Western and northern coasts of Australia., 
southern New Gumea and Indonesia 

Sillaso maculaia burrus ( p . 24) 

—Three rudimentary anterolateral extensions 
that may be simple or convoluted (Fig. 10A); 
UsUally 18 anal ravs: vertebrae 34. West 
Pacific except Australia and southern New 
Guinea Sillago maculata aeotus (p 27) 

6. — Body with oblique narrow rusty-brown 
bars that may be partly broken into lines ol 
more or less contiguous tustv-hiosvii or 
orange-brown spots -- ■ ■ ■ ? 

— Body without oblique rusty-brown hars; 
some faint dark blotches 01 small Spots may 
he present in juveniles less than 100 mm in 
standard length 8 

7. — A longitudinal row r or brown or rtl 
brown blotches along middle of side on or 
below lateral line; belly pale, not sil 
upper oblique bars not formed of lines of 
contiguous rusty-brown spots; mid-lateral 
silverv band generally indistinct; vertebrae 

I 3 f i -1 1 - '-'-It Eastern Australia SifltigO 

bassertstS flinders! new subspecies (p. 29) 
- No longitudinal row o( brown or rust\- 
brown blotches on or below lateral line; belly 
silvery; upper oblique bars usually formed of 



lines of contiguous rust-brown to orange 
brown spots: niid-lareral silvery band 
conspicuous; vertebrae 12-14- 12-14 + 7-9. 
Western Australia, South Australia and 

western Victoria 

Sillago bassensis bassensis (p . 2S ) 

S. — Base o! first dorsal JpaiiC o\ adult 
specimens with a sharply keeled anterior edge 
..ring on the lower part a white or pale 
yellow spot with a black or black-brown spot 
above; dorsal fins XI, 1, 16-18; anal fin II, 
16-19; lateral line scales 64-70; vertebrae 
13 + 8-12-8-12, total 33; swimbladder 

as in Figures 11D-J. Australia 

Sillago robusta { p . 30) 

— Base oi first dorsal spine not keeled and 
without a black spot or blotch above a white 
oi yellow base 9 

9. — Total vertebrae 37-39; lateral line scales 
usually more than 73 (except S. 
schoffihurxkii/ 10 

— Total vertebrae 32-36; lateral line scales 
usually less than 73 (except S. japorrica and 5. 
itu/ica) 12 

!0_ — 21-22 anal rays; dorsal fins XI, I, 21; 
vertebrae 38. Gulf o\' Tonuking and 
China SillagO houtani tp. 34) 

— 17-20 anal rays; X-Xlil dorsal spines; 
vertebrae 37-39 11 

1 1. —Anterior margin 01 SWimbfaKMcJ COtKave; 
dorsal fmsX-XIl, t. 19 20, lateral line scales 
66 76; vertebrae 10-17 i S-ll i 10-13, total 
37. Western Australia and South Australia .. 

Sillago schomburgkii (p. 34) 

— Anterior margin o\' swimbladder convex; 
dorsal fins XII Mil, I, 19-21; lateral line 
73-77; vertebrae 15 + 2 + 20, total vertebrae 
counts range from 37-39, Persian Gulf 

Sillago at wmiaia new species (p. 36) 

12. — Swimbladder with anterolateral 

extensions recurved posteriorly 13 

— Swimbladder without anterolateral 
extensions recurved posteriorly 15 

H. - Swimbladder as in Figure 5t£; lateral 

line scales 69-80. India 

Sillago indica new Specks (p. 38) 

— Swimbladdei as in Figure IDE; lateral line 
scales 04-70 14 

14 — Membrane of second dorsal fin with a 
more or less continuous grey band formed of 
minute black dots, running parallel to and 
closer to anterior edge o! each ray; 
extensions of swimbladder estend to less 

than half length of swimbladder. India 

Sillago seringa (p. 3S) 



McKAY; kbvisioN OF sn.l AG1N1DAI 



13 



— Membrane of second dorsal fin without a 
more or less continuous grey ban* J bin with 
margin of Im finely spotted with bfOM n ' 
black; extensions of swimbladdei extend 
posteriorly to almost half letjgtfl of 

swimbladder. Thailand and Taisv an 

^ Sillago astalicai]). 36) 

—Lateral line scales 61 or les.s K> 

— Lateral line scales 64 or more 17 

16. — 14-17 anal rays. Southern NVw r.tiinea 
and northern Australia 

Sillago a nat is; Si Hugo nierstrvszt (p 18) 

— 19-21 ana! rays. Indonesia to Philippines 
excluding Australia S'llagn inacrofepis 

17. — A brilliant silvery mid-lateral longitudinal 
band. Lumbuean Is., Philippines _ ... 

Sillago argentifasciaro (p. 40) 

— Mid-lateral band not well developed ... 18 

18. —21-24 anal rays !9 

— 17- 19 anal rays 21 

IV. — Swimbladder with a small bulbous 

anterior projection and without anterolateral 
extensions projecting anteriorly. West coast 
of India Sit/ago vincenii {p. 45) 

— Swimbladder with a pointed median 
anterior extension and anterolateral 
extensions projecting anteriorly 20 

20. — Usually 13 abdominal vertebrae 5 scales 
between lateral line and spinous dorsal 

origin. Northern Australia 

Sillago lioea new / s]x i 

— Usually 14 abdominal vertebrae; 3 scales 

between lateral line and spinous Jorsal 

origin. Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan 

Sillago japonica (p . 42 ) 

21 — Dorsal fin rays 17; anal fin rays 17; cheek 

i lies cienoid; vertebrae 13-+ 9-1 1 +9-1 1, 

:oiat 33; eve diameter 19 23 percent of head 

length Thailand to northern Australia 

... Sillago ingenuuu new species (p. 44) 

— Dorsal tin rays 19; anal fin rays 19; cheek 
scales cycloid; vertebrae 13 + 5 16, total 34; 
eye diameter 14-16 percent of head length. 
Taiwan ...Sillago microps new species (p, 44| 

SiltHgU (Parasillago) ciliata Cuvicr 

Sand Whiting 
(Figs. IA r 3A, 9E-H, I3K. I4D-E, 17) 

'■■. ■■: ■(.' ciliata Cuvier, in Cusier and Valenciennes, I ■■ ■ 
is (Southern Seas). Valenciennes, U--' 1 pi IS 
tig. 2. Giinlher, 1860, p. 245; 18S0, p - , CJU1 
1862; p. 504. Jouan, 1S6L p. 272. Kner, 1865, pp. 
127-8. Steindachner, 1 866, vp. 443 4. Sctonel 
1869, p- 16; 1879, p. a4. Ca$ternau, |$75, p. if*. 
Mlfvnc and Madcay. L877, p £79, Klunrlngpr, 
" , p. 369. Mocleay, issj. p. 202. Tension- 



Wood*, iaS2, p. 65, pi. 24. Opilby, 1886, p. }\. 
McCoy, 1890, i pi 182. Cohen. 1892, p 

(Cent, L593, PP. 292. 370. pi. 45. Ilg. 2. Wuitc. 
1901, p 47; 1904, p. 206. Stead, 1906, pp. 574 6; 
1908, p 63, pi- ?3, McCulloch, 1911 p 62; 1921 
p. 60; 1427. p . 50. Cokeiell. I9|5, pp. 41 2. 
Fowler, 1928. p. 235; 1933. pp. 42S-30; 1953, p. 

15. Starts, 1929. p, Z53. Weber and de Beaufort, 
1931. pp. 171, 178. Whitley. 1932. pp. 344-5; 1955. 
p. 33: 1964. p. 43. HardcfljMTfti 1941, p. 22* 
Cldand. 1947. pp. 215-28. Roughley. 1951, pp. 
46-8. Legand, 1952. Munro. 1945; I95S, p. 178: 
1967, p. 34g- panoa. 1959, p. 201. Woodland and 
rniithi 1963. p. 32, Mawhail, 1964. P . 170. 
I ,: i. 196 p, 84; 1972. p. 243. Landing, 1967. p 

242. i anting and Hynd, IV67, pp. 177-8, 

SlVfoKd dhdoi thu>i!iere. 1857, p. 151 (Woodlark 

Island PaupaJ, 
Sillago insu tarts Cnst elnau, 1871, p. 232 (Noumea, New 

Caledonia 1 
Sillago t&ra-rGgini 1 rtelxtair, 1878, p. 232 (Morcton 

Bay, Queensland}. 
SilhgG has\cnst\ Cash/linui. \'R~ ,i >, p 38! Marlon. 

i I, p. 567, Kent, IK93. p. 291. Tot-. 1902, pp. 

175- is4 (non age basxenxls Qiivicrj 
Sillutio ciliata diudoi , Wliiiley. 1932a. pp. 344-5 
Sillago jfractik Whitley, 1932b, p. 284 (non Sttlago 

Qfta tlis M\<i\ I* 1 a I Mfi li 1 
:.i 1 1 1 1 ■ EXAMIN] 

Tmi Stilajto ciliata Cwicr, \ radiograph of the 

ej 'red A3 1 33 in tlie Museum Natioin.l 
D'Htstoirc Naiurellj Paris, Forwarded bj i>r M. Blara 
1 ■ rtel ■ ' 14.6.13. 

SillagQ diudoi fhioliierc Not examine* . I on of 

bolot\. pi mil sown. 

Sifluai} inSNlarif, Castelnau. N01 examined; location ot 
holotype unknown 

Sillago terra-reginae Castelnau. The holoiype \% 
registered A5636 in the Museum National D'Htstoirc 
Nalurelleand consists of a dried skin only. Dr M. Blanc 
kindly re-examined the holoiype and confirmed that 10 
dorsal spmes, and 61 lateral line scales were present 
Castelnau (1878, p. 232) records 64 lateral line scales. 
[HER Material; Ne* South Wales (124); WAV! 
P0620-34, Bermagui; WAM PD476-90, Boians- Bav; 
WANT P05$5-94, uam P0635-9, Wanning River, 
USNM 93125, Newcastle; QM 112955. Port Jackson; 
QM 16013-4 Porl Stephens; WAM PI5540-K, WAM 
PUI72-5. WAM F0264-72, WAM P03I4-36. USNM 
83051, QM 110326 (2D. Sydney; SOSC S60 ruggerah 
Lake: QM 12961-2, Pweed Heads, USNM 59886 ("4) 
New South Wales. Queensland, QM 112762 (88) 
Brisbane l isb Markets (vertebrae only); WAM P0464, 
Brisbane River; CS1RO C3163, Gaboohure ftiver; 

W AM P0460, Dumvkh; USNM |7fi9Q2 (lit, P-reai 

Barriei Reel": USNM 177160, Un« i-md; QM 

11185, QM 12957. QM 1 1 1541. MoretOtl Bav; QM 
I29V2, QM 12954. Nerang River; QM 12935-47 (40) 
SoulhpQjl; QM 1 1 1451. Tcwaniin. Lord Howe Island 
,4): AM 14641-2. AM 46*3 4 New Caledonij (8) 
WAM P156?4 61, Noun;- 



16 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Diagnosis 

Dorsal fins XI, I, 16-18; anal fin II, 15-17; 
lateral line scales 60-69; a dark spot at the base of 
the pectoral fin; colouration of adult specimens 
uniform without darker bars or blotches. 

Description 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 16-18; anal fin 11, 15-17 (see 
Table 7). Lateral line scales 60-69 usually 63 (see 
Table 8). TR. 6 above, 12-13 below, 5-7 scales, 
usually 6, between L. lat. and spinous dorsal fin 
origin. Cheek scales in 4-5 rows, cycloid and 
ctenoid (usually more cycloid scales). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
greatest depth of body 21-23; head length 27-31; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 30-34; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 34-37; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin origin 58-61; snout tip to anal 
fin origin 59-65; least depth of caudal peduncle 
9-10. 

Proportional dimensions as percent oi 1 head: 
length of snout 40-48; horizontal diameter of eye 
16-20; least width of interorbital 17-20. 

Vertebrae: 14-15 abdominal, 5-8 precaudal, 
11-14 caudal; 14-15+18-20, total 32-34 (see 
Table 9). 

Colour in Alcohol: Body pale brown or 
silvery-brown, whitish below, with green, mauve, 
and rosy reflections when fresh; a broad but 
rather indistinct silvery-yellow mid-lateral band; 
spinous dorsal pale olive-green with faint darker 
blotches, second dorsal fin pale olive with rows of 
dark-brown to blackish spots; anal and ventrals 
pale yellowish; pectorals pale yellow or pale 
brown with a well defined dark, or blue-black 
base; caudal yellowish to olive, with a darker 
margin. Juveniles up to 80 or 90 mm may have 
darker blotches along the sides and back. 

Swimbladder: Anterior part of the 
swimbladder with rudimentary tubules projecting 
anteriorly and a series laterally that diminish in 
size and become sawtooth-like posteriorly. Some 
individual variation in the shape of the anterior 
extensions is shown in Figure 9E-H; the posterior 
extension is single, tapering, and projects well 
into the caudal region; a duct-like process from 
the ventral surface to the urogenital aperture is 
present. The shape of the swimbladder is not 
distinguishable from Si/lago analis. 

Geographic Variation 

The dorsal and anal fin rays remain fairly 
constant in the three samples given in Table 7. 
The lateral line scale counts of the sample from 
Magenta and Dumbea, New Caledonia, recorded 
by Legand (1952, p. 112) differs from the 



Australian material given in Table 8, although my 
8 examples from Noumea do not depart 
significantly from the Australian specimens. It 
seems likely that Legand included the few scales 
on the base of the caudal fin in addition to those 
of the body. 

The vertebrae counts of the four specimens 
from New Caledonia are insufficient to indicate 
any real variation; a larger sample is required. 

Distribution 

East coast of Australia from Cape York, 
Queensland, southwards along the coast and the 
Great Barrier Reef to eastern Victoria, and the 
east coast of Tasmania. Most common in 
southern Queensland, and New South Wales. 
This species also occurs at Lord Howe Island, 
New Caledonia, and Woodlark Island, Papua. 
Hardenberg, 1941, p. 228 listed this species from 
Japero, West Irian, but this record may refer to S. 
analis. 

Biology 

Sil/ago citiata is an onshore species occurring 
on coastal beaches, sandbars and surf zones as 
well as open bays, estuaries and coastal lakes; 
occasional specimens have been taken in offshore 
waters to 23 fathoms during winter. Sand whiting 
enter estuaries and penetrate far upstream to the 
tidal limits of rivers and creeks where juveniles 
and adolescent fish may be abundant. The adults 
congregate around the mouths of estuaries, bars, 
and spits, in depths of up to three fathoms. Tosh 
(1903) described the egg and larval development 
and gives the spawning period as September to 
February. Tosh also describes the habits of this 
species and mentions 'Soon after the beginning of 
the spawning season young whiting of 10 mm and 
over can be observed swimming actively in small 
droves of from 10 to 20 on sand flats and beaches. 
They move up and down with the tide, swimming 
in very shallow water. As they grow older they 
keep further from the shore. The whiting may be 
said to live almost exclusively on sandy ground. 
The adults appear to be gregarious only at 
spawning time. 

The most characteristic habit of the whiting is 
that of burrowing in the sand to escape from 
enemies. In so doing the fish literally dives into 
the SL 3 nd. The dive can be executed with great 
rapidity and is a most serviceable 
accomplishment. When fishing for whiting with a 
seine net one can observe as the bunt of the net 
nears the shore here and there a small cloud of 
sand thrown up; the fisherman marks the place, 
and when his net is in, wades out and feels about 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



17 



in the sand with his feet; when a fish moves under 
his feet he stamps his foot down to hold it there, 
and then picks it up with his hand. Often as many 
as a dozen fish are so taken which had otherwise 
escaped the footrope of the net. Very small 
whiting, an inch and a half long, have the trick. 
When burying the whiting throws up its tail, and 
actually takes a header into the sand using its tail 
fin vigorously. Once the head is under, it appears 
to throw up like a diver, and when buried has got 
into a horizontal position. The whiting can 
remain down for 2 or 3 minutes. On an ordinary 
sand flat, a whiting can bury itself to a depth of 
from 3 to 4 inches, but on a hard sand beach, it 
can hardly cover itself. 

When taken the whiting often makes a short, 
croaking, frog-like sound — whence the name 
trumpeter'. 

Cleland (1947) has reported on the fishery, 
fishing methods, and biology, including 
raciation, food, reproduction, age determination 
and growth, pathology and condition of the 
fishery. 



Legand (1952) describes the growth of the 
postlarvae of S. ciliata from New Caledonia and 
Munro (1945) the postlarvae from the Noosa 
River, Queensland. 

Sillago ciliata grows to a length of 45 cm. 

Remarks 

Sillago ciliata and Sillago analis are sibling 
species that can be separated by colouration and 
in most cases lateral line scale counts. The 
vertebrae count and swimbladder shape is similar 
or identical in both species. If both were 
allopatric in distribution the differences between 
the two species would be considered of 
subspecific rank only. In Queensland both species 
occur in the same school, or separately, from 
Moreton Bay northwards to Cape York. In New 
South Wales S. ciliata is common but S. analis is 
absent; in the Northern Territory and the 
northern half of Western Australia S. analis is 
abundant but S. ciliata is absent. 

In the 'ciliata group' of species is also S. 
ingenuua from Thailand and northern Australia. 



TABLE 7: Frequency Distributions of Dorsal and Anal Fin Rays of 
Sillago ciliata 



Dorsal rays 


16 


16 


17 


17 


17 


18 


18 


18 


Anal rays 


15 


16 


15 


16 


17 


15 


16 


17 


New South Wales 


2 


7 


8 


57 


4 


1 


"> 


2 


Queensland 


I 


2 


6 


42 


3 


- 


4 


- 


New Caledonia 


1 


- 


- 


6 


- 


1 


- 


- 



TABLE 8: Frequency Distributions of Lateral Line Scales of Sillago ciliata 



Lateral scales 



60 



61 



62 



63 



64 



65 



66 



67 



68 



69 



New South Wales 
Queensland 
New Caledonia 
New Caledonia* 



6 


16 


22 


17 


12 


5 


1 


8 


18 


6 


2 


2 


1 


3 


3 


1 


- 


- 


1 


2 


9 


8 


491 


85 



25 



from Legand (1952, p. 112). 



TABLE 9: Vertebrae of Sillago ciliata 



Abdominal 


13 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


15 


15 


15 


Modified 


7 


5 


6 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


6 


6 


7 


Caudal 


13 


14 


13 


11 


12 


13 


11 


12 


12 


13 


12 


New South Wales 


_ 


- 


22 


2 


47 


1 


10 


1 


2 


1 


- 


Queensland 


1 


- 


17 


1 


53 


2 


li 


- 


1 


- 


1 


New Caledonia 


- 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



IS 



MEMO] RS Ol THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Sillugo (Parasillago) unwlis Whitley 

I iolden-lined >>r [■; hj >i , | ■■■ h fng 

digs. 3B, 9A-D, 13L, 14F, 17) 

Sitiagtl dtiiitd: Parodies jnd Whitley, I92T, p. 89. 

i.i\lor l%4. p. 174 (nan Siiia&y ctftata Cuwen. 
\/7,'</e<> ww/is Whitley. 1943, p. 184 (Shark's Bay. 

Western Australia); 1948, p. 19; 1954, p. 27; 1964, 

v > 43. Havsom. 1957, p. 141. Grant. 1965. p. 85; 

1072. p. 244. 

."\1 KX\ n.\i 1 \ kMJf | 

i iffl Si/.'ago ana/is Whirley. A '■ Ipn of the 
holi tVpe registered I 131 IS in the Air-trali.m Museum. 
SVdiltJ Hto \erlehrac nurnbet 14-6-1 '\ 

Other MMTkiM: Western AtiistraJia (<S8); wavi 
P139S0-4. WAM P0584, WAM Pi>o40-|, Broome; 
\\A\I PQ360, WAM P<J76t> &, ExtnOUtn Guifj WAM 
>9 7(X); Kalumburu; WAM P046f>. Nichol Bay; 
WAM P12978, WAM 1 J 0176, WAM P079&-800, Purl 
HedlanU; WAM P76T4-?* WAM P12773-S, WAM 
PI 2974 7, WAM P129S2 ". WAM P13189 .y|. WAM 
P13203-13. WAM H3222, WAM P14979-.S2, W'AM 
P027-9« WAM i ' ■-' Shark Bay. Northern 

r«riLors ItiS) USNM 1740?? i.4>. Cape Arnhem; 
USNM 174051, Darwin; USNM 174052 (4), LfSNM 
i740^i7).i:sNM [74054(16), CrOGteE] i v USNM 
174056 (16), Port Bradshaw; QM 14) 113164, II I ■ 
ini7o. shoal Bay: QM 13992 Sir Edward Peflew 
Ijtands, Quecwlaod (Mfts CSIRO C3164 6. Caboofrture; 

QM |32S>, Cnhb Island; QM 1127k. (68), Deeepricv. 

Bay; QM C11Q99, Gibson Island; CTSiRO C3KS7-70, 
Marynormcgh; WAM P0461, WAM PI3S35, CSIRO 
C29W, Moteion Bay. QM [12694, Norman River, I li I! 
oi * urperuaria; am IB32I9-22, QM F321S. 
taubc >l, ;. \M 1133^5 V Tin Can Bay. New Guinea 
(10)1 QM 113215-17, Dam Mand. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal I'ms XI, 1, 16-18; anal fin II. 14-17; 
lateral line stales 54 M; no dark spot at base of 
pectoral fin, 

H , ■ | I n . 

Dorsal fins XI, 1. 16-1K; anal fin II, 14-17 
(Table 10). Lateral line scales $4 61 (Table in; 

TR. 5-6 above, f>-X below, 4 5 (usually 4) Si 
between L. iat. and spinous dorsal origin. Cheek 

scales in 3-4 rows (usually 4), the anterior scales 
cycloid, tjifi posterior scales ctenoid (cheek scales 
mostly cycloid). 

Proportional dimensions as present SI.: 
greatest depth of tods 19-22: head length 2tS-32; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 29-34; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 34-39; snout tip to 
second dorsal BlJ origin 5&-61; snout tip to anal 
fin origin 5V-64. least depth ol caudal peduncle 
9-11. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
length ol snout 37-44; horizontal diameter of eye 



W-25\ least width of itlty WWttl M 

vhrtebrae. 13-14 abdominal, 4-8 muddied. 
11-15 eaudal; 13-14+19-20, total 33-34 (see 
Table 12} 

Colour in Alcohol- Body with a dark grey 
lateral stripe; head dusky, spotted with line black 
spots, snout darker; margins of scales on opercles 
and body dark, forming a faint mesh-like pattern 
on upper sides; dorsal fins with membranes dusky 
and streaked with brown; caudal fin dusted with 
black; anal fin hyaline; pectoral fin with fine 
dusky black spots at base but no dark spot; pelvic 
fins with membrane between outer rays finely 
spotted, remainder of fin hyaline. 

Colour in Life: Body Ughi Ulvery 3 slightly 
darker to dusky above, a dull golden-silver to 
golden-yellow band longitudinally on sides below 
lateral line; pels ic and anal 1ms pale yellow to 
bngru yellow; pectoral fin with a darker dusting 
of fine black-brown spots, base without a black 
spot. 

SwiMflLAuoLK: As lor Siitago ciliaia, sea Fig 

9Ar-D. 

Geographic variah- 

The lateral line scale counts foi south-east 
Queensland are greater than those from Western 
Australia, and the vertebrae counts have one or 
two additional modified vertebrae. A series of 
samples from northern Australia is required to 
verify this variation. 

Distribution 

Shark Bay, Western Australia, Northern 
Territory, Queensland south to Moreton Bay, and 
southern coast of New Guinea 

Biology 

Lenanton li%9a, 1 969b) has described the 
Shark. Bay fishery and records that the juveniles 
of this species, together with those of Sitiago 
ychomburgkii, 'remain in the warmer waters of 
die shallow mangrove creek shorelines and 
protected inlets. On reaching maturity Sitiago 
artaHs prefer the muddy, tidal streams but Sillago 
SChombutgkil are located on the more open, 
sandy banks'. Spawning takes place from 
September to January. 

The juvenile fish are marked with about 8 dark 
blotches on the mid-lateral line, 12 blotches along 
iorsal line at the base of the fins, and about 7 
blotches between the dorsal and lateral series 
One specimen from Moreton Ray had if) evenly 
spaced faint dark bars an the upper sides that 
reached the lateral line anteriorly bui terminated 
before the mid-lateral fate posteriorly; a dark 
longitudinal mid-lateral stripe mav be present. 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAF. 



1" 



TABLE 10: FREQUENCY Disiriiu dons 01 Dorsai and \nal Fjn Rays of SiUAGO AMAltt 



Dorsal ray*. 
Anal rays 



Western Australia 

Northern Territory 
Queensland 
New Guinea 



16 


16 


16 


16 


17 


17 


17 


17 


18 


IN 


1 S 


14 


15 


16 


\1 


14 


15 


16 


17 


15 


16 


1? 


I 


6 


3 


- 


3 


22 


24 


1 


1 


_ 


1 


- 


I 


1 


- 


- 


1 


31 


3 


- 


4 


3 


- 


2 


6 


- 


- 


6 


72 


1 


- 


1 


2 



TABLE 11: Frequency Distributions Of Lateral Line Scales oh Sill -\goa.\alis 



Lateral Line Scales 



54 55 56 57 



58 



59 60 61 



Western Australia 
Northern Territory 
Queensland 
New Guinea 



g 


16 


15 


12 


11 


1 


1 


3 


8 


7 


6 


3 


3 


3 


- 


- 


5 


8 


29 


27 


15 


- 


4 


- 


3 


3 


- 


- 



TABLL 12: Vertebrae of Siliago -walis 



Abdominal 


13 


i '■ 


14 


14 


14 


14 


i- 


Modified 


6 


4 


5 


6 


6 


7 


8 


Caudal 


14 


15 


14 


13 


14 


12 


It 



Western Australia 
Northern Territory 
Queensland 
New Guinea 



3 

20 



Siliago analis is most abundant in silty areas of 
Shark Bay and Moreton Bay, and is common 
among mangrove areas inside Exmouth Gulf. 
This species grubs in the silty-sand substrates for 
worms and has been observed to 'plough' up the 
bottom with the snoul . The small fish may be seen 
feeding in very shallow water where they occur in 
schools moving slowly across the bottom; on 
occasions a fish will hover motionless, and then 
dart the snout into the ground to seize prey. Food 
is predominantly marine worms and the fish move 
across the sand with the first ray o\" the ventral 
fins in contact with the substrate. A number of 
Siliago species maintain ventral ray contact with 
the bottom whilst feeding, the juveniles usually 
have the first one or two ventral rays elongate. 
The highly developed sensory canal system on the 
head, particularly the tachrimal and sub- 
preopercular canals, may receive vibrations from 
prey organisms in the sand, as 5. analis has been 
observed to dig into the bottom to capture prey, 
and then move slowly across the bottom to 
abruptly stop and dig again; this behaviour docs 
not appear to be of random nature. 

The maximum size attained is about 45 cm. 



REMARKS 

Siliago nierstraszi is almost certainly a senior 
synonym of $. ana/is. The hololype of S. 
nierstraszi was unavailable lor study. Siliago 
altata is very similar in all characteristics and 
both species may be found together along the east 
coast of Queensland. S. ciliata can be 
distinguished from S. analis by the presence of a 
black spot on the pectoral base. The juveniles are 
remarkably similar and not all specimens appear 
to have the pectoral base slightly darker in 
Moreton Bay specimens; if hybridisation occurs 
the gene How between species must be slight, as 
the great majority o\ specimens from eastern 
Queensland are clearly identifiable. 

Siliago ( Parasillago) nierstraszi Hardenberg 

Rough Whiting 
Siliago nierstraszi Hardenberg, W4I, p. 288 (Merauke, 
New Guinea). Munro, 1958. p. 178. 

Material Examini d 

TYPE; The location of the holotypc is unknown. Dr 
W. Saetikno, of the Museum of Zoologicum Bogoriense 
inform? me that the holotype is not present in lhaJ 
Museum, 



20 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Diagnosis 

Possibly a senior synonym of Siilago analis. 
Description (from Hardenberg, 1941) 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 17; anal II, 17; pectoral 14. 
Lateral line scales 5 (50 + ?). TR. 4-1-13. 

Height 5.2, head 4 in length. Rostrodorsal 
profile slightly convex. Scales on head ctenoid. 
Eye 6 in head, more than twice in snout. 
Interorbital space about 1.5 in snout, which goes 
2.2 in head. Mouth small, terminal, far before 
eye. Lower jaw included. Hindborder of 
praeoperculum with fine crenulations. A small 
but strong spine on operculum. Two series of 
scales on cheeks, four on operculum. Villiform 
teeth in jaws and on vomer and palatines. Dorsals 
approximate. Longest rays of first dorsal 
somewhat longer than head without snout. 
Second dorsal gradually decreasing in height 
posteriorly, longest rays about as long as 
postorbital part of head. Anal decreasing in 
height posteriorly, its longest rays shorter than 
postorbital part of head. Unpaired fins with inter- 
radial scales. Caudal somewhat emarginated. 
Pectorals and ventrals about equally long, about 
as long as head without snout. Colour of formol 
specimen completely faded. 

Distribution 

Known only from the Holotype. 

Remarks 

Hardenberg (1941, p. 288) states that this 
species is related to Siilago macroiepis according 
to the lateral line scales (macroiepis has 52-56 
lateral line scales), but differs in the TR count, the 
smaller eye, the low anal ray count, and in having 
ctenoid scales on the head. In most features 
Siilago nierstraszi is similar to Siilago analis and 
may prove to be a senior synonym. It is unlikely 
to be a junior synonym of Siilago ciliata as the 
location is outside the range of that species and 
the black pectoral spot of S. ciliata is present in 
preserved specimens retained in formalin or 
alcohol for many years. The location of the 
holotype is unknown and therefore the vertebrae 
count and the correct number of lateral line scales 
was not available to me. Further collecting at the 
type locality may establish the identity of 5. 
nierstraszi. 

Siilago (Parasillago) vittata new species 

Banded Whiting 
(Figs. 4B, IOC, 13M-0, 14L, 17) 

Materiai Examined 

Type: Holotype: SL 209 mm, collected in 17 to 20 
fathoms north-east of Rottnest Island, Western 



Australia, September, 1965, R.J. McKay. Registered 
WAM P14172 in the Western Australian Museum. 

Paratypes: WAM P19230, Maud Landing; WAM 
P14158-71, WAM P14173-6, NE of Rottnest island; 
WAM P14983, WAM P15242-46, Shark Bav; WAM 
PO 190-204, Dirk Hartog Island, Shark Bay. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 17-19; anal fin II, 16-18; 
lateral line scales 65-70. Swimbladder with a 
median anterior extension and very rudimentary 
anterolateral projections. Pectoral fin base with a 
dusky spot, and body with 8-11, light brown to 
rusty-brown very narrow bars extending from the 
back obliquely forwards to touch or almost touch 
a conspicuous silvery mid-lateral longitudinal 
band. 
Description 

(Based on the holotype and 24 paratypes from 
NE of Rottnest Island, and Shark Bay, SL 
159-231 mm. Characters for the holotype given in 
parentheses). 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 17-19 (XI, 1, 18); anal fin II, 
16-18 (ii, 17) (Table 13). Lateral line scales 65-70 
(67) (Table 14). TR. 6-7 above, 7-9 below (7/9), 6 
scales between L. lat. and spinous dorsal origin. 
Cheek scales in 3 rows, the upper row mostly 
cycloid, the lower rows ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL; 
greatest depth of body 19-21 (21.0); head length 
27-31 (30.6); snout tip to ventral fin origin 28-32 
(31.2); snout tip to spinous dorsal fin origin 33-36 
(36.4); snout tip to second dorsal fin origin 56-60 
(59.4); snout tip to anal fin origin 57-61 (58.9); 
least depth of caudal peduncle 7-9 (8.1). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 40-47 (44.5); horizontal diameter 
of eye 16-21 (20.3); least width of interorbital 
16-20(17.2). 

VERTEBRAE: 13-14 + 8-12 + 7-10, 13-14 

abdominal, 19-21 caudal, total 32-34 (Table 15). 

Colour in Alcohol: Head and body pale 
sandy brown to light fawn, a distinct silvery mid- 
lateral band is present, opercles and breast 
silvery, pale below; 8-1 1 very narrow (about scale 
width) brown bars extend from the dorsal mid- 
line obliquely forwards and downwards to touch 
or almost touch the mid-lateral band, the bar 
between the dorsal fins and the next posterior one 
frequently superimposed on the mid-lateral band; 
spinous dorsal fin with brown blotches and the tip 
dusky, the rayed dorsal fin with 2 to 3 rows of 
spots forming longitudinal lines; anal ventral, and 
caudal unmarked; pectoral fin hyaline with the 
base silvery and a dark, round, purple-brown or 
brown spot formed of fine dots superimposed on 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



21 



the area between the gill opening and pectoral 
base; belly pale with the mid-line silvery-white; 
breast silvery white, opercle and preopercle 

silvery. 

Colour in Life.- Head and body light tan 
above paler below; with the breast and ventral 
surface of belly silvery-white with blue, mauve, 
and yellow reflections; opercles silvery with 
lemon-yellow to yellow blush and fine black 
dusting above; 8-11 rusty-brown to brown 
oblique bars of about half a scale in width extend 
from the dorsal midline forwards and downwards 
to touch or overlap the distinct silvery-white mid- 
lateral band that commences behind the opercles 
and extends to caudal fin base; pectoral fin pale 
lemon-yellow to hyaline with a large rounded 
dark brown to pale bluish-brown spot on a silvery 
background just before the base; spinous dorsal 
fin with the membrane white below, yellowish 
above, with some brown blotches and black 
dusting apically, rayed dorsal fin white at base, 
lemon above, and with about 3 rows of brown 
blotches forming longitudinal lines; anal fin 
bright yellow with a pale base and white margin; 
ventral fins white with a pale lemon-yellow 
centre; caudal fin lemon-yellow to yellow. 

Swimbladder: Similar to Sillago robusta and 
Sillago bassensis bassensis in having a median 
anterior extension and rudimentary anterolateral 
projections; a duct-like process is present on the 
ventral surface; posterior extension single and 
tapering. 

Geographic Variation 

No geographic variation found. 

Distribution 

Maud Landing southwards to Rottnest Island, 
Western Australia. 

Biology 

Inside Shark Bay this species was known as the 
'bastard whiting' by fishermen who found that on 
occasions S. vittata comprised up to 20 percent of 
the whiting catch near 'The Loop' grounds, Dirk 
Hartog Island. This species is most common near 
weed banks and coral reefs in shallow-water and 
is associated with S. maculata burrus, S. 
schomburgkii and 5. analis. At Maud Landing S. 
vittata may be taken by hook and line from the 
beach but off Rottnest Island large catches may 
be taken by trawl net in 17 to 20 fathoms where 
the species is in association with 5. robusta, S. 
bassensis bassensis, and S. maculata burrus. In 
southern waters S. vittata is not captured in 
shallow water and was unknown until exploratory 



trawling by L.F.B. 'Bluefin' off Rottnest Island. 
Reports of * narrow-barred whiting' off Fremantle 
by line fishermen operating in 20 to 30 fathoms 
possibly refer to S. vittata as the school whiting S. 
bassensis bassensis is well known to fishermen as 
'poddy whiting* on the south-western coast of 
Australia. 

Maximum length recorded is approximately 30 
cm, but unverified reports of larger fish from 
Shark Bay were received; one large specimen was 
of a golden-yellow colour with brown bars. 

Remarks 

Sillago vittata may be separated from Sillago 
maculata burrus by colouration, the morphology 
of the swimbladder, in having mostly ctenoid 
cheek scales, and by vertebrae counts. The fin ray 
counts of 5. vittata are normally 18 dorsal and 17 
anal (20 dorsal, 19 anal in S. maculata burrus). 
The eye width-snout length relationship is 
different in most specimens (Table 16). 

From Sillago bassensis bassensis this new 
species differs in colouration; the oblique bars are 
more distinct and pectoral fin has a dark round 
blotch or spot before the base. The fin ray counts 
are usually 18 dorsal and 17 anal in 5. vittata, and 
18 dorsal and 19 anal in S. bassensis bassensis. 
The vertebrae are typically 13+ 12 + 9 or 
13 + 13 + 8, 13 + 21 in S. bassensis bassensis and 
1 3 + 1 1 + 9, 1 3 + 20 in 5. vittata. The frontal bone 
arches are wider in S. vittata than in S. bassensis 
bassensis, and the shape of the suborbital shelf is 
quite different (Figs. 13M-0). 

Derivation 

From the latin 'vittatus' meaning banded. 



TABLE 13: Frequency Distributions of Dorsal 

and Anal Fin Rays of Sillago vittata 



Dorsal rays 
Anal ravs 



17 



is; 



19 



Rottnest Island 
Shark Bay 



L3 



TABLE 14: Frequency Distributions of LaTERAI 
Line Scales of Sillago vittata 



Lateral line scales 65 



66 



67 



68 



69 



7d 



Rottnest Island 
Shark Bay 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



I" ABLE 15: VEKTEBSAI 01 '■' UOO \TA 



Abdominal 


13 


13 


n 


13 


: 


14 


14 


14 


Modified 


to 


II 


12 


12 


12 


g 


in 


11 


Caudal 


10 


9 


7 


8 


9 


10 


9 


8 


Kounest Island 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


— 


_ 


- 


- 


Shark Bay 


1 


:o 


1 


1 


1 


i 


5 


2 



i AW.t Ife Evs Width and Snout Length Relationship in Sjli \a i ita 

MA< I i ATA HUJiRA AND Stif AUO BASSE/WIS BAS&BNStS 



Snout lenglh 


i.4 


1.6 


1.8 


2.TJ 


i i 


:a 


2.6 


Eye diameter 


IJ 


17 


U8 


2J 


2.3 


2.5 


2.7 


S, vittata 

s. maculata hurra 
S. hatscfisis hassensis 


4 


-i 
j 

10 


19 
12 


4 
6 

6 


13 

; 
1 


5 


-i 



Siltago (Parasillago) maculata maculata Quoy 
and Gaimard 

Trumpeter Whiting 
(Figs. 3C. 7B. 13P, 14G, 16) 

SHlago maculata Quoj and Gaimard, 1824, p. 261, pi. 

5, tig. 2. (Svdncv, New Soulh Wales). Cuvier, 
1829, p. 411. Blocker, 1849, pp. 5, 8, 10, 14, 62; 
1858, p. 161; 1874, p. 71 (part), Gunther, 1860, p, 
245. Steindaehnrr, 1806, pp. 444-5; 1870, p. 562. 
Casldriau, 1875, p. 16; IS79* p. 380. AHeyne and 
Macleav. 1876. p. 279. Mun/.ingcr, 1879. p. 370. 
Schmdtz, 1879, p. 44. Macleay, 1881. p. 201. 
rertlsOll - Woods. 1SS3, p. 65. pi. 2}- PohL 1884, 
p. 32. Ogilby, 1886. p. 31; 1893. p. 101. Johnston. 
1891, p. 33. Cohen, 1892, p. 16. Wane, 1898. p. 30; 
I8K9.P. 109; 1902, p. 190; 1904, p. 31. Stead, 1906, 
pp. 574-6; 1908, p. 64. McCulIoch, 19)1, p. 61; 
1921, p. 61, 1927. p, 51. pi. 21. fig. 1846. Weber, 
1913, p. 267. Fowler, 1925, p. 248; 1933, pp. 423-5 
(part). Barnard, 1927, p. 508. Weber and de 
Beaufort, 1931, p. I74(part). Borodin, 1932. p. 85. 
Herre, 1939, p. 127; 1953. pp. 478-9 (pan). Smith. 
1949, p, 204. Roughlev, 1951, p. 48, pi. 16. MuttrO, 
1955, p. 122; 1958, p. 178; 1967, p. 347. Palekar 
and Bal, 1955, p. 128 (part). Scott, 1959, p. 56. 
Marshall, 1964. p. 169, p], 34, Wrntley, 1964, p. 43. 
Grant, 1965, p. 86, tig.; 1972. p. 246, tig. Maclean, 
1971, pp. 87-92. 

? SitfagG gracilis AHeyne and Macleay, 1877, p. 279, pi. 

6, fig. 2 (Torres Strait, Darnley Island or Hall 
Sound). Macleay, 1881. p. 202. McCulIoch, 1911, 
p. 60. 

TYPES Si/lagn maculata Quoy and Gairnard. A 
radiograph at the holotype registered A, 3134 in the 
Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Pans, was 
forwarded by Dr. M. Blanc. The vertebrate number 
14-8-13. 

SiHogo gracilis Allevne and Macleay. Two specimens 
were examined by McCulIoch (1911, p. 60 1 who states '1 
am unable to find any specimens marked as the types of 



SHIago gracilis, Alleync and Macleay, in the Macleay 
Museum, but there are two small specimens labelled 
"Sillago sp? Torres Straits", which I have no doubt are 
the types. Through the kindness of Professor Haswell 
and Professor David, I have been allowed to borrow 
them for examination. One is a little larger than the 
oilier, and from the snout to the end of its broken tail is 
almost 82 mm long, which 1$ exactly the length of the 
figure of S, gracilis. In other details also, such as the 
form of the damaged tail and the pronounced shrinkage 
marks on the head, it agrees perfectly with the figure, 
though it has lost all trace of (he colour markings with 
the exception o\' the silvery lateral band. Both differ 
from the description in the number of fin-rays in the 
dorsal and anal, there being only one spine and twenty 
rays in each instead of one, twenty-One as stated'. 
McCulIoch regards &£/W?//& as a junior synonym o\' 
SillagO fjiacu/ata, Stanbury (1969) does not mention 
Siilago gracilis in his list of the type specimens in the 
Macleay Museum. The coloranon as described by 
Allcyneand Macleay is that of a juvenile Sillugo species. 
Other MATERIAL Queensland (JV3) QM 112902 (12), 
Bribie Island; QM 12927, Brisbane River; QM 112763 
(90), Brisbane Fish Markets OM 112692 (17), QM 
112697 (II), QM U270I (40), Deceplion Bay; WAM 
P13711-22, WAM P13827-34, QMI292K, QM 112701, 
Moreton Bay. New Soulh Wales 0>); USNM 93125, 
[Newcastle; USNM 59933, WAM P15531-9, WAM PO 
273-90. Sydney; QM 111629, Wallis Lake. 

Diagnosis 

A black spot at base o( pectoral fin, dark 
blotches on body: anterolateral extensions of 
swim bladder recurved posteriorly to reach level of 
vent. 

DESCRIPTION 

(Based on 27 examples from New South Wales, 
and 19 examples from Queensland. SL 140-216 
mm). 



RPVISIfJNOr STL 1 \C.r\M; 






Dorsal Iins-X[-Xll, 1, 19-21; anal fin !I, 19-20 
(Table 17). Lateral line scales 7J-75 (Table 18). 
I'R. S-9 above, 9- 1 1 below, 5-6 scales between L. 
lat. and spinous dorsal origin Cheek scales in 3-4 
rows, cycloid with an occasional few- ctenoid 
scales. 

Proportional dimensions as percent ol' Si 
(Modal frequency within parentheses) Greatest 
depth of body 19-23 (21); head length 26-29 (27); 
snout lip CO ventral fin origin 31-35 (32); snoul tip 
10 second dorsal tin origin 53-57 (55); snout rip To 
I fin origin 56-60 (59); leasi depth o\ cn.uhil 
peduncle 7-8 (81. 

Proportional dimensions as perceni ol head: 
Length of snout 37-44 (40); horizontal diameter 
... 20-25 (22)| least width of intercn bilal 1K-22 
(2<M. 

Vi rifbrm- 13-15 abdominal, 8-il modified, 
10-14 caudal, 13-15+20-22, total 34-36 {Table 

rsj. 

CotpUR in Alcohol: Body light brown to 
bTOWn, darker above; back and side:- with seven 

[Vine Irregular dusky blotches directed obliquely 
forwards in mosl specimens; a conspicuous 
median, longitudinal silvery band on sides; lower 
Rides silvery to white; spinous dorsal fin blotched 
with brown; soft dorsal with three to five rtiWS of 
brown spots on the membranes; anal fin pale 
yellow, pectoral fin finely dusted with brown to 
black spots, and with a brown to black spot on 
the base. 

COLOUR IN LIFE: Body sandy-brown in olive 
green above; back and sides with dark brown 
n regular blotches; longitudinal hi feral hand 
silver, to pale golden silver, outlined in pale 
live brown; sides silvery-brown to crcamish or 
a it, te with blue reflections. Head dark olive- 
brown, greenish, or pale brown above, cheeks 
and opereles golden-green with a darker blotch on 
the opereles of some specimens; spinous dorsal 
whitish, wiih the membrane mottled with olive- 
green or brown; soft dorsal with about five rows 
of brownish-green spots; ana! and ventrals golden 
in yellow with the margins cream, pectoral straw- 
yellow to pale green-yellow, with 3 blue-black 
basal spot, caudal olive bTOwn to dark greenish- 
brown, with the margin dark brown to black. 

SW1MBL ADDER; A short anterior median 
nsion and two anterolateral extensions are 
present; at the base o\ the anterolateral 
extensions is a most complex system of tubular 
canals that anastomose and join the swimbladder 
at four positions anteriorly; the lateral extensions 
reach to the duct-like process on the ventral 
surface; posterior extension of the swimbladder 



Geographic Vnk.imion 

Samples from eastern Australia show tin 
geographic variation. Specimens with 
abdominal vertebrae are usually quite small in 
length and the first haemal arch is verv narrow 
and often hanlike. 

Oil nwBi 'i' - 
East Cox^ tralta. 

BlOl < |i 

Oeitby (1893, pp. 100-2) states that thisspe* 
SpaWAfi during March and April. 'The ova ii 
deposited on sandy beaches in sheltered bays ami 
lakes, and in estuaries, water of no great depth 
being selected". Ogilby further describes the 
behaviour of the fry it! shallow water — 'each of 
rliese young fi&l it) of a hole in the 

sand, but whether self-excavated or having been 
deserted by, or taken from, its rightful owner, we 
are not in a position to state; at the mouth of the 
hole, which ts only just large enough to admit ot 
the passage of its body, the little creature lies, and 
on the approach of danger, or even the passage of 
a dark cloud over the sun. immediately 
disappears, the anterior half of the he 
however, as quickly reappearing, thus shol 
that close beneath the surface a chamber must 
exist, sufficiently large to permit of their tm I 
around with ease; should any movement occur in 
their neighbourhood to cause them further alarm 
when in this position they are able to back down 
again into their hiding place with great cele: 
but if perfect quiet is maintained, they soon 
emerge and take up their original position near 
the opening'. 

The food and feeding of this species is reported 
by Maclean (1971). the diet oi' juveniles being 
Largely small crustaceans and that of the adult fisli 
mostly polychaete worms 

Siiiago maculata maculaia is found on silt;. 
and muddy substrates, frequenting the mouths of 
rivers, estuaries and mangrove creeks. Large 
numbers are seinc-netfed in the shallows ami 
taken by trawl net in Moreton Bay. Good catches 
are made by hook and line. The juveniles are most 
abundant in estuaties and shallow water during 
the summer months. 

Remark! 

S. maculata maculata is one of thiee 
subspecies. All subspecies are similar in 
colouration and morphology, and differ mainly 
In the shape of the swimbladder and the vertebra. 
counts. 



24 



MEMOIRS OF THC QUEENSLAND MUSFUM 



CABLE 17: FKEgutMO Distrjbi riONSQj DORSAl 

\m> Anai i"i-j Rays 01 Sn t too m icw i i i 



Dorsal rays 
Anal rays 


19 
19 


19 
20 


20 
IS 


20 
19 


20 
20 


20 


Queensland 

New S nit! . 1 1 


1 

5 


1 
1 


I 


78 
12 


3! 
10 


1 



TABL.h is: Frequency Dpstribi m nsoi Lateral Line Scaussof Sillago 



Lateral line scales 


69 


70 


"1 


72 


73 


74 


75 


Queensland 

. 'i.i h Wales 


3 
I 


15 


S 


20 
8 


25 
9 


12 
1 


5 



TABLE: 19: VERTEBRAE COUNTS Ol SlLLAGO MHt:i-\l I m, , | i, i 



Abdominal 


13 


13 


13 


13 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


15 


Precaudal 


9 


9 


10 


10 


8 


■ 


8 


9 


9 


10 


L0 


II 


a 


■ ! , 


12 


13 


II 


2 


12 


13 


M 


12 


13 


II 


12 


10 


12 


Queensland 


1 


3 


1 


y 


1 


29 


- 


82 


3 


II 


3 


1 


4 


New South Wales 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


6 


1 


10 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 



Sillago (Parasillayo) maculata hurrus Richardson 

Western Trumpeter W] 
(Figs. 3D, 10B, 14H. 16) 

Sfttago hurrus Richardson, 1 842, pp. 128*30. 
(Northwest Australia); 1843, pi 2, tig. I. 

i telnau, 1878. p. 232. 

Sillago maculata hurra, Whitley. W4K, p, |w. 

SUIago maculata, Paradice and Whitley, 1927, p. 89. 

Taylor, 1964. pp. 174 5, 

\] \!f Rl \l ! > MINED 

T\ v\ Sillago hunus Richardson. Based on a drawing 
by Lieutenant I mei no. type specimen available. The 
description given by Richardson (1842, pp. 128-30) 
agrees in all essential details with the subspecies Of 
S, maculata from Western Australia, Northern Territory 
and Gulf of Carpentaria. Richardson states that 'it is 
banded on the sides like Sillago maculata oi MM. Quoy 
and Gaimard, which inhabits Port Jackson, but it wants 
livery lateral stripe, shows spots on the dorsals, and 
has a higher and more elliptical hnd\ than thai species'. 

I have examined specimen.-, of Silfoga maculata from 
Western Australia I >u!1 ol Carpentaria, Queensland 
and New South Wales that have the lateral silvery band 
reduced, inconspicuous or entirely absent. Richardson 1 ', 
species was listed as a synonym ol S. maculata by Fowler 
(1933, pp. 424 5) and Ta> lor (1964, p, 175), Stokes 
(1846) records Ihe voyage of "HMS Beagle' during the 
exploratory surveying of the north- 1 i oasi of 
Australia Lieutenant Emery departed HMS Beagle in 
March 1841 for England, and his sketches were used by 



Richardson as a basis for description o\' some 
Australian fishes. Efforts to locale the illustration of 
S.burrus (No. 37 Lit Emery) were without success. 
Emery numbered all his sketches and his number 4 is 
listed as Talc Bay. Al the Houlman \bn ' > I --lands 
(April 10, 1840) Srokftt (1846, p. 16 1) wrote 'I here were 
M.i many varieties of fish, the most abundant being 
snappers; o\ those that were rare Lieut. Emery made 
faithful sketches'. Emery made sketches No. 9 to 17 at 
the \brolhos, and ar Depuch Island on June 9th, drew 
sketches 22, 25, 26, 27 and 2*. On July 14 'HMS Beagle' 
anchored M turtle Island and Bcdout Island and then 
sailed direct lor Timot Island, arriving on July 24. The 
vessel departed TioJOl on August A and arrived at 
Bedout Island, Dampier Archipelago on Augusl 17. 
Boats were sent to examine the coast to the southward 
Ol Cape I amber! with ihe neighbouring islands; an 
extent of almost 45 miles was examined. Extensive areas 
Ol mud and sand flats were encountered and between 
1'icard Island and Cape Lambert the shore is cut by 
i , .reek-, from Delambre Island the HMS 
Beagle proceeded to the Montebello I lai ds, anchoring 
on the eastern side oi 1 remouille Island on Augusl 31st. 
Anchorage was next made at Barrow Island where 
Lieut. Em - made sketch number 42. Drawings 
numbered 36, 37. 38 were recorded by Richardson 
(1842) as north-west coast Of Australia, and sketch 
number 42 as Barrow Island (Richardson 1843, I cones 
Piscium. p] iii fig 2). The area oi capture of Siliago 
harms ts therefore between Depuch Island and Barrow 
Island. Timor is also a possibility but almost certainly 
would have been mentioned by Lmery. 



McKAYi REVISION OF Sll.L\GINID\h 






Specimens wen unavailable to Richardson and die 
d ei i pi ion ti betted - ! 37 by Liem Emery, the 

..m:ii , | ■■■in ii h.i, apparent^ bees tewt (Fl^ 30). 

■ i ( 1972, p. 93) Ira ci p i ..ii a neotype ut impMtpi i i 
rubruc'maus Richardson, 1842; 1 follow hh example by 

herewith designating CSIRO C2591, 1 411 mm jr 
i Mi.lard length, Collected at Damply • ■ liipi 

i tern \ustntlta as irjte neotype fttfoj bwrus 
Kichardson. 1842. 

i miii. Material Western Australia (HO); WAM 

PO 6ls\ WAM PO 751 1 Admiralu Ollll WAM 
PI4863, WAM PO 525 9 I anning River; C5IXO 

( '(.41, WAM HO Sf.r 9J5, < oekhurn sound. I SIRQ 
( 25M, c"2M3. DampicrArchlpelftgo; C 51ROC245 
WAM PO 330-4, ExmEnrth Gulf; AMNH < 
NL.nOuruh, WAM PO 466-8, IS'iehoI Rjv; CSIRO 
[59, Rockingham; CSJRO C23IS, WAM P 13224 35. 
WAM P14142-50. WAM PI4176. WAM PJ4535-9, 
W * M P 1 4984-98 , W A VI P 1 5 1 29-40, WA M 
PJ5222-30, YVAMPI5247-58. WAM PO 160 7, WAM 
po 180-4. WAM POM71 3, Shark Bay; W \\l Po ?49, 

WAM PO 754-7, Swan Rive;; Northern fori 14ft); 

WAM P14433. WAM Pl4493-506i Darwin: USNM 
174058-60, Groow Eylandi; USNM i 4<im, Port 
■ lhaw; USNM 174001. Pori Loagdoo; QM H3lf>2 
O). QM 113-155 (KM, QM 113366, Shoal Bfl) 
■island (22): CSIRO -\ 1222. Gilbert RJv&; WAM 
PI28IO, AM 115537-60, i ulj , irpcmaria, New 
Guinea t3)j QM U32I4, pflrw m.mio Indonesia ; 

Bmnce P. Bishop Museum 19453, Ambon. Molucca 
h lands. 

Diagnosis 

Similar 10 Sillago maculata acolus in 
colouration but with 34 to 36 (rarely 34) vertebrae 
iM 14 abdominal, 20-22 caudal); usually 19-20 

■ ii rays (rarely 16), The swimbladder has four 
. Tolateral extensions thai are rriore complex 

than S, maculata acolus, but much shorter than 
S. maculata maculata. 

I ■! I. M-! m. ,■■■ 

(Based on tht neotype, 29 stpecTmens from 
Miai k Buv , W . A . , and ! 4 specimens from 
Darwin, Northern (en-ions), 

Dorsal EJUS XI, 1 1^ 21; anal fin [I, 18-20 

(TttMe 20). Lateral line scales 69 10 76 (Tabic 21) 
IK S-10 above, V-) I below. 5-6 scales between 
I l.o. and spinous dorsal origin. Check scales in 
2-3 rows, all cscloid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SI 
(modal frequency within parentheses!: 

Greatest depth of body 20-23 (21 ); head length 
26-31 (29); snout tip to ventral fin Origin 2.S-33 
(30); snout tip to Spinous dorsal fin origin 3C 
(34); Snout tip \o second dorsal fin origin 54-58 
(55); snout tip to anal fin origin S5-60 (57): least 
depth of caudal peduncle 7-9 (8). 

Propordonal dimensions m perce?! of head: 



Length o! snout 39 45 (41 | Ifj 4i (39) 

Darwin; horizontal diamcict Ol eye 19 23 (22); 
least width olinterorbital 17-21 (ISM Shflrl I 
17-20(18) Da: 

Vi.KiLHRAt 13-14 abdominal. 7-11 modified, 
1 1-14 caudal total 34-36 (Table 22). 

Colour in Alcohol: Body light sandy brown 
to brown, darker above; sides with nine to eleven 
dusk) brown spots situated on a silvery mid 
lateral stripe; above which and situated almo! 
between the lateral spots are ten to eleven oblique 
blotches that widen centrally; lowei sides paler, 
breast and mid-line of bells sflvei Spinous dorsal 
fin blotched with brown in one to three \.. 
bands; sofl dorsal with three to four dark Spot! 
on membrane forming longitudinal lines; anal fin 
hyaline; pectoral fin hyaline, the base silvery with 

' i.i> oi purple brown to blackish pigment; 

caudal with Die upper and lower margin fineh 
spoil'.;: I 

In colonial ion S.utactdata burrus is ver> 
similar to S.maculata maculata but in the latter 
species the upper and lower blotches are 
frequently joined, at least posteriorly; the upper 
■ I lies are generally larger; I he Mack spot ai 
base of the pectoral fin is more distinct; the belly 
is not silver, and the Qpercle is dull or with the 
inner dark blotch showing through (inside of 
opercle of S maculata barms is white). The lateral 
silvery stripe is usually mote noticeable in the 
western subspecies but may be quite faded. The 
eastern subspecies frequently has the upper and 
lower margins o\ the caudal fin very dark brown 
to black. The abdominal walls o\' the western 
subspecies is usually white or silvery whereas the;. 
all FJcsJl coloured in the eastern subspecies 
Some ol the colour dillereuccs between Arnhem 

i and specimens an tho» from New South V 

had been noted by 1 ayloi (1964, p. 175). VVTutlev 
(1^4X. p. 19) used S.maculata burra for tht 
WCSltl ii population but gave no reasons for rj< 
so and later abandoned the subspeeific distinction 
(Whitley, 1964, p. 43). 

Swimbi aoi 'i R A short anterior median 
extension and four anterolateral rudiment ar 1 . 
extensions, the first two continuous, ihe posterior 
ones less well developed and normally separate; a 
duet like process on the ventral surface is present 
and the posterior extension is single- The lateral 
exten [re very much reduced in size to those 

of the eastern subspecies S.maculata maculata. 
Etad resemble the rudimentary ones of S.maculata 
aeolus with the exception that four openings 
DCCUf into anterolateral extensions of S. maculata 



26 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



burrus, the extensions are more complex, and the 
first two are continuous (Fig. 10B). 

Geographic Vari a i ion 

Little variation between samples was noticed, 
however, the length of the snout and the width of 
the interorbital space was slightly greater in the 
Shark Bay samples than those from Darwin. 

Distribution 

Western and northern coast of Australia, 
southern New Guinea, and Indonesia. 

BIOI OOY 

The western trumpeter whiting appears to be 
similar in many respects to I he eastern subspecies. 
The western subspecies is most abundant on silty- 
sand or muddy substrates, the large adults feeding 
near gutters and sandbars inside Shark Bay and 
may be found on quite sandy bottoms. The 
juveniles frequent seaweed banks and broken 
bottom, and occur in large numbers near 
mangrove creeks. The juveniles and adults are 
commonly trawled in association with the western 



population of Sillago robusta, and Sitlago lutea in 
depths to 20 fathoms. 

Juveniles enter the coastal rivers and in the 
Swan and Mandurah estuaries in Western 
Australia the juveniles may be common 
throughout the summer months when (hey are 
netted by prawn Fishermen operating in shallow 
weedy areas. Offshore on the lower west coast of 
Western Australia Sil/ago vittata is commonly 
trawled with Sil/ago bassensis bassensis on sand 
substrates. Sillago maculata hurrus is only 
occasionally taken in association with the latter 
species, but becomes much more abundant 
further northwards. Inside Shark Bay the western 
trumpeter whiting may be associated in shallow 
onshore waters with Sillago ana/is, Sitlago 
schomburgkii and Sillago vittata. 

Remarks 

It is postulated that Torres Straits, during the 
last glaciation, became a land barrier isolating the 
eastern and western populations of Sillago 
maculata. 



TABLE 20: FREQUENCE DISTRIBUTIONS OF DORSAL AND i\NAl 1 IN RAYS OF 
SlUAOO MACULATA BURRUS 



Dorsal rays 


19 


19 


20 


20 


20 


21 


21 


Anal rays 


18 


19 


18 


19 


in 


19 


20 


Western Australia 


3 


7 


6 


75 


2 


1 


- 


Norlhern Territorv 


- 


- 


- 


44 


1 


- 


1 


Gulf of Carpentaria 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


New Guinea 


- 


1 


- 


2 




- 


- 


Indonesia 


- 


- 


- 


•> 
it 


- 


- 


1 



TABLE 21: FRfcQULrscv Distributions of Latcrai Line St \i_ts of Sillago 
VtACUi \TA BURRUS 



Lateral line scales 



69 70 



71 



73 



74 



Western Australia 
Northern Territory 
Gull of Carpentaria 

New Guinea 
Indonesia 



6 


12 


25 


9 


9 


4 


- 


I 


4 


_ 


2 


1 


2 


_ 


1 



TABLE 22: VbRibBRvt Counts of Sillago maculata burrus 



Abdominal 


13 


13 


13 


M 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


Modified 


9 


9 


11 


7 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


Caudal 


12 


13 


11 


14 


12 


13 


14 


11 


12 


13 


11 


12 


Western Australia 


1 


1 


1 


- 


3 


19 


1 


1 


60 


- 


18 


1 


Northern Territory 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


New Guinea 


- 


- 


- 


i 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



Sillago (Parasillago) maculata aeolus Jordan and 
Evermann 

Oriental Trumpeter Whiting 
(Figs. 3E, I0A, 13Q, 141, 16) 

Sillago aeolus Jordan and Evermann, 1902, p. 360, fig. 

24 (Keerun, Formosa). Jordan and Richardson, 

1909, p. 192. 
Sillago macrolepis: Evermann and Seale, 1907, p. 187 

(nonSillago macrolepis Bleeker). 
Sillago maculata: Kner, 1865, p. 127. Bleeker, 1874, p. 

71 (part). Pellegrin, 1905, p. 83. Seale, 1914, p. 69. 

Weber and de Beaufort, 1931, p. 174 (part). 

Fowler, 1933, pp. 423-5 (pari); 1935, p. 150; 1937, 

p. 238; 1949, p. 52. Martin and Montalban, 1934, 

pp. 224-5, pi. 1, fig. 2. Suvatti, 1950, p. 394. 

Herre, 1953, pp. 478-9 (part). Palekar and Bal, 

1955, p. 128 (part). Shao and Chang, 1978, p. 5; 

1979, pp. 695-705, Dutt and Sujatha, 1980, p. 372. 

McKay, 1980, pp. 383-4. 

Material Examined 

Type: Sillago aeolus Jordan and Evermann. A 
radiograph of the holotype registered No. 7135 in the 
Stanford University. The vertebrae count is 14-5-15. 

Other Material: Singapore (2), QM 112884, 
Changi Beach; Thailand (15); CAS 14160 Ban Paknam 
Prasae; QM 112915, Chantaburi, CAS 14161, CAS 
14166, Choi Buri; CAS 14168, Ban Pae, Royong 
Province; CAS 14163 Goh Samed, Chumphon 
Province; CAS 14194 Lem Saplee, Chumphon 
Province; CAS 14171 Satlahip Bay, Rayong Province. 
China (1); USNM 148381 Shanghai, Hong Kong (3); 
USNM 5891, BM 1939.2.23.51, no locality. Taiwan (6); 
USNM 192874-5 Ma-Kung Market, Peng-Hu Hsien, 
WAM P0472, THUP 00983, Taichung. Philippines 
(188); Cebu, USNM 145081 Cebu Market, Panay, 
USNM 102498, USNM 102501, USNM 102549, USNM 
102582, USNM 102683, USNM 106797-8, USNM 
106800, USNM 10683-4, USNM 106806-10, USNM 
106812-3, USNM 112831, Iloilo; USNM 56215, Bulan; 
Samar, USNM 145076, Cavite. 

Diagnosis 

Very similar to Sillago maculata burrus in 
colouration but has the most posterior mid-lateral 
dark brown blotch elongate and reaching caudal 
flexure; swimbladder with three rudimentary 
anterolateral extensions instead of four. Differs 
from Sillago maculata maculata in lacking well 
developed anterolateral extensions reaching to 
level of vent. 

Description 

(Based on 27 examples: China 1, Hong Kong 2, 
Philippine Islands 10, Taiwan 4 and Thailand 10). 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 18-20; anal fin II, 17-19 
(Table 23). Lateral line scales 67-72 (Table 24). 
TR. 8 above, 9-10 below, 5-6 scales between L. 



lat. and spinous dorsal origin. Cheek scales in 3-4 
rows, all cycloid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL 
(modal frequency within parentheses): Greatest 
depth of body 20-22 (21); head length 27-31 (28); 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 30-33 (31); snout tip 
to spinous dorsal fin origin 30-35 (33); snout tip 
to second dorsal fin origin 54-58 (57); snout tip to 
anal fin origin 57-61 (60); least depth of caudal 
peduncle 7-8 (8). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 36-40 (38); horizontal diameter 
of eye 20-26 (26); least width of interorbital 18-20 
(19). 

Vertebrae: 13-14 abdominal, 4-7 modified, 
14-16 caudal; 14 + 20, total 34 (Table 25). 

Colour in Alcohol: Body light brown, 
slightly darker above, with two longitudinal rows 
of elongate short dark brown bars; the anterior 
bars inclined, especially above the lateral line; the 
posterior bars slightly inclined above; but 
generally horizontal below the lateral line; 
spinous dorsal fin finely speckled with black, 
especially the outer part of the membrane; soft 
dorsal with two longitudinal brown bands on the 
membranes; anal fin hyaline; pectoral fin with a 
conspicuous dark brown to black bar or spot 
across the base; upper part of head brown. The 
colouration of this subspecies greatly resembles 
Sillago maculata burrus in having the posterior 
dark bars separate from the mid-lateral blotches 
in almost all specimens but differs in having more 
elongate mid-lateral blotches, lacks the silvery 
belly, and generally has a less distinct silvery mid- 
lateral stripe; the abdominal walls are flesh 
coloured not silvery; the most posterior mid- 
lateral dark brown blotch is elongate and reaches 
the caudal flexure, whereas in 5. maculata burrus 
there are normally two almost round blotches, 
one on each side of the caudal flexure. 

Swimbladder: An anterior median extension 
to the basioccipital is present and well developed; 
three rudimentary and often convoluted 
extensions are present on the anterolateral 
surface; a duct -like process present; posterior 
extension single and tapering (Fig. 10A). 

Geographic Variation 

None found throughout the known range of the 
subspecies. 

Distribution 

Singapore, Thailand, China, Hong Kong, 
Taiwan and Philippines. Possibly distributed 
throughout the Indo-West Pacific from South 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Africa to China and Philippines, but not recorded 
from Australia or southern New Guinea. 

Biology 

Little known. Maxwell (1921) records juveniles 
burrowing in the sand. Attains approximately 30 

cm. 

Remarks 

Sillago maculata aeolus is the northern 
representative of S. maculata maculata. 

TABLE 23: Frequency Distributions of Dorsal 
and Anal Fin Rays of Sillago maculata aeolus 



Dorsal rays 


18 


18 


19 


19 


19 


20 


Anal rays 


17 


18 


17 


18 


19 


18 


Singapore 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


Thailand 


- 


2 


4 


11 


1 


- 


China 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Hong Kong 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


Taiwan 


1 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


Philippines 


1 


- 


1 


25 


- 


- 



TABLE 24: Frequency Distributions of Lateral 
Line Scales of Sillago maculata aeolus 



Lateral line scales 



67 68 69 70 71 



Singapore 

Thailand 

China 

Hong Kong 

Taiwan 

Philippines 



1 
1 

1 1 
1 



TABLE 25: Vertebrae of Sillago maculata 
aeolus 



Abdominal 


14 


14 


14 


13 


13 


Modified 


4 


5 


6 


6 


7 


Caudal 


16 


15 


14 


15 


14 



Singapore 

Thailand 

China 

Hong Kong 

Taiwan 

Philippines 



Sillago (Parasillago) bassensis bassensis Cuvier 

Western School Whiting 
(Figs. 4A, 13U-V, 14J, 15) 

Sillugo bassensis Cuvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes 
1829, p. 412 (Port Western, Bass Strait, Victoria) 
Quoy and Gaimard, 1834, pp. 672-3, pi. 1, fig. 2 
McCulloch, 1911, p. 61 (part). Fowler, 1933, pp 
422-3 (part). Whitley, 1948, p. 19; 1964, p. 43 



Roughlev, 1951, pp. 48-49 (part). Scott, 1962, p. 

187. 

Material Examined 

Types: A radiograph of the holotype, registered 
A3135 in the Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris, was forwarded by Dr M. Blanc, the vertebrae 
number 13-13-8. Cuvier (1829, p. 412) give the type 
locality as 'Port Western in Bass Strait' but the holotype 
has the locality recorded as 'Port du Roi Georges' 
'Quoy et Gaimard'. I have followed Cuvier and have 
recorded the type locality as Western Port. 

Other Materia!: Western Australia (79); WAM 
P14756, Lancelin Island; CSIRO C2626, Cottesloe, 
WAM P12881-5, South Fremantle; WAM P14348-80, 
WAM P14476-8, WAM PO 1-2, WAM PO 31-45, 
WAM P056-7, north-east of Rottnest Island; CSIRO 
C1433 south-west of Western Australia; WAM 
PO810-21, Denmark; WAM P12698, Albany; WAM 
PO 763-5, Cheyne Beach; CSIRO C1935 Starvation 
Boat Harbour. South Australia (49); WAM PO 
291-302, Streaky Bay; WAM PO 205-24, Coffin Bay; 
WAM P15352, Port Clinton; WAM PO 240-5, 
Adelaide Market; WAM PO 304-13 Port Noarlunga. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal fins X-XII, 1, 18-19; anal fin II, 18-20; 
lateral line scales 66-73; no dark spot at the base 
of the pectoral fin; a series of oblique broken 
rusty-brown stripes on the back and upper sides, 
without a longitudinal row of rusty-brown 
blotches along the mid-lateral silver stripe. 
Vertebrae 12-14 abdominal, 12-14 modified, 7-9 
caudal, total 33-35. 

Description 

Dorsal fins X-XII, 1, 18-19; anal fin II, 18-20; 
(Table 26). Lateral line scales 66-73 (Table 27). 
TR. 5-6 above, 10-14 below, 5-6 (usually 5) 
scales between L. lat. and spinous dorsal fin 
origin. Cheek scales in 3-4 rows, all ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body 20-24; head length 26-30; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 28-33; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 32-35; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin origin 53-57; snout tip to anal 
fin origin 53-57; least depth of caudal peduncle 
7-8. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 39-44; horizontal diameter of eye 
19-26; least width of interorbital 17-21. 



abdominal, 12-14 
14 + 20-22, total 33-35 



VERTEBRAE: 12-14 

modified, 7-9 caudal; 12 
(see Table 28). 

Colour in Alcohol: Body creamy-brown to 
rusty-brown above, silvery-white below, the two 

colours sharply separated by a silvery mid-lateral 
band with a narrow rusty-brown longitudinal 



Rl I i 'N Or MI I At.lMDAt 



?9 



narrow stripe above: back and upper sides wifh 
_ular red-brown 10 ruMy-brovwt oblique, 
broken, or wavy stripes, and narrow blotches, 
vaguely resembling rtwse of Siliago macufata ; 
dorsal llns with tows oJ rusty-brown Or reddish- 
orange spots; anal fin yellowish or hyaline; other 
fins pale cream, white, or hyaline. No black blotch 
on the base erf ihe pectoral fin. 

C010UK IN LIFE: Body cream-brown, sandy- 
pink or pale rust-brown, ihe head, cheeks and 
sides of the body with mauve, blue and pink 
reflections; mid-lateral band silver; belly pink or 
white; back and upper sides with oblique irregular 
orange-brown or rust coloured narrow Stripe. 
sometimes broken into groups of ohlique dots or 
blotches. Fins as described above. No rust-brown 
blotches mid-laterally. 

Swimmi \niHK: A short hlunt anterior median 
projection is present, and a single long tapering 
caudal extension is well developed. A duct-like 
process from the ventral surface to the urogenital 
i ure is present. 1 find no appreciable 
differences in the swimbladder of the eastern and 
western populations (fig. 9I-L). 

Geogf u'hk: Variation 

The Western Australian and South Australian 
specimens show- no differences in colouration, fin 
rays counts, or vertebrae counts. 

Geraldton area Western Australia southwards 
and along the southern coast to South Australia 
and western Victoria; not yet recorded from 

western Tasmania. 

Bioi i 

A very common whiting alone the lower 
\vv : .,tern Australian coastline, and bays of South 
Australia. Frequenting die surf" /one of beaches 
and quiet waters of bays and sandbanks, this 
subspecies is also trawled In offshore waters to at 
[i t 23 fathoms and possibly much deeper. 
Juveniles may be found in a few inches of water 
oft w hite sand beaches, but are not recorded from 
cstuarine waters as are the juvenile^ qj 
Sillazinodes punctata, Siflago schoivhuntkii, and 
StflOgO macufata hurras. 

The western School Whiting is reported 10 
nio 1 Z into shallow waters in large schools during 
the lull moon. Maximum size attained is about 33 

ar 

\RKS 

Stltugn bassensis is the only whiting species " il 
.i southern distribution that is known from 
..m and western Australia. Unconfirmed 



reports of Siilavmodes punctata from SOUtheri 
New South Wales arid Lakes Entrance. Victoria. 
have been made, but all specimens identified weare 
5. bassensis jVnd-y 

Previous authors (Munro 1949: Malcolm 1959; 
Collette 1974) have shown that subspcciation on 
each side of Bass Strait has occurred in the few 
fishes that have been critically examined. S 
bassensis is yet another such species and it 
suggests that Bass Strait, during glacial periods 
was a barrier subdividing previously continuous 
species into separate populations for sufficient 
lime for at least subspeciation to occur. The 
differences between such subspecies may well 
appear to be minor ones, nevertheless they are 
constant and of a greater magnitude than those 
between S. analis and S. a/tata which must be 
regarded as valid species. Further collecting in the 
Bass Strait area may show the S. bassensis 
subspecies to be valid species. 

Sillago (Parasillago> bassensis flindersi new 

subspecies 

Eastern School Whiting 
(Figs. 'JM , 14k. 15) 

SflfafcO tasfewfr Cohen, L892, p. 17, Stead, 1906a, pr 

574-6; 1906b, p. Ill; 1908b, p. 65, pi. 33 

McCulloeh, 1911, p. 61 (part); 1921, p. 61, pi. 21. 

Fowler, 1933. pp. 422-3 (part). R tigh] 19.M. 

pp. 48-9 foart] Patrott, 1953, p. 201. Scott, \9o:. 

p. 187. Marshal!. 1964. p. 170. Whuley, 1964 , 

4.V Qraro, l%5, p. nv. \9t2 % p. 247< 
■ ' -> macukuu. Castetaau, 187^ p, 94. Waite, 1899 

p. 109 (non Silfoga maeuiafa Quay and Gaimard) 
.;■ fgo ciiwm Johnston, LS83, pp. 80, 116; 1890, pp. 

25, 33 (non Sitfaeo ciliuhi Cuwcn 
MATE&1A1 EKAMI I i 

Tvpis; Hulotypc, St 195mm. collected h> J.K. 
Paxiuiu W, Smuh-Vani/ and R.J. McKay, Sydney I ififl 
Markets, d from Wallis 1 like, New South 

Wak», trawled, registered OM I (3252 in Queensland 
Museum. 
Pa^atymls: Queensland (19); W\M po36*-kv 
Ptan Bay, Ne« South Wales (51); QM hi 109 (4), 

Ballina; CSIRO C3523, Cwgee; CSIRO C1512, Lake 
Machine; CSIRO C3520, C35&*. Port JackSODJ AM 
IB1666-8 Pitrwaier; AM IBSI 19, Port Stephens; AM 
1957- 7, near Sydney; QM (11630 [?>). W-jOtJS l.akv. 
AM I765T, LSNM >9939, Neh South Wales, Victi ci 
(6); MAM FW9J-7, WAM P19116. 1 &3tes Pntrancc 
i lu.jM.i [35)j AM uoooi, east coasl Flinders Island; 
QM 112311, QM U269S (91) Smnssft cSl-JEQ C3#l, 

>\M B556S, U'siiianiL. 

: rj u is 

Dorsal tins XI, I, 16-18: anal fin IK 18-20; 
lateral line scales 65-69; no dark spot ar the 



30 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



of the pectoral fin; a series of oblique rusty- 
brown stripes on back and upper sides, with a 
longitudinal row of rusty-brown blotches along 
the mid-lateral silver stripe. Vertebrae 13 
abdominal, 9-11 modified, 9-11 caudal, total 
32-34. 

Description 

Dorsal fins X!, 1, 16-18; anal fin II, 18-20 
(Table 26). Lateral line scales 65-69 (Table 27). 
TR. 5 above, 10 below. Cheek scales in 3 rows, 
ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth o( body 20-23; head length 25-30; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 27-33; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 33-36; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin origin 55-57; snout tip to anal 
fin origin 54-57; least depth of caudal peduncle 
7-8. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 36-41; horizontal diameter of eye 
20-25; least width of interorbital 18-21. 

Vertebrae: 137 specimens, 13 abdominal, 
9-11 modified, 9-11 caudal, 13+19-21, total 
32-34 (see Table 28). 

Colour in Alcohol: Body pale sandy-pink to 
pale brown above, silvery white below, the two 
colours separated by a silvery lateral band with a 
longitudinal row of pale rust-brown blotches; 
back and upper sides with fairly regular brownish 
oblique stripes almost a scale diameter in width. 

Colour in Life: Body pale sandy-brown to 
pink with posteriorly directed oblique broken and 
unbroken bands of rust-red to bright orange- 
brown above the lateral line to the base of the 
dorsal fins; a series of about a dozen similarly 
coloured blotches situated just above a 
conspicuous silvery lateral band. Head olive- 
brown to pink with tinges of pale blue and yellow; 
opercle silvery with a few scattered blotches of 
rust-red. Pectoral base and axilla dull yellow. 
Spinous dorsal fin hyaline with scattered rust-red 
spots; rayed dorsal fin with membrane hyaline 
and rays with 4 to 5 red-brown spots. Anal fin 
with membrane hyaline and rays yellow-orange 
with white margin. Ventral fin milk white or 
hyaline, the membrane between the spine and the 
first ray white, remainder of rays yellow with 
white tips. Belly pale silvery-white with blue and 
yellow reflections, the breast and undersurface of 
head frequently dusted with fine black spots. 
Colouration is very similar to S. bassensis 
bassensis but the oblique stripes are wider, more 
regular and without the appearance of fused dots 
or spots; the mid-lateral blotches are absent in the 
western subspecies. 



Swimbladder: See Siliogo bassensis bassensis. 

Geographic Variation 

No geographic variation was found between the 
samples from Queensland, New South Wales, 
Victoria and eastern Tasmania. 

Distribution 

Southern Queensland southwards to eastern 
Victoria and the east coast of Tasmania. 

Biology 

This species is not well known in eastern 
Australia and was, until recent years, almost 
neglected. It was unknown in southern 
Queensland until the development of offshore 
prawn trawling (Grant 1965). A commercial trawl 
fishery has commenced in New South Wales and 
Victoria, where the subspecies is commonly 
referred to as 'spotted whiting'. Large catches 
may be made in shallow water just off the beach 
at Lakes Entrance (J.R. Paxton pers. comm.) 
otherwise the eastern subspecies is a deeper water 
inhabitant and has been recorded to a depth of 84 
fathoms (Waite, 1899, p. 109 as 'S. maculata'). 
The deep water trawl females are normally in full 
roe suggesting that the species spawns well 
offshore along most of the coast but may 
congregate around the vicinity of coastal lakes in 
New South Wales and Victoria; the juveniles have 
been found inshore. 

Stead (1906a) correctly identified S. bassensis 
and described the colouration of the eastern 
subspecies. From his observations it seems that S. 
bassensis flindersi at certain times of the year, 
particularly from January to March, is found in 
considerable numbers at the entrance to Port 
Jackson, and is captured in abundance by means 
of hook and line, being familiarly known to boys 
as 'School Whiting'. 

Maximum size attained is approximately 32 cm. 

Remarks 

See Sillago bassensis bassensis. 

Derivation 

Named in honour of Lieutenant Matthew 
Flinders 1 774- 1814 who circumnavigated 
Australia. 

Sillago (Parasillago) robusta Stead 

Stout Whiting 
(Figs. 4C, 11D-J, 13R-T, 14M-N, 18). 

Si/lago robusta Stead, 1908, p. 7 (Rose Bay, Port 
Jackson, New South Wales). McCulloch, 1921, p. 
61. Marshall, 1964, p. 170. Whitley, 1964, p. 43. 
Grant, 1965, p. 87; 1972, p. 247, fig. 



Mi k \\ RFVISION OFSILLAG1NIDAL 



31 



TABl.F 26: Fkbqlenca Distkiultions or DORSAL and Anal Fin Rays of Sin ago 
Uissr\sis BASSENS/S* and SILLaGO Ba&SENSTS flinders* 



Dorsal rays 


16 


16 


17 


17 


17 


IS 


IS 


IS 


19 


19 


Anal rays 


19 


18 


18 


19 


20 


18 


19 


20 


18 


19 


*Western Australia 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


TS 


4 


1 


1 


♦South Australia 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


o 


25 


I 


I 


6 


+ Victoria 


1 


- 


- 


3 


- 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


+ Tasmania 


4 


3 


22 


60 


3 


— 


1 


2 


_ 


_ 


* New South Wales 


- 


- 


5 


38 


I 


- 


[ 


I 


_ 


_ 


* Queensland 


- 


- 


2 


15 


3 


- 


- 




- 


- 



TABLE 27: Frequi-ncy Distributions of Lateral Line Scales or SillAGQ 

BASSENSIS BASSENSIS* AND SiLLAGO BASSEKStS fLIWERS! ( 



Lateral Line Scales 


65 


6fi 


67 


68 


by 


70 


71 


7*j 


73 


*Western Australia 


_ 


1 


_ 


3 


1 1 


10 


10 


3 


4 


*Soulh Australia 


- 


1 


1 


3 


4 


8 


6 


2 


i 


Victoria 


1 


2 


I 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


* Tasmania 


4 


Id 


28 


9 


I 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


- New South Wales 


1 


9 


18 


14 


4 


- 


— 


_ 


. 


* Queensland 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 







TABLE 28: Vertebrae of Sillago BASSENSrs bass&nsis* and Sillago basseasis flixdersi- 



Abdominal 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


12 


12 


14 


14 


Modified 


9 


10 


10 


9 


10 


11 


11 


12 


12 


13 


13 


14 


13 


14 


12 


13 


Caudal 


10 


9 


11 


11 


10 


9 


10 


8 


9 


8 


9 




9 


8 


8 


7 



•Western Australia 
♦South Australia 
4 Victoria 

■ Tasmania 

* New South Wales 

■ Queensland 



1 20 16 3 1 1 2 
- - - - - - - - 8 30 I 4 - I 1 2 

4 17 45 22--------- 

1 15 26 9---------- 

1--112 6---------- 



Sil/ugo QUiicomiS Ogilhy, 1910, pp. 97-8 (Between 
Morcton Island and Hervey Bay). Whitley, 1932, p. 
344. Ladiges, Von Wahlerl, and Mohr, 1958, pp. 
164-5. 

Material Examined 

TYPES; Sillago robusta Stead. Not examined. The 
location of the holotype is unknown. 

Sifla&Q auricoffiis Ogilby. A photograph of a symype 
registered 13.406 in the Zoologisehe.s Siaatsinstiiut und 
Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg, was kindly provided 
by Dr W. Ladiges, and leaves no doubt that S. 
auricomis is a junior synonym of .S". robusia. 

O'ihek MATERIAL; Western Australia (254); WAM 
PO 936-59. Lat. 17 26 # S. Long. U1°S4 , E; CS1RO 
A12S4, Lxmotith Gulf, WAM PO 936- 59 Pt. Coulomb; 
WAM PO 46-55, WAM PO 107-131, WAM P13236-9, 
WAM PI 3245-51. WAM P 13994- 14000, WAM 
P14543-50, WAM P14577, WAM PI 505 1 -70. WAM 
PI 5079-92, WAM P151I3-27, WAM P15141-192, 
WAM PI5231-4L WAM P15354-68. Shark Bav; 
WAM PO 6 7 - WAM PI4177-8, WAM P14331 



north-east of Roltnest Island; CS1RO ("2627-8, 
Cottesloe, near Fremantle. Northern Territory (10); 
WAM P14450-55, WAM P14484-87, 50-56 miles 
south-west of Darwin. Queensland (27); WAM PO 
462-3, QM 112903 (7), Bribie Island; QNJ 19956, QM 
19988. Point Can w right; QM 12971. QM 1504-5, 
Double Island Point; CSIRO A1042. A1043, A1038, 
A1041, off Point Lookout, Stradbroke Island; (,)M 
1 12735 (3), WAM PO 459. Mercian Bay; QM 1 12902-3, 
South Head, Bowen; WAM P 14540-2. near Tweed 
Heads, AM 115557-186, Gulf of Carpentaria. New 
South Wales (28): QM 17758, Ballina; CSIRO A1634, 
Boiany Bay; CSIRO C3478, Botany Heads; CSIRO 
C1959 liden, Twofold Bay; AM IB2542 Evans Head; 
AM 1BI 126 Jervis Bay; QM 1297?. Manning Head; QM 
12972 Shoalhaven Bight; QM 111631 (20) Wallis Lake. 

Diagnosis 

A small species taken by trawl net. Dorsal rays 
16-18. anal rays 16-19, lateral line scales 64-70; 
13 abdominal, 20 caudal vertebrae, total 33. First 



v. 



MEMOIRS OF THP QUE! iNSI \ni> MUSfitlM 



Jot sal spine of large specimens with a sharp!) 
keeled anterior edge; the base yellow 
remainder of keel dark brown to blackish. 

DESCRIPTION 

(Based on 36 examples from Western Australia. 
SL 100- 166mm). 
Dorml tins XI, I, 16-18; anal fin II. 16-18 

( I able 2y). Lateral line scales 65-70 (Table 30); 
TR. 9-12 above, 10-12 bciow, 5-6 (usually 5) 
scales between L lat. and spinous dorsal fin 
origin. Cheek scales in 2-3 rows, all ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SI 
(modal frequency within parentheses): Greatest 
depth of body 18-22(20); head length 27 30(2,S); 
snout tip to ventral tin origin 28-32 (31); snout tip 
to spinous dorsal fin origin 31-36 (32 33); snout 
lip to second dorsal Fin origin 55-59 (57); snout 
tip to anal fin origin 55-60 (58); least depth of 
caudal peduncle 7-9 (8). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head; 
Length of snout 35-43 (3K), horizontal dtam 
of eye 22-26 (23-24); least width of interorbital 
18-21 (20). 

VEfcTEBfcAE: Western population l3+£ 
12 + 8-11, 13 abdominal, 20 caudal, total 33; 
eastern population 13 + 5-1 1 9- 15 (Tabic 31). 

Hi'i'F. in AtCOHOl Body creamy-yellow la 
sandy-while, white below, with a silvery-white 
mid-lateral band; meiitnes wilh a darker 

line below the suborbital shelf; fins wit horn 
markings, no dart spot at pectoral base. A small 
dark spot is usually present just above the base of 
the first dorsal I in spine, 

GDMRjR in I in- Body crcamy-ycllow to pale 
sund\ pink above, silvery white with reflect 
of blue and mauve below, the two colourl riutfpty 
separated by a silvery mid-latetal band ihai may 
be ill-dcliued In some specimens; head with a 
yellow blotch on the cheeks, bodv and lull 
generally without markings; a small lemon yellow 
to bright yellow spot on the base of the first 
dorsal spine, above which is ficquenUv a datk 
spot or blotch on the keel, Specimens from Shark 
Bay, Western Australia have the I ol low me 
colouration: Dorsal surface of the body pale 
lemon-yellow, with a faint mid-lateral silver 
band; some scry lain! pale gold stripes directed 
forwards at an angle of 50'- above the mid-lateral 
Ixind; cheeks yellowish with a darker mark and a 
fnint yellow spot on the upper margin of the 
OpcrCuJUtn.; spinous dorsal fin lemon, the base 
hyaline, a faint dusting of black spots on the 
upper margin, and a bright yellow spot at the 
in With two more yellow .spots on the first two 
Spines; soft dorsal with the outer half lemon and 



! \ dusted with black anal palc-wluU.-.h 01 
hvaliue; peclotal with the uppci kilt hughi 

ige to yellow, finely dusted with black, and 

[lie inner surface of the base having a bright 

w spot in some specimens; caudal with the 

margin and outer rays lemon, dusted with black. 

-ecimens from Waiffs I ake. New South Wales 

: the body coloured pale translucent sandy- 
brown to pink with blue reflections on scales; a 
silver) gild lateral band la present in all 
specimens. Head pale brownish above, finely 
dusted with dark brown; checks witb a bright blue 
i . mauve Mnpe under the eye, below which is an 
area of bright lemon-yellow ; preopercfe with blue 
reflections; opercle generally bluish, a darker steel 
blue spot just below opercular spine and a bright 
lemon spoi mote venttally; eve with the dorsal 
part of the iris purple-blue, the remainder of the 
ins silvei with yellow blotches. Belly pale silvery 
to white with blue and pink reflections. Dorsal fin 
with the base of [be fust spfue while, ! 

. ■ ■ '-i ' the spine hl.uk; upper part of 
lotMii daik speckled, the lower one 
rd of flu* membraneous portion of the fin with 
a briglll vellow horizontal hand, second doisal tin 
with b bright lemon to vellow horizontal band 
situated about one thud (he height oi the fin. 
Anal fin with the rays ;ind margin white, the b.ise 
yellow. Pelvic Has pale white to hyaline. Pectoral 
1 :i hyaline, the base with blue reflections and the 
axilla bright orange -yellow or lemon yellow 
Caudal fin pale lemon with a darkei speckled 
margin. 

Swimbi Aunt -k. I lie Western Australian 
specimens liavc a fairly simple swimbladder thai 
differs I'tom Queensland and New Souih V- i\ 
material in |a | itlg ;DTi n ll GTUl ^tensions; the 
two populations appear to have quite constant 
swintbladdct differences. The posterior eMcnsion 
is single, a duct-like process from the ventral 
sin lace to the urogenital aperture is present. 

i II H W'HK VAKI Wlt>\' 

This species can be divided into two distinct 
populations, one on the eastern roast of Australia 
and one along the western and northern coasts to 
the Gulf of Carpentaria. The shape of the 
swimbladder differs slightly (Fig. 11D-J) the 
development of the first dorsal spine keel in the 
eastern populations is quite pronounced but only 
very slightly so in the western population; I he 
posterior third of Lbc modified caudal vertebrae 
completely ftirrouAd die posterior extension of 
the swimbladder in the eastern population, but 
remain open venttally in the western population; 
the shape of the subotbital shelf differs (Fig. 



McKAY. REVISION OF S1LLAGIN1DAE 






13R-T). Additional specimens are required from 
the northern coast of Australia 10 determine the 
distribution of both populations, and a full 
osteological comparison is necessary before a 
subspecific name is provided for the western 
population. Both populations are structurally 
very similar and show obvious relationships, 
especially in colouration. 

Distribution 

Endemic to Australian waters from Fremantle 
northwards along rhe northwestern and northern 
coasts to the Gulf of Carpentaria (western 
population), and from eastern Queensland and 
New South Wales (eastern population). 

Biology 

Sillago robustu is an offshore species inhabiting 
sandy substrates. Inside Shark Bay, Western 
Australia, and Moreton Bay, Queensland, the 
species is quite common and is usually associated 
with Sillago maculata subspecies. In more 
northern areas in sandy-mud or turbid silty areas, 
Sillago lulea sp. nov. is the habitat equivalent. 
Inside Exmouth Gulf, W.A., Sillago iutea is very 
abundant on the mud or mud-sand substrates but 



is not found south of Shark Bay where clearer 
water is found, or north off Point Coulomb 
(\l°26'Q i \ 121°54*8 t *) in 28 metres on siliy-sand 
bottom. Sillago robusta attains sexual maturity 
below SL 13cm and rarely exceeds 17cm SL in 
Western Australia, although the species has been 
recorded to 28cm in length by trawling vessels 
working in depths of 35 fathoms off southern 
Queensland (Grant 1965). 

Remarks 

Sillago auricomis Ogilby is clearly referable to 
S. robusta on the basis of the original description. 
Ogilby, in unpublished notes on S. auricomis Lists 
the species with '? S. robusta ' alongside and 
notes that the species is in 'water of a moderate 
depth (II to 33 faih.) with a sandy bottom; not 
found inshore*. 

The specimen from the Gulf of Carpentaria 
CAM 115557-186), 16°40'S, 140 D 53'E; trawled in 
7 fathoms, is clearly of the Shark Bay, Point 
Coulomb, Darwin population, and not of the 
eastern Queensland population; the isolating 
mechanism is thus in the Torres Straits region and 
was probably the land barrier across the Straits 
during the last glacial period. 



TABLE 29: FREQUENCY Distributions of Dorsal and Anai Imn Rays o 
Sillago kobusta 



Dorsal rays 


16 


16 


16 


17 


13 


17 


17 


IS 


18 


Anal rays 


17 


IS 


19 


16 


17 


IS 


19 


17 


18 


Western Australia 


1 


- 


- 


3 


140 


IS 


- 


5 


8 


Northern Territory 


- 


= 


- 


i 


8 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Queensland 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


15 


I 


- 


1 


New South Wales 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


18 


2 


- 


I 



TABLE 30: Frequency DISTRIBUTIONS Of Lateral Line Scales OF Sin. \qq 

ROBUSTA 



Lateral line scales 



63 64 



65 



66 67 68 69 70 



Western Australia 
Northern Territory 
Queensland 
New South Wales 



- 


- 


7 


27 


19 


14 


10 


- 


- 


- 




3 


- 


I 


1 

3 


4 


2 


3 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


5 


8 


4 


3 


- 



TABLE 31: 


Vertebra! oi shama 


) ROBUSTA 














Abdominal 

Modified 
Caudal 


13 

5 

15 


13 13 
6 7 

14 13 


13 

8 
12 


13 
9 
11 


13 

10 
10 


13 
11 

y 


13 
12 

s 


13 
12 

7 



Western Australia 
Northern Territory 
Queensland 
New South Wales 



- 


12 


36 


- 


J 


1 


s 


•> 


- 


11 


10 


- 



33 



34 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Sillago {? Parasillago) boutani Pellegrin 

Boutan's Whiting 

Sillago boutani Pellegrin, 1905, p. 86 (Bale de Hatan, 
Along, North Vietnam). Fowler, 1933, pp. 
421-422. 

Material Examined 

TYPE: Sillago boutani Pellegrin. A radiograph of the 
holotype, registered 05-218 in the Museum National 
D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, was kindly forwarded by 
Dr M. Blanc. The vertebrae number 13-4-21, a total of 
38; dorsal fins XI, 1, 21; anal fin II, 22. 

Other Material: BMNH no No., China; BMNH 
55-12-27-109, China. 

Diagnosis 

A valid species with 38 vertebrae, 
13-14 + 3-4 + 21; dorsal fins XI, 1, 21; anal fin II, 
21-22. 

Description 

(Based on 2 specimens from China. SL 1 13 and 
71mm). 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 21; anal fin II, 21-22. Lateral 
line scales 76, 5 scales above and 12-13 below. 
Cheek scales in 2-3 rows, the first row largest and 
cycloid, the lower rows have many ctenoid scales. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body 14.9 and 15.6; head length 
27.4, 28.2; snout tip to ventral fin origin 31.0, 
29.6; snout tip to spinous dorsal fin origin 34.5, 
34.5; snout tip to second dorsal fin origin 55.0, 
53.5; snout tip to anal fin origin 54.0, 53.5; least 
depth of caudal peduncle 6.6, 7.4. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 38.7, 40.0; horizontal diameter 
of eye 19.4, 22.5; least width of interorbital 19.4, 
20.0. 

VERTEBRAE: 13-14 + 3-4 + 21, 13-14 

abdominal, 24-25 caudal, total 38. 

Swimbladder: Present but not examined. 

Colour in Alcohol: After Pellegrin; Body 
olive-yellow dorsally, paler on the sides and 
abdomen; cheeks and part of operculum orange- 
yellow; one or two lines of orange-yellow run 
along the sides of the body; fine uniformly 
greyish with some indication of dots on the rays 
o( the second dorsal. 

Distribution 

Gulf of Tongking, and China. 

Remarks 

This species is rare in collections, and may be 
misidentified as Sillago sihama as were the two 
specimens received on loan from the British 
Museum (N.H.). Sillago boutani may be 
recognised by the lateral line count of 74-76, and 



in having 38 vertebrae. Fowler (1933, p. 422) 
mentions that Sillago bostockii Castelnau is close 
to S. boutani in fin rays counts and number of 
lateral line scales. Sillago bostockii is a synonym 
of Sillago schomburgkii, and although the 
vertebrae total 37, the abdominal vertebrae in the 
latter species number 16 instead of the 13-14 
found in Sillago boutani. 

Sillago ( Parasillago ) schomburgkii Peters 

Yellow Fin Whiting 
(Figs. 4D, 11C, 13W, 140, 18) 

Sillago schomburgkii Peters, 1865, p. 319 (Adelaide, 

South Australia). Scott, 1962, pp. 187-8, fig. . 

Whitley, 1964, p. 43. Lenanton, 1969a, pp. 4-1 1; 

1969b, p. 5. 
Sillago bostockii Castelnau, 1873, p. 133 (Swan River 

and at sea, Western Australia). McCulloch, 1911, 

pp. 60, 63; 1912, pp. 87-8. Whitley, 1948, p. 19; 

1951, p. 65. 
Sillago bassensis: Waite, 1902, pp. 190-1; 1921, p. 101; 

1923, pp. 123-4; 1928, p. 7 (non Sillago bassensis 

Cuvier). 
Sillago frazeri Whitley, 1944, p. 270 (Leschenault Inlet, 

Bunbury, Western Australia); 1948, p. 19; 1951, p. 

65. Roughley, 1951, p. 49. 

Material Examined 

Types: Sillago schomburgkii Peters. Not examined. 
Location of holotype not known. 

Sillago bostockii Castelnau. Not examined. Location 
of holotype not known. 

Sillago frazeri Whitley. Holotype WAM P2698 in 
Western Australian Museum. SL 93mm; vertebrae 
16-10-11, total 37. Paratype WAM P2698, SL 68mm. 
Whitley (1951, p. 65) placed S. frazeri into the 
synonymy of S. bassensis, but an examination of the 
holotype and a radiograph of the axial skeleton shows 
this species to be a junior synonym of 5. schomburgkii. 
Whitley describes the juvenile colouration of this 
species. 

Other Material: Western Australia: WAM PO 3 
Mandurah; WAM PO 5 Mandurah; WAM PO 8-18 
Shark Bay; WAM PO 21-26 Shark Bay; WAM 
P0185-189 Dirk Hartog Island, Shark Bay; WAM PO 
303 Mandurah; WAM P7605 Carnarvon; WAM 
P7676-79 Denham, Shark Bay; WAM P12691-93 
Murchison River; WAM P12694-97 Shark Bay; WAM 
P12764-72 Bush Bay, Shark Bay; WAM P12816-21 
Bush Bay, Shark Bay; WAM P13186-88 Newbcach. 
Shark Bay; WAM P13I93-202 Newbeach, Shark Bav; 
WAM P14707-17 Denham, Shark Bay; WAM 
P14743-44 Denham, Shark Bay; WAM PI4752 Shark 
Bay; WAM P15031-46 Denham, Shark Bay; WAM 
P15194-221, Bibbadjiddy, Shark Bay; WAM 
P15212-221, Monkey Mia, Shark Bay; WAM P15558 
Geraldton; CSIRO C2303 Exmouth Gulf. South 
Australia: WAM PI 5265-77 Point Prime; WAM 
P15293-322, WAM P15323-44 Point Clinton; WAM 
P15505-519 Port Augusta; SAM F829, SAM F1238-9, 
SAM F1242, St. Vincent Gulf. 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



35 



Diagnosis 

Dorsal fins X-XII, 1, 19-22; anal fin II, 17-20; 
lateral line scales 66-76. Vertebrae total 37. 
Swimbladder without a median anterior 
extension. 

Description 

Dorsal fins X, XI, XII, 1, 20-22; anal fin II, 
17-20 (Table 32). Lateral line scales 67-76 (Table 
33); TR. 6-7 above, 8-10 below, 5-6 (usually 5) 
scales between L. lat. and spinous dorsal fin 
origin. Cheek scales in 4-5 rows, all ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL 
(modal frequency within parentheses): Greatest 
depth of body 19-22 (20); head length 24-27 (26) 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 26-30 (28-29) 
snout tip to spinous dorsal fin origin 30-33 (32) 
snout tip to second dorsal fin origin 51-56 (53) 
snout tip to anal fin origin 57-61 (58); least depth 
of caudal peduncle 9-10 (9). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 39-44 (42); horizontal diameter 
of eye 17-20 (18); least width of interorbital 16-19 
(17). 

VERTEBRAE: 16-17 + 8-11 + 10-13, 16-17 

abdominal, 20-21 caudal, total 37 (Table 34). 

Colour in Alcohol: Body sand-brown to 
pale silvery-grey, slightly darker above; a narrow 
pale silvery mid-lateral band, with a brownish 
band above, both bands may be indistinct; dorsal 
fins with rows of small brownish spots; anal fin 
pale yellowish to yellow with a white or cream 
margin; pectoral fin hyaline with some dusting of 
very fine spots, no dark mark or blotch at the 
base; caudal greyish. Juveniles have a series of 
dark blotches along the back and a row of 8-10 
dark brown to black blotches along the sides from 
behind the pectoral fin to the caudal fin base. 

Swimbladder: The anterior margin is incised 
and without a median extension or anterolateral 
tubular projections; the posterior extension is 



single and narrows rapidly to a slender tube; a 
duct-like process is present on the ventral surface 
(Fig. 11C). 

Geographic Variation 

No geographic variation was found between 
Western Australia and South Australian samples. 

Distribution 

Western Australia from Shark Bay southwards 
along the southern coast of Australia to eastern 
South Australia. One unconfirmed report of this 
species from Exmouth Gulf, W.A. 

Biology 

Sillago schomburgkii frequents inshore sand 
banks, bars and spits, and congregates in sandy 
hollows. At high tide this species moves in schools 
across the sand flats and retreats to the slopes of 
the banks when the tide falls. The Western Sand 
Whiting enters sandy estuaries in large schools, 
and may penetrate to the limit of the brackish 
water. At Mandurah and Leschenault Inlet, 
W.A.; large schools appear during the summer 
months. The Swan River once supported a large 
population of this species, but in recent years, 
apart from a few large catches during September, 
1967, S. schomburgkii rarely enters this estuary, 
as the substrate has become more muddy due to 
reduced freshwater discharge following the 
construction of reservoirs. 

Mr H. Nicholls (pers. comm.) informed me 
that schools of this species were netted in sandy 
areas to the north of Exmouth Gulf, and can be 
taken at Maud Landing, W.A. 

The spawning season commences in September 
and is completed by January in Shark Bay 
(Lenanton 1969a). The juveniles frequent the 
shallows of protected bays and inlets and move 
into deeper water at maturity. The species attains 
a length of at least 36 cm. 



TABLE 32: Frequency Distributions of Dorsal and Anal Fin Rays of Sillago 

SCHOMBURGKII 



Dorsal rays 
Anal rays 


19 

17 


19 

18 


20 

17 


20 

18 


20 

19 


21 
17 


21 
18 


21 
19 


22 
18 


22 22 
19 20 


Western Australia 
South Australia 


1 


2 


10 

2 


13 
5 


1 


27 
5 


52 
42 


2 
7 


1 

15 


7 1 


TABLE 33: Frequency 


Distributions of 


Lateral Line Scales 


of Sillago schomburgkii 


Lateral line scales 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 76 


Western Australia 
South Australia 


5 


11 
1 


15 
6 


13 

7 


18 
10 


6 

9 


5 
10 


2 
8 


4 


3 I 



36 



MEMOIRS OK THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



TABLE 34: Vertebrae of Sill \go scHOuttikckit 



Abdomiruil 


In 


16 


16 


16 


17 


17 


Modified 


s 


9 


10 


!! 


9 


10 


Caudal 


13 


12 


11 


10 


11 


10 


Western Australia 


\ 


31 


19 


I 


I 


1 


South Australia 


- 


14 


6 


- 


- 





Siliago (Parasillago) attenuate new species 

Slender Whiting 
(Figs. 12A. I3C, In) 

'•-\ lTEW M LX \MJNt !> 

fYPEsi Hoteype: SL ill nun saUecred bv Mi 

Erdrpan, April-June, 1948 a| 1 ana Bay. Ra* lanura 
upper bay Zaal Island, Persian Gulf. Registered USNM 
147959 in the United States National Museum. 
Pak.ytyi'is USNM 207449 {^) SL 110-189 mm, data 

bOVe, vnllL-crcd with huloiype, USNM 147959 (2 

exchange sp« imena now \VA\i po 491). USNM 
147835 113). SL +1.0-5&J mm, B mites south of AI 
Khobar. Persian Gulf. USNM I4759S, SL 63 mm, 
Chasehusf Uland, near Dumman, Persian Gulf. 

Dorsal fins Xll-XIIL 1. 19-21; ana! Tin II, 
1X-20: lateral line scales 73-77. Vertebrae total 
.17 J£ 

; i H KIHTION 

(Based on the holotype and 18 paratypes; 4 
paraiypes SL 106-189 mm, 14 juveniles SL 41-66 
mm. Characters for holotype given in 
parentheses). 

Dorsal fins XII-X1II, I, 19 21 (Xlt, 1, 21); 
anal II. 18-20 (II, 20). Lateral line scales 73-77 
(76). 

TR. 6-7 above, 8-10 below <6 H), 5 scales 
between L, lat . and spinous dot^al origin. Cheek 
scales in 2 rows, cycloid above, cycloid or ctenoid 
below . 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depxh of body 15-17 (15); head length 
26-2S (27), juveniles 27 29; snout tip to ventral 
fin origin 29-30 (3t), juveniles 28-31; snout lip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 31-33 (31), juveniles 
32-36; snout tip to second dorsal fin origin 54-56 
{55), juveniles 54-57; snout tip to anal fin origin 
56-59 (58). juvemies 55-60; least depth oj caudal 
peduncle 6 H (6). juveniles 6-7 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 38-41 (37), juveniles 34-39; 
horizontal diameter of eye 21-24 (23), juveniles 
25-29; least width of interorbital 15-17 (15), 
juveniles 15-18. 

VEKTEBfcAfc (Dissected) 15-2-20 (1), 15 
abdominal. 22 caudal, total 37 (Radiographs) 



total vertebrae 37 1 1). 38 (9), 39 (I). 

Colour in Ai.cohoi. (holotype), Body with 
faint blotches in two series laterally, the upper 
row of about 8-9 spots, ihe lower mid-lateral row 
■'ii H) spots; a row of indistinct spots or blotches 
along the base of the spinous dorsal fin; dorsal fin 
with the anterior most tnterspinous membranes 
dusted with black spots; membrane ot the second 
dorsal Fin sparsely dotted black; tips ol the caudal 
fin dusted black, other fins hyaline Juveniles 
with 3 well defined mid-lateral horizontal row of 
9 dimgate spot-; on body just below lateral line; 
between the lateral line and the base of the dorsal 
fins is a horizontal row of about 12 small spots 
ending before the last ray ol the dorsal fin; a 
longitudinal row of very small spots along centre 
of back, 2 spots predorsally, 4 spots below 
spinous dorsal fin. 8-9 spots below second dorsal 
fin and on caudal peduncle. {A darker spot is 
occasionally present on upper part of ihe opcrclc 
m some paratypes). 

Sw 1MB! ADDER: Almost transparent and a much 
more delicate structure than other Sillago species 
The one specimen examined has an elongate oval 
shaped bladder without anterior extensions and 
possibly without a posterior extension; the most 
posterior part of the swimbladder was damaged, 
but two rudimentary posterior extensions may be 
present as there were two round holes in this 
region. A delicate duct-like process was present 
on the posterior ventral surface (Fig. 12A). 

-■.iBMTION 

Persian Gulf. 

Remarks 

Little is known of this species and further 
material should be studied to elucidate the 
structure of the swimbladder and the osteology. 
Two species are known from the Persian Gulf, the 
other species is represented by USNM 147959 (D. 
XI, 1. 20-21. A. 11, 22; L. lat. 68-69, vertebrae 
14-7-13 and is probably related to S* sihama ; the 
swimbladder was not studied. 

Df hMV VllOfs 

From the la! in 'alien uai us* meaning 
attenuated. 

Sillago (Parasillago) asiatiea McKay 

Asian Whiting 
(Fig. 10E, 17) 

,o asiatiea McKay, I983 t pp. 613-4. 

Mailkiai EXAMINED 

Types Holotype: SL 131 mm, forwarded by Mr T. 
Wongratana from Chaiuabun. Gulf of Thailand, May, 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGIN1DAE 






1975. Registered QM 113263 in the Queensland 
Museum. 

PABATYPES QM 112913 (15), QM 113264 (4) 
Chantaburi. Thailand. QM 113262 (THUP 00344) 
Taipei Marlcets^ Taiwan. 

Diagnosis 

Swimbladder With three anterior extensions, 
the middle one projecting forwards and the 
anterolateral ones recurved backwards along the 
swimbladder; a single posterior extension. 
Vertebrae total 34. 

Description 

(Based on the holotype). 

Dorsal Tins XI, 1.21 (XI, 1, 20-22); anal tin 11, 
22 (II, 21-23) (Table 35). Lateral line scales 70 
(67-70) [Table 36). TR. 4 5 above 8-9 below, 4 
scales between L. lat. and spinous dorsal fin 
origin. Cheek scales in 2 rows, all cycloid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SI_ 
(range ol paratopes within parentheses): Greatest 
depth of body 17 (16-18), head length 27 (27-29); 
snout tip tO ventral fin origin 28 (28-30); snout tip 
to spinous dorsal fin origin 34 (33-35); snout tip 
to second dorsal tin origin 57 (55-58); snout tip to 
anal Tin origin 56 (55-57); least depth of caudal 
peduncle S (7-8). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head- 
Length of snout 36 (36-42); horizontal diameter 
of eve 22 (19-23); least width of imerorbital 19 
(18-21). 

VERTEBRAf 13-14 + 5-7+13-16, 13-14 

abdominal. 20-21 caudal, total 34 (Table 37). 

CoioiK in AtcoHoi; Head and body pale 
sandy brown to light fawn, an indistinct pale mid- 
lateral band is present on some specimens but 
absent on others; belly paler, almost white; 
opercle and preopercle transparent with a 
crescentic patch of line black-brown spots in a 
pigmented area the shape of the gill arches on the 
inside o\' the gill covet, showing through. I iris 
hyaline, the margins o\' the unpaired fins finely 
spotted with brown; the upper and lower margins 
of the caudal fin dark brown to almost black. 

SwiMKLAPnrT' An anterior median extension 
of the swimbladder projects forward to reach the 
basioccipital; at each side o( the base of the 
median extension is a simple tubular extension 
that is sharply recurved to extend along the 
swimbladder posteriorly for a distance of a tenth 
up to almost half its total length; a single tapering 
posterior extension projects into the caudal 
region; a duct-like process is present from the 
ventral surface of the swimbladder to the 
urogenital opening. 



Geographic variation 

This new species is known from two localities 
only. 

Distribution 

of Thailand and Taiwan. This species is 
possibly widespread. 

RrvtARKs 

This species was originally discovered in a small 
sample of Sillagt) from Taiwan, and at that tune 
was considered to be a subspecies of Sillago 
taponica. Further material from Taiwan 
contained a specimen of Si/lago japonica with a 
typical swimbladder and vertebrae count. Mr T 
Wongratana of th< Marine Fisheries Laboratory, 
Bangkok forwarded a number of Thai sillaginids 
For identification and this collection provided 
sufficient material of Siftago asiatica to be 
confident that the swimbladder shape and 
(ebrae counts tyere beyond the variation 
encountered in Si/lago japonica- The arches on 
the frontal bones are wider than those of S. 
japonica, and the suborbital shelf is of different 
shape. 

Siflaeo sorftfgd Dun and Sujatha is almost 
certainly a senior synonym of .V asiaiica bnt is 
reported to differ in having the swimbladder with 
shorter recurved extensions and the postcoelcrmic 
part of the swimbladder relatively shorter. 

DERIVATION 

From the latin "Asiaticus' meaning Asiatic. 
TABLE 35; Frequency Disannul ions of D i 

and Asm Fin Havs ■ \\ '■-,■ , (GO 'JA FTC -J 



Dorsal rays 
A nitl rays 




20 
21 


21) 
22 


21 
21 


21 
22 


21 
23 


22 
22 


23 


Taiwan 
Thailand 




1 


1 
2 


2 


13 


1 


2 


> 


TABLE 36' i-KroLTNcs Distributions of 

LiNX SCA1 ES Ol ICO ASJATICA 


I \TERA1 


Lateral line 


scales 








67 


68 


69 


70 


Taiwan 

Thailand 










1 


5 


1 
6 


5 


TABLL 37; 


VrktiuRM 


OF , 


'. ■ I i.-O AS1ATICA 




Abdominal 

Modified 
Caudal 










13 

5 
16 


14 

5 

15 


14 

6 

14 


14 

7 
13 


Taiwan 
Thailand 










1 


3 


1 
S 


■ 



38 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Sillago (Parasillago) soringa Dutt and Sujatha 

Soringa 
SUIaga soringa Duit and Sujatha, : 611-614, 

MVihKIAl. LVWUNC-D 

None. Holotypc (P7734/2) and four pararypes 
(F7735/21 in the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 

Diagnosis 

Swimbladder with three anterior extensions, 
the middle one projecting forwards and the 
anterolateral ones recurved backwards for a short 
distance along the sides; a single short posterior 
extension! Vertebrae total 34. 

Description 

(Based on Dutt and Sujatha). 

Dorsal fins XT, 1, 21; anai fin II. 22. Lateral 
line scales 64-68, TR. 3-4 above 9-10 below. 
Cheek scales in 2 rows uppei row cycloid, lower 
row ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body 17- 19; head length 28-24; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 30-31; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 34-35; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin origin 56-58. snout tip to anal 
tin origin 54-56; Proportional dimensions as 
percent o\ head; Length of snout 38-40; 
horizontal diameter oi' eye 24-29; least width o\' 
interorbital 19-21. 

VLKFEBRAfc 34; 5-7 modified. 

OnnijR. \n ALCOHOL: Dorsal side and upper 
Hanks grey brown, becoming paler laterally; 
lower Hanks and ventral side milkv white. 
Spinous dorsal with minute discrete black dots on 
membrane; they are more numberous toward 
distal half especially in the anterior half of the fin. 
In the soft dorsal, running parallel to and close to 
rhe anterior edge of each ray, is a more or less 
continuous grey band. The membrane of anal fin 
is also provided with minute black dots, but to a 
lesser extent than the spinous dorsal. Pectorals 
and ventrals hyaline with golden tinge. Caudal 
hyaline, with fine black doi. 

SWIMBLADDER: Lanceolate, with a median 
finger-like extension and a pair of recurved 
extensions at anterior end; the swimbladder bears 
a single tapering posteoelomic extension and a 
blind tubular duct which arises from the middle 
o[^ its ventral side, about 4/5 the distance from its 
anterior end, to terminate blindly near the vent. 

REMARKS 

Although Dutt and Sujatha (1983) regard their 
S. SOringa as a distinct species, the close similarity 



to S. usiaiica indicates that the latter species is a 
junior synonym o\' S. soringa. 1 retain both 
species pending a full study of the Indian 
material. 

Eftltagfl (Parasillago) indica McKay, Dutt and 

Sujatha new species 

Indiau Whiting 

(Fig. 5F ) 

Sittago pan'tsquumis: Dutt and Sujatha. 1980. pp. 
572-374. 

{nou Stlluvo fhjn-isquamis Oil!), 

Material Examt 

Hoi mvrt: Z ' Survey of India, Calcutta, SL 

I2 7 mm, Visakhapatnam, India, collected K. Sujatha, 
June fc 1979. 

PAD i.-laia as holotype) BMNH London, SL 

1 58 mm; QM I2D3K, SL 140 mm; MNHN Paris, SL 122 

■ 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal fins XI. 1, 21-22: anal fin II 22-23; 
lateral line scales 68-70; total vertebrae 34 of 
which 3 are modified: swimbladder with bifurcate 
anterior extension, anterolateral extensions 
recurved and extend \o ventral duct, posterior 
extension single; a dark band on sides sometimes 
broken into blotches. 

Description 

(Based on material above and description by 
Dutt arid Sujaiha). 

Dorsal fins \l, 1, 21-22: anal fin II, 22-23 
(21-23). Lateral line scales 68-70 (69-76, 80 in 
one). TR. 6 above, 1 1-12 below. 5 scales between 
L. lat, and spinous dorsal fin origin. Cheek scales 
in 2-3 rows all cycloid except For occasional 
ctenoid scale posteriorly. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth o( body I 8-21 ; head length 28-29; 
snout (ip to ventral Fin origin 30-31; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 33-34; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin origin 53-57; snout tip to anal 
fin origin 54-57; least depth of caudal peduncle 
7-8. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
I cngtn of snout 37-40; horizontal diameter of eye 
18-21: least width of interorbital 18-21. 

VERTI hkac: total 34, 3 modified. 

Coiolk in ALCOHOL: Body light tan with a 
dark brown to blackish band commencing behind 
the upper part of the opercle and curving down 
below the lateral line for approximately two- 
thirds lis length and then continuing slightly 
below or on the lateral line as a more or less 



M.kAY: REVISION OF S1LLAGINID\E 



39 



broken band or as distinct elongate spots or 
blotches, to hypural flexure; head and cbei 
with fine black dots; belly and lower sides may be 
densely dotted, almost blackish; intcrspinous 
membranes of flrsl dorsal fin with very nutter Oils 
black dots; wterradial membranes of second 
dorsal and anal fin dusted with black dots, most 
concentrated immediately before each ray; caudal 
dusted with black, lower lobe may be blackish. 

Swimbladder: Posterior extension single, long 
and tapering to a line point: anterior margii 
swimbladder with a well developed bifurcate 
■ ly trifurcate) median extension that extends 
anteriorly to each side of the basioceipital; a very 
Tine anterolateral tubular extension extends 
forward and then sends off a rather convoluted or 
almost straight branch that recurves around the 
lateral projections of the main body of the 
obladder to the ventral duel or beyond; (he 
main body of the swirnbladder has lateral horns 
entering the musculature anteriorly and is 
somewhat serrated posteriorly; the posteoelomic 
extension commences abrupt ly and continues 
posteriorly as a long gradually tapering fine tube; 
the ventral duct arises somewhat posterior to the 
pustcoe'omic extension and continue^ posteriorly 
and ventrally to behind the vent (Fig. 5E). Jn two 
of the three specimens examined the fine 
anterolateral rube that extends alongside the 
swirnbladder is joined to and appears to 
communicate with the second lateral horn-like 
projection of the swirnbladder. 

Distribution 
East and west coasts of India. 

Rem u 

Sittago indica. reported as S. parvtsquamis by 
Duu and Sujatha ( 19S0) can be recognised by the 
ctarl lateral hand, low number Of vertehrae and 
the complex swirnbladder thai resembles that of 
Sittago sihama but differs in having a su 
posteoelomic extension. This species was also 
reported from Karwar by the above authors and 
therefore has a wide distribution in India, it was 
not collected by (he CMFR1 survey at Cochin 
(McKay, 1980).' 

As this revision was delayed b\ lack of 
publishing funds I have included Sittago soringa 
Dutt and Sujatha (1983) and have taken the 
opportunity of describing Sittago indica pending a 
revision of the sillaginid fishes of India by myself, 
Dr S. Dutt and Mrs K. Sujatha. The sillaginid 
fishes of Sri Lanka and Burma are little known 
and require detailed study. 



Sillagu (Para*illago) macrolepis Bleeker 

Lao Whiting 

(Rg.4B, 13.1, LS] 

SWagO mucrolepis Blocker. 1859. p. 166 (Batavu: 
Bodeling, Bali); 1874, p. 12; 1877, pi. 389, fig. I. 
tfa > L86C1 p 246. Meytt, ItfS, p. 2« 
Bvertnann and Seulc, 1907, p- 87. pe Beaulbu, 
!913, p. 120. Fowl I ?28, p. 235; 1933, p. 41ft 
1934. p. 42:. Webd and de BeaufOpl, 1931, p. [71, 
Herre, 1933, p. 4; 1934, p, 5*,; 1953, p. 47y 
Munro. !95S. p Pi-; L'967, P J45, 

M.UTRi M h\AMi .' i 

TYPE Not examined. Location of die holotvp 
unknown. 

Other MAll -RIai .. New Bntain (4>; CSIRO A 
Ring Ring: CSIRO FOJ464, New Brilain; CS1R0 
FOJ8$7 (III. latasea. Philippines (10j. Mindanao 
USNM 5^903, Zamboansa; USNM 145117, r/ou.h Hi 
Mindanao River; USNM 150642 i2j, Dav&ti 
C AS-GVF 1606 (2). Dumagueie, Luzon; 2 specimen* 
from Manilla forwarded hv the National Museum. AM, 
1.17482-Olfl (9}, LavOTO Creek Guadalcanal, Solo 
Islands. 

Dl.UA 

A species with 51-56 lateral line scale, 19-21 
19-21 ana! rays, and no haema! 
bridge xlying the swimblaclder, 

I J! S< l- 1, ' 

Dorsal fistfi XI, t, 19-21; anal fin 11. 19-21 
(Table 38) Lateral line scales 51-55 (Table 39, 
TR. 4 above, 6 below. Cheek scales in 2 rows, 

mostly cycloid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth o\' body 18-20; head length 24-30; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 27-30; snout tip to 
Spinous dorsal origin 30-33; snout tip to second 
dorsal fin origin 52-55; snout tip to anal fin oi 
53-55; least depth of caudal peduncle 7-8 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length oi' snout 27-29; horizontal diameter ot c> t 
25-32; least width of inierorbital 17-18. 

VERTEBRAE: J 4 abdominal, 20 caudal, total 34. 

Colour in ,-M COHG1 - Yellowish, darker 
above, with a diffuse silver) longitudinal mid- 
lateral band; dorsals dusky with a narrow 
I ish margin. Juveniles with a series of small 
brown spots, one on each side along the back a! 
the base of the dorsal tins; first dot ai 
commencement of spinous dorsal, second about 
middle of spinous dorsal, third below fourth 
dorsal ray, fourth below eleventh dorsal ray. and 
last spot below end of rayed dorsal fin. 

SvviMHLMJiH K: Well developed 
anterior and posterior extensions in jUVi 



40 



MEMOIRS Of THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



duct-like process present from the ventral surface 
of the swtmbladder to the urogenital aperture. 
Adult specimens not yet examined. 

Distribution 

Recorded from the Indonesian Archipelago, 
New Britain, Solomon Islands and the Philippine 
Islands (see Fig. IS). 

Remarks 

Fivermann arid Seale (1907, p. 87) recorded a 
lateral line count of about 60 in rwo specimens 
from Bulan, Luzon; lateral line scale counts I 
have made on the material listed above range 
from 51 SS. Dim and Sujatha (1980, pp. 372-74/ 
record S, macrolepis from Visakhapatnam, India. 
Their material, with a lateral line scale range of 60 
to 67 and with 3 modified haemal vertebrae, 
belongs to S. lufea. 

TABLE 38: FREQUENCE DISTRIBUTIONS 01 DOftSAI 

\Ni: anm Fin Rays ok Sulago macrolepis 



Dorsal rays 
Anal rays 



19 

20 



19 
21 



20 

21 



New Bniain 
Solomon Islands 
Philippines 



TABLtf 39: FREQUENCE DlSTRiBl [QN5 OF Lateral 
I i-.» Si V! i ■■• i II SfU li 10 MACHOtm . 



Lateral line scales 



51 52 53 54 55 



New Britain 
Solomon Islands 
Philippine* 



Sillago ( Parasillago) argentifasciala Martin and 

Mpntalbaji 

Silver-Banded Whiting 
(Fig, 5A) 

Sillago argertttftisciatd Martin and Montalban, 1935, 
;m 226-7, pi, I. fig, 3 ti umbucan Island. 
Palawan, Philippines), Hare, 1953, p. 478, No. 
1175). 

MATIjRIAI Fwmim.o 

Types: The holoiype and rwo p types were 
deposited in the collection ot" the Fish and Came 
Administration. Ot Oeampo, National Museum, 
Manila informed me ipers. comtn. September 27, 1966) 
that the type specimens were destroyed during World 
War II. 

DIAGNOSIS 

Dotsal fins XI, 1, 17-18; anal fin 11, 17; lateral 
line scales 66. No irregular dark blotches on sides: 



a wide, brilliant, silvery, longitudinal band on 
each side of the body Cheek with three rows of 
scales, those on the upper row cycloid, and on the 
lower two rows ctenoid 

Description 

{Based on Martin and Montalban 1935). 

Dorsal fins XI, I. 17-18; anal fin 11, 17; lateral 
line scales 66. TR. 5 above. 9 below. Cheek scales 
in three rows, the upper row cycloid, the lower 
I wo rows ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent oi' SL: 
Greatest depth of body 19-20; head length 29-30; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 8. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 38-42; horizontal diameter of eye 
28-29; least width of interorbital 18. 

Colour IN Alcohol*. Dull silvery white; a 
well-pronounced, brilliant, silvery, longitudinal 
band, widest between the anterior portions of 
anal and second dorsal, runs on side from above 
base of pectoral to base of caudal; anteriorly this 
band is below the lateral line and posteriorly its 
upper edge touches it; breast and opercle brilliant 
silvery; upper portion of each dorsal spine and 
ray sparsely dotted with blackish; all other fins 
hyaline. 

Distribution 

Lumbucan Island, Philippines 

Remarks 

Si/lugo argentifasaata was not included in the 
large amount of material examined from the 
Philippines. Further collecting at the type locality 
and the designation of a neotype is necessary to 
resolve the identity of this species. This species is 
similar to Sillago internum any may prove to be a 
senior synonym; see also remarks under Sillago 

tngenuuct. 

Sillago (Parasillago) Uitea, new species 

Mud Whiting 
(Figs, I0D, I3H-I, 18) 

<■ matrolepb: Dim and Sujatha, 1980, pp. .372-74 
(non Sillago macralepk Bleeker). 

Mathriai ! . . ' ■ i i 

fypES Holmype; SL 130 mm, collected by trawl net 
in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, February, 1968, 
R.J. McKay. Registered WAN! P15928 in the Western 
Australian Museum. 

PARMM'izN (377): WANT PO 605-17, PO 752 3, PO 
822 64, Admiralty Gulf, WAM PO 676-©, Borda 
Island; CSIRO C2361, Dampier Archipelago, WAM 
P15S78 910, PO M5-^, PO 361-5, PO 386-142, PO 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



4 J 



492-583, PO 601-4, PO 683-735, CSIRO C2553, 
Exmouth Gulf; WAM PO 762, King Bay; WAM PO 
787-92, PO 960-9, Mitchell River area; WAM PO 465, 
PO 470-71, Nichol Bay; WAM PO 469, West Moore 
Island; Western Australia. WAM P14261, P14398, 
PI4480-3, P15093-106, Darwin, Northern Territory. 
WAM P13223, AM IB5890, QM HI 101 (4), Gulf of 
Carpentaria, Queensland. 

Other Material: (4) Visakhapatnam, India, August 
4, 1981, K. Sujatha, S.L. 108-120 mm. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 20-22; anal fin II, 21-23; 
lateral line scales 67-72. Normally 13 abdominal 
vertebrae. Swimbladder with a median anterior 
extension and with or without rudimentary 
anteriorly directed anterolateral projections; 
posterior extension single. A small species taken 
by trawl net. 

Description 

(Based on the holotype and 33 paratypes from 
Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. SL 120-141 
mm. Characters for the holotype given in 
parentheses). 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 20-22 (XI, 1, 22); anal II, 
21-23 (II, 22) (Table 40). Lateral line scales 67-72 
(69) (Table 41). TR. 6-7 above, 9-11 below 
(7/10), 5 scales between L. lat. and spinous dorsal 
fin origin. Cheek scales in 2 rows, mostly cycloid, 
occasional specimens with a few ctenoid scales 
posteriorly. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body 16-20 (17.3); head length 
27-29 (28.8); snout tip to ventral fin origin 28-32 
(29.2); snout tip to spinous dorsal fin origin 32-35 
(34.6); snout tip to second dorsal fin origin 55-58 
(55.4); snout tip to anal fin origin 52-56 (55.4); 
least depth of caudal peduncle 7-8 (7.9). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 37-43 (40.6); horizontal diameter 
of eye 20-24 (19.8); least width of interorbital 
18-21 (19.3). 

VERTEBRAE: 13-14 + 4-11 + 10-17, 13-14 

abdominal, 20-22 caudal, total 33-35 (Table 42). 

Colour in Alcohol: Body light sandy-brown 
above, pale brown to whitish below, with an ill 
defined silvery mid-lateral band; margins of 
scales may be slightly darker giving a vague 
meshwork pattern to the body above the lateral 
line; fins hyaline, the spinous dorsal fine 
membrane tipped with a fine dusting of black; no 
dark spot at the base of the pectoral fin. 

Swimbladder: A short median anterior 
extension and with the anteriorly directed 
anterolateral projections rudimentary or well 



developed; posterior extension single; a duct-like 
process on the ventral surface present. The 
swimbladder is similar to that of Sillago japonica. 

Geographic Variation 

Samples from Napier Broome Bay, and 
Mitchell River at Admiralty Gulf had fewer 
modified vertebrae (4-7) instead of the normal 
(7-10) of the other samples from Admiralty Gulf 
and elsewhere. Larger samples from Admiralty 
Gulf should be counted for verification. 

Distribution 

Exmouth Gulf, W.A., northwards and 
eastwards to Gulf of Carpentaria. India and Sri 
Lanka. 

Biology 

This species is commonly associated with the 
Banana Prawn Penaeus merguiensis de Man in 
northern Australia, and occurs most abundantly 
on muddy or very silty substrates. Large catches 
are taken by prawn trawlers but as the species 
attains sexual maturity at SL 100 mm (ripe 
females 104-120 mm) and grows to only 16 cm, 
the catch is of no commercial importance at 
present. 

Remarks 

Sillago lu tea may be confused with Sillago 
sihama and Sillago japonica. The swimbladder 
and cranial osteology is very similar to that of 
Sillago japonica, and occasional specimens have 
the same vertebrae count. Sillago lutea was 
originally considered to be a subspecies of Sillago 
japonica but as the majority of specimens have 13 
abdominal vertebrae and a total of 33 rather than 
14 abdominal vertebrae and a total of 34, and 
attain sexual maturity at a smaller size, the two 
species are believed to be valid ones despite an 
obvious relationship. The scales between the 
spinous dorsal origin and the lateral line afford 
reliable external determination of the two species 
as S. lutea has 5 scales and S. japonica 3. 

This species may be widespread throughout the 
Indian Ocean as a small sample from the southern 
and middle part of the Pearl Banks, Gulf of 
Mannar, Sri Lanka, appeared to be S. lutea with a 
vertebrae count of 13-9-10, but with a slightly 
more expanded tip to the subocular shelf. 
Specimens from India agree well with Australian 
material. 

Derivation 

From the latin 'luteus' meaning belonging to 
mud. 



42 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



TABLE 40: PftEQtlEW V DISTRIBUTIONS or Dorsal and Anai 1 : in RaYS Dt 

Sii t ax> • i i ni i 



Dorsal rays 


20 


20 


20 


21 


21 


21 


22 


22 


22 


Anal rays 


21 


22 


23 


21 


:: 


23 


21 


22 


23 


Western Australia 


6 


5 


_ 


! 


45 


16 


2 


5 


4 


Northern Territory 


- 


3 


- 


1 


H 


3 


- 


1 


- 


Queensland 


- 


1 


1 


- 


3 


- 






- 



TABLE 41: FREQUENCY Distribi tions or Latprm 1 r-.i Scuisoi 
Sill AGO LUTEA 



Lateral line scales 



67 



58 



69 



70 



71 



Western Australia 
Northern Territory 
Queensland 



["ABLE 42: VniUEBRA£OF &ILLAQQ i 



Abdominal 13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


[3 


L3 


13 


13 


14 


14 


14 


14 


Modified 4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


11 


8 


9 


y 


10 


Caudal 17 


15 


16 


15 


14 


12 


13 


14 


11 


12 


13 


10 


11 


12 


10 


12 


11 


12 


10 


Western Australia 1 


1 


j 


9 


n 


2 


48 


1 


- 


172 


'> 


- 


59 


3 


1 


- 


1 


3 


1 


Norihern Territory - 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


2 


2 


- 


3 


I 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Queensland 












1 




- 


2 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



SHIago (Parasillago) japonka Temminck and 

Schlegel 

Shirogisu or Japanese Whiting 

[Figs- 5B. 11A-B, 14Q. 16) 

SflfagO j&pOftfea Tetnmtnck and Schlegel, 1843, pp. 23, 
24, pi. 10. fig. 1 (Japan). Richardson, 1846, p. 223. 
Sleeker, 1853, p. 28; 1858, p. II; 1859. p. 163, 
1875. pp. 69-71; 1877, pi. 389, fig. 6; 1879, p. 9. 
Gtiniher, 1860, pp. 244-5; 1880. p. 66. Gill, 1861, 
pp. 503-4. Steindachner and Doderletn, 1885, p. 
192. Jordan and Snyder, 1901, p. 109; 1902, p. 487. 
Smith and Pope, 1906, p. 478. Jordan, Tanaka and 
deri I913, p. I87, Fowler and Bean, I922, p. 
69. Jordan and Hubbs, 1925, p. 248. Reeves. 1 927, 
p, 10. Mori, 1928, p. 6. Fowler, 1930, p. 654; 1931, 
p. 302; 1949, p. 51. Weber and de Beaufort, iftji, 
pp. 170, 173-4. Herre, 1945. p. 118; 1953, p 478. 
Bueseman, 1947, p. 38. Tomiyama and Abe. 1958, 
pp. 1171-6. Munro, 1958. p. PR; 1967, p. 347. 
Hotta, 1961, p. 62. Whitehead and Joysev, I967 r p. 
139. 

SitiagO sihama; Steindaehner and Doderlein, 1885, p. 
192 Nogusa, 1951, pp. 153-5; I960, p. 26. Ueno 
and Fujua. 1954, pp. 118-20, fig. 1. Okada, 1955 
p. 256. Hotta. 1961. p. 62, pi. 33, fig. 99. 
Takahashi, 1962, p. 24, pi. 57. Kawanahe, Saitc. 
Sunaga, Maki and Azuma, 1968, p. ^4. (non 
Sillago sifwmo FOTsfc&i) 

MAT! MAI EXAMI Jl i 

Tyim Siiluiio fuponuv Temminck and Schlegel. A 
radiograph of the lectotype selected by Boeseman (1947. 



p. 38), registered No. 367 in die Rijksnmseum van 
Natuurhjke HLsloirt. Leiden, was kindly forwarded by 
Dr M. Boeseman, the vertebrae count of 14-8-13 agrees 
well with material collected from Japan. 

OTHER Mutriu. Japan (92); WAM 15523-6, 
Tsuya/aki, Fukoka Prefecture, Kyushu; Dr Y. Okada 
56-136. 56-138. Aiura Coast* Seseho City, Kyushu; Dr 
Y. Okada 56-177-8, Kyushu, trawled; WAM PO 67-70 
Tokvo. USNM 44S76, USNM 26241, USNM 92787, 
USNM 75968, USNM 5752S, USNM 59670. USNM 
57591, AMNH 17126. Japan, no location; USNM 
>5, USNM 49085, USNM 49804, USNM 71349. 
Tokyo, AMNH 13165, Mivadsu, Kyoto; AMNH 888, 
qm H2698-9. QM 113261 (2), Sagaml Bay; AMNH 
3709, AMNH 3699. Shimnosaki market; AMNH 131*2, 
Toba, Honsu Island; USNM 151662, Mikawa Bay: 
USNM 22593. Awa: USNM 71343. Tsurunga; USNM 
71291, Shimizu; USNM 71348, K'agoshima; USNM 
59669, Yamagaw j, USN M 151811. Toba market; 
USNM 152510. Nagano Prefecture. 

Korea, (2); USNM 143407, Fusan. Taiwan (8); WAM 
PO 475, THUP 02372, QM 1 13276, Taipei; USNM 
76635, USNM 76636. Takao. China (5); USNM 87031. 
Foochow; USNM 130530. Ningpo, Chekiang; USNM 
130476. Tsmgtao, ShaiUuiuj; USNM S610I, Wen-chou. 
Fast Asia. USNM 37984, no locality. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal fins Xr, 1, 21-23; anal fin CI, 22-24; 
total vertebrae 35 (8-9 modified vertebrae 
overlapping posterior extension of swimbladcjer). 
Swimbladdcr with anterior projecting extensions 
and a single posterior extension. 



McKAY: REVISION OF S1LLAGIN1DAE 



I 



Description 

(Based on 24 examples from Japan. SL 103-208 
mm). 

Dorsal lias XI, 1, 21-23; anal fin It, 22-24 
(Table 43). Lateral line scales 70-73 (Table 44). 
TR. 5-6 above. 8-10 below. 3 scales between L 
lat and spinous dorsal fin origin. Cheek scales in 
2 rows, upper row usually cycloid. Lower row 
with cycloid and ctenoid scales. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL 
(modal frequency within parentheses). Greatest 
depth of body 15-19 (17-18); head length 26-29 
(27): snout tip to ventral I'in origin 28-32 (29); 
snout tip to spinous dorsal fin Origin 31-36 (33); 
snout tip to second dorsal fin origin 53-58 (56); 
snout tip to anal fin origin 53-57 (56); least depth 
oi caudal peduncle 6-8 (7). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snoui 34-42 (37); horizontal diameter 
of eve 19-25 (20); least width of inlerorbital 18-22 
(22). 

VERTEBRAE! 14+ 8-9 + 12-13, 14 abdominal. 
21 caudal, total 35 (Table 45). 

Colour in Alcohol, (from Tomiyama and 
Abe). Body greenish-grey above, the dorsal part 
of the head being the darker, and whitish below; 
anterior and posterior dorsal fins mostly hyaline, 
the membrane between the first and second and 
the second and third dorsal spines having minute- 
dark brown dots; margins of dorsal fins with a 
few dark brown spots; anal and ventral fins 
hyaline; pectoral fins hyaline with the upper 
margin and base dark greenish; caudal whitish 
with dark margins. 

Swimbladdhr: Posterior extension single, long 
and tapering to a slender point; anterior margin 
of swimbladder with a long median extension 
reaching to, or almost to, the basioceipital, and 
on each side at the anterolateral surface, is a long 
slender anteriorly directed blind tubular extension 
almost as long as the median one (Fig. 11A-B), 
Alt specimens examined from Taiwan and Japan 
(9) were as above, the specimens from Korea and 
China were not examined, identification in the 
latter examples was from vertebrae counts and 
external characters. 

Geographic Variation 

No geographic variation was observed. 

DlSIHIIil' 1 , ■'. 

Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan. 

Biotoov 

Nocusa (1951, 1960) has described the 
chromosomes and Ueno and Fujita (1954> the 



development of the egg; both authors referring 
the species to Sillago sihama. 

Sillago japonica is the common whiting of 
Japan, occurring in bays on shallow sandy Oats. 
It attains at least 22 cm in length. 

Remarks 

Sillago japonica is externally very similar fco 
Sillago sihama and has been frequently confused 
with the latter species. Positive identification is 
afforded by the shape of the swimbladder aud the 
vertebrae count. Cranial osteology, otoliths and 
hypural plate morphology also permits the 
identification of 5". japonica. I have examined 
only two species from Japanese waters, S. 
purvisyuamis and S. japonica. I suspect that a 
Third species may be discovered by trawling 
vessels 

Sillago asiatica sp. nov. has been confused with 
Sillago japonica ; the two species are sympatric in 
Taiwan. The swimbladder morphology and 
vertebrae counts allows the two species to be 
readily identified. 

TABLE 43: Fr£QU£ncy Distributions of Dorsal 
wo A\.m Fin 

RAYS Of StLLAGO lAPONlC \ 



Dorsal rays 


21 


21 


21 


22 


?-> 


22 


23 


23 


Anal rays 


22 


23 


24 


22 


23 


24 


23 


.24 


Japan 


5 


12 


1 


n 


50 


10 


1 


1 


Korea 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


China 


- 




- 


- 


3 




1 


- 


Taiwan 


- 


l 


- 


5 


4 


- 


- 


- 



TABLE 44: FRBQIJEKCY Distributions <»f LATEjtAJ 
Line Scales^op Siliaqq japomca 



Lateral Lino 
Scales 



68 69 70 71 72 73 



"A 



lapan 

Korea 
China 
Taiwan 



TABLE 45: VEBTfiARAE OJ 5«J \GO 
ja pOmca 



Abdominal 


14 


14 


Modified 


9 


8 


Caudal 


12 


13 


Japan 


9 


4 


China 


J 


. 


Taiwan 


2 





44 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Sillago (Parasillago) ingenuua new species 

Bay Whiting 
(Fig. 8C, 14P) 

Sillago argentifasciata, Shao and Chang, 1978, p. 9; 
1979, pp. 695-705 Dutt and Sujatha, 1980, p. 
371-375 (non Sillago argentifasciata Martin and 
Montalban). 

Material Examined 

Types: Holotype: SL 142 mm, collected form 
Chantaburi Gulf of Thailand, May 1975, explosives, 
forwarded by Mr T. Wongratana. Deposited in the 
collection of the Marine Fisheries Laboratory, 
Department of Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand. 

Paratypes; QM 112916 (14) data as above. 
Deposited in the Queensland Museum. 

Other Material: QM 116750-56, 116796-815, 
Torres Straits, 1974. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 17; anal fin II, 17; lateral line 
scales 66-70; no black spot on pectoral base; 
swimbladder with a short median anterior 
extension and about 5 small pointed anterolateral 
projections (Fig. 8C); no wide distinct silvery 
lateral band; 13 abdominal vertebrae; cheek 
scales ctenoid. 

Description 

(Based on the holotype and 14 paratypes SL 
105-158 mm. Characters for holotype given in 
parentheses). 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 17 (XI, 1, 17); anal fin II, 17 
(II, 17); lateral line scales 66-70 (69). TR. 3-4 
above 8-9 below (4/9). Cheek scales in 2-3 rows 
(3) all ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body 16-20 (18); head length 
27-29 (27) snout tip to ventral fin origin 28-32 
(29); snout tip to spinous dorsal fin origin 32-34 
(33); snout tip to second dorsal fin origin 55-57 
(57); snout tip to anal fin origin 54-58 (55); least 
depth of caudal peduncle 6-8 (7). 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 37-42 (37); horizontal diameter 
of eye 19-23 (23); least width of interorbital 19-20 
(20). 

VERTEBRAE: 13-9-11 (3), 13-10-10 (3), 

13-11-9 (1); 13+9-11+9-11; 13 abdominal, 20 
caudal; total 33. 

Colour in Alcohol: Head and body pale 
sandy brown to light fawn; no conspicuous mid- 
lateral silvery band; no dark spot at base of 
pectoral fin; all fins hyaline. The opercles are 
almost translucent and the dark brown inner 
surface shows through. Tip of snout dark in some 
paratypes. 



Swimbladder: A short median anterior 
extension is present in the 10 specimens examined, 
but appears to be longer in the larger individuals; 
five short, pointed anterolateral projections are 
present, the anterior two on each side projecting 
almost laterally, the posterior ones pointing 
posteriolaterally; a single tapering posterior 
extension; a poorly developed duct-like process is 
present ventrally. 
Distribution 

Known from the Gulf of Thailand, Taiwan, 
Northern Australia and India. 

Remarks 

Sillago ingenuua resembles Sillago lutea in 
appearance and like the latter species may not 
attain a large size. The fin ray counts and lateral 
line scale counts agree to some extent with those 
of Sillago argentifasciata, but the absence of a 
well defined silvery mid-lateral band, the ctenoid 
upper cheek scales, and the smaller eye of Sillago 
ingenuua suggests that both species are distinct. 
The swimbladder of this new species resembles 
that of S. ciliata and S. ana/is, but the lateral line 
scale count differs from both species and the 
vertebrae count if quite distinct. The frontal bone 
arches are considerably narrower than those of S. 
ciliata and S. analis, and the suborbital shelf is of 
very different shape. 

Derivation 

From the latin 'ingenuus' meaning free-born, 
in reference to Thailand. 

Remarks 

The peritoneum of 5. ingenuua is black-brown; 
S. lutea has the peritoneum pale, with scattered 
black dots or speckled areas. 

Sillago (? Parasillago) microps new species 
Small-eyed Whiting 
Material Examined 

Holotype: SL 170 mm, collected by D.K. Lawless, 
Taipei Market, Taiwan, registered USNM 208326 in the 
United States National Museum. 

Paratype: SL 198 mm, registered USNM 208327, 
data as above. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal fin XI, 1, 19; anal fin II, 19; a small eye 
(14-16% head length); vertebrae 13-5-16; cheek 
scales cycloid. 

Description 

(Based on the holotype and paratype. 
Characters of the holotype given in parentheses). 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



4S 



Dorsal fins (XI, 1, 19) XI, 1, 19; anal fin (II, 
19) II, 19. Lateral line scales (68) 69. 5 scales 
between L. lat. and spinous dorsal fin origin. 
Cheek scales in 2 rows, all cycloid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body (18.3) 16.7; head length 
(27.0) 27.8; snout tip to ventral fin origin (29.4) 
30.8; snout tip to spinous dorsal fin origin (34.7) 
35.4; snout tip to second dorsal fin origin (56.5) 
58.0; snout tip to anal fin origin (56.5) 57.5; least 
depth of caudal peduncle (5.9) 6.6. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout (40.2) 43.6; horizontal diameter 
of eye (16.0) 14.0; least width of interorbital 
(15.6) 15.4. 

Eye diameter as percent of snout length (37.8) 
33.3. 

Vertebrae.- 13 abdominal, 5 modified, 16 
caudal; 13+21; total 34. 

Colour in Alcohol: Body very pale brown, 
darker above, belly white; faint longitudinal pale 
brown lines on lower sides; a longitudinal 
greenish-grey mid-lateral band below lateral line; 
fins translucent, the spinous dorsal with a dusting 
of fine brown spots. 

Remarks 

This new species is known only from the 
holotype and one paratype from Taiwan, 
collected with two specimens of Sillago 
parvisquamis, and one specimen of Sillago 
sihama. The cranial osteology and swimbladder 
structure is unknown at present. 

Derivation 

In reference to the small eye. 

Sillago (Parasillago) vincenti McKay 

Estuarine Whiting 
(Figs. 4B, 12B, 13E, 14C) 

Sillago vincenti McKay, 1980, pp. 378-381, Fig. 1A-C 
(Kavanad near Neendakara, Kerala State, India). 

Material Examined 

Holotype: T116, SL 207 mm, Mandapam Camp, 
India. 

PARATYPES; AMS 1.21423-001 (1), CMFRI (4), 
USNM (2), WAM P26850-001 (1), Mandapam Camp 
(10); Kavanad, Kerala State, India. ANSP 143065 (2), 
BPBM 22899 (4), BM 1980.4.2.1 (1), CAS 45628 (2), 
CMFRI (31 defleshed), MNNH 1980-1121 (1), NSMT - 
P18653 (1), QM 117299 (2) IO 17778-9 (otoliths), RUS1 
(1), UMMZ 205336 (1), Mandapam Camp (10); Cochin, 
Kerala State, India. 

Diagnosis 

Body uniformly coloured, second dorsal fin 
spotted; anal fin II 22-24. Swimbladder with a 



single posterior extension, a short bulbous 
projection anteriorly with one to three 
anterolateral lobate or recurved projections; no 
tubular extensions anteriorly. 

Description 

Dorsal fins XI, 1, 21-23; anal fin II, 22-24 (see 
Table 46). Lateral line scales 70-74 (see Table 47). 
TR. 5-6 above, 13-14 below. Cheek scales in 2 
rows all cycloid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SL: 
Greatest depth of body 16-20; head length 26-29; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 26-30; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 31-35; snout tip to 
second dorsal fin origin 52-55; snout tip to anal 
fin origin 54-55; least depth of caudal peduncle 
6-7. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 40-46; horizontal diameter of eye 
17-22; least width of interorbital 16-19. 

Vertebrae: 14 abdominal, 4-6 precaudal, 
14-16 caudal; 14 + 20, total 34 (see Table 48). 

Colour in Alcohol: Body light olive above; 
belly whitish; margins of scales darker; spinous 
dorsal hyaline with the tip of membranes dusky or 
blotched; soft dorsal hyaline with 5-7 rows of 
blackish spots; anal fin whitish. 

Colour in Life.- Body and head sandy to light 
olive above, scale margins darker, sides silvery 
with a golden tinge, belly white; head with a 
deeper golden tinge, the snout, preorbital and 
suborbital areas translucent, showing the golden 
surface on the lachrimal and suborbitals below; 
the ventral surface transparent to translucent with 
a pink hue. Eye with a silver iris, somewhat 
golden on the outer surface, snout tip dusky and 
the frontal bones outlined with darker 
pigmentation; opercle yellowish-gold. Pectoral 
fin base yellow to gold. Ventral fins white with 
yellowish tips. Spinous dorsal fin hyaline with the 
tip of the membranes dusky and blotched with 
irregular areas of very fine dust-like black spots; 
rayed dorsal fin hyaline to pale white 5-7 rows of 
blackish spots that may become somewhat 
confluent in large examples. Anal fin hyaline to 
milk-white with white or yellowish tips. Caudal 
fin hyaline to dusky with the lower lobe and 
posterior margin darker in some specimens. Sides 
of body without a well defined silvery lateral 
stripe. 

Swimbladder: The anterior extremity has a 
very short bulbous projection with one to three 
anterolateral lobate or recurved projections (Fig. 
12B). The posterior postcoelomic extension is 
single and tapers to a point; a duct-like process is 



46 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



present on the ventral surface and continues to 
the vent. 

Distribution 

Estuarine areas of Kerala State, India. 

Biology 

McKay (1980) reported females of 250 to 277 
mm running ripe in late January to early 
February. It occurs with Sillago sihama 
apparently in mixed schools on muddy substrates. 

Remarks 

This species is very similar in external 
morphology to Sillago sihama. A dissection of the 
posterior part of the swimbladder is required for 
field identification. 

TABLE 46: Frequency Distributions of Dorsal 
and Anal Fin Rays of Sillago vincenti 



Dorsal rays 21 
Anal rays 22 


21 
23 


22 
22 


22 
23 


22 
24 


23 
22 


23 
23 


23 
24 


Kerala State 2 


1 


26 


31 


3 


1 


9 


1 



TABLE 47: Frequency Distributions of Lateral 
Line Scales of Sillago vincenti 



Lateral Line Scales 70 71 


72 


73 


74 


Kerala State 4 31 


25 


11 


3 


TABLE 48: Vertebrae of Sillago 


VINCENTI 




Abdominal 14 
Modified 4 
Caudal 16 


14 

5 
15 


14 

6 

14 


14 

4 

17 


Kerala State 1 


15 


2 


1 



Genus Sillaginodes Gill, 1861. 

Sillaginodes Gill, 1861, type by original designation 
Sillago punctata Cuvier, 1829. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal spines XII to XIII, dorsal rays 25 to 27; 
anal fin with II spines and 21 to 24 rays; lateral 
line scales 129 to 147; swimbladder with a 
posterior extension but no duct-like process to the 
urogenital aperture; vertebrae 42 to 44. One 
species. 

Sillaginodes punctata (Cuvier) 

King George or Spotted Whiting 
(Fig. 5C, 12F, 13X, 14S, 16) 
Sillago punctata Cuvier. in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 
1829, p. 413 (Port King George). Quoy and 
Gaimard, 1834, pp. 671-2, pi. 1, fig. I. Gunther, 



1860, p. 245. Schmeltz, 1869, p. 16; 1879, p. 44 
Castelnau, 1872, p. 93. Klunzinger, 1879, p. 370 
Macleay, 1881, p. 201. Waite, 1904, p. 31; 1921, p 
100, fig. 152. Stead. 1906, p. 574; 1908, p. 66, pi 
36. McCulloch, 1921, p. 60. Fowler, 1930, p. 654 
Roughley, 1951, p. 49, pi. 17. Parrott, 1959, p 
201. 

Sillaginodes punctata: Gill, 1861, p. 505. 

Sillaginodes punctatus: McCulloch, 1927, p. 50, pi. 21, 
fig. 183a. Waite, 1928, p. 7. Fowler, 1933, pp. 
431-2. Sandars, 1945, p. 107. Whitley, 1948, p. 19; 
1955, p. 331; 1962, p. 105; 1964, p. 43. Scott, 1962, 
pp. 186-7. 

Isosillago maculata Macleay, 1879, p. 34, pi. 4, fig. 3 
(King George Sound). 

Isosillago punctata: McCulloch, 1911, pp. 59-60. 

Material Examined 

Types: Sillago punctata Cuvier. A radiograph of the 
two syntypes registered A. 3148 in the Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, forwarded by Dr M. Blanc, 
shows the vertebrae to number 21-6-17 and 21-7-16. 
The largest specimen approximately 285 mm in total 
length is here designated lectotype. 

Isosillago maculata Macleay. The location of the type 
specimens are unknown, Stanbury (1969) makes no 
mention of the types, and they are not listed in the 
collection of the Australian Museum. McCulloch (1911, 
p. 60) made an examination of the types and states 'I 
find that the number of spines and rays in the dorsal and 
anal fins are incorrectly stated in the original 
description. There are thirteen spines in the first dorsal 
and one spine and twenty-four or five rays in the 
second; the anal has twenty-four spines and rays in all. 
In these and all other characters they agree with Sillago 
punctata, Cuv. and Val., \ 

Other Material: Western Australia (53); WAM PO 
4, Mandurah; WAM P7197, Bussleton; WAM P7898, 
Denmark; WAM PO 71, Frenchmans Bay, Albany; 
WAM PO 73-91, Oyster Harbour, Albany; WAM 
P15030, Oyster Harbour, Albany; WAM P15684-7I2, 
Albany. South Australia (121); WAM PO 225-39, 
Denial Bay, Ceduna; WAM P15384-422, Baird Bay; 
WAM P15643-53, Port Lincoln; WAM PO 246-63, 
Port Lincoln; WAM PI 5345-51, Dutton Bay; SAM 
F1874-5, Cowell; SAM F1894 (2), F1899 (2), F1903 (2), 
F1905 (2), F1925 (3), Shallowwater Point (Shoalwater 
Point); WAM P15494-504, Port Augusta; SAM 
F1861-2 (2), F1928 (3), Wallaroo; SAM F1927 (2), near 
Moonta. Victoria (31); WAM PO 642-53, Port Phillip 
Bay; WAM PO 736-46, San Remo; WAM PO 802-9, 
Port Franklin. 

Diagnosis 
A large species with 129-147 lateral line scales. 



McK \V: REVISION ( >I 511 1 M.IMDAfc 






Description 

(Based on 35 examples from Oyster Harbour, 
near King George Sound, Albany. Western 
Australia. SL 223-268 mm). Total known 
variation within parentheses (see Tables 49, 50). 

Dorsal fins X1I-XIII. ], 25-27 (XI1-X1II, L 
25-27); anal fin II, 21-23 (II, 21-24). Lateral line 
scales 129-141 (129-147) (usually 134-139). TR. 
13-17 above, 16-20 below, 8-10 scales between 
the L. lat. and spinous dorsal origin. Cheek scales 
in 6-8 rows, the anterior scales cycloid, the 
posterior scales ctenoid. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of SI ! 
Greatest deptii ot body 14-18; head length 24-26; 
snout tip to ventral fin origin 26-29; snout tip to 
spinous dorsal fin origin 30-32; snout tip to 
Second dorsal I'm origin 49-52; snout tip to anal 
fin origin 57-60; least depth of caudal peduncle 
5-6. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head; 
Length of snout 40-45; horizontal diameter of eye 
17-21; least width of interorbital 13-16. 

Vi HitBKAh: 20-23 abdominal, 5-7 modified, 
14-18 caudal; 20-23 + 21-23, total 42-44 (Table 
51). 

Dm nun in A i < OHOl.: Pale golden-brown, 
greyish-brown, or dark olive-grccn above; 
tthitistl, pale brown ot silvery below with 
reflections of mauve, blue and green when Fresh; 
back and upper sides with oblique rows of small 
round dark brown to rusty-brown spots, lower 
sides with open-spaced rather scattered round 
dark spots; belly white, without spots; dorsal fins 
uniform dark greenish-brown to light brown 
SOtrietlmes spotted with darker brown; anal tin, 
pectorals and ventrals pale brown to hyaline; 
caudal greenish to brownish, finely dusted with 
brown. 

Swimhi Ani'hK; Veiy elongate with a single 
slender tapering posterior extension; (wo 
anrerolaferal extensions or horns protect 
anteriorly; anterior part o( the swimbladder is 
bound to the abdominal cavity by short collagen 
fibres; no duct-like pioecss to the Urogenital 
aperture is present Cuvier (1829) states 
ineoneetly that the rear of the swimbladdcr is 

forked. 

Geographic variation 

No geographic variation was encountered, 
Sandars (1945, p. 107) found that S. punctata was 
host to two species of monogenetie parasites, 
Mnrocotyle parasillaginae and M, sillaginac and 

Itetj 'Although the two parasites arc vci v elo^elv 
related, they arc certainly different specie*, but 



whereas A/, sillavjnae occurs only on fish from 
Victorian wateis, M. ifurusttlaginae is from fish 
from Western Australian waters'. The 
distribution ol both parasites may be of value in 
delimiting two populations of S, punctata for 
closer study. 

DlSTRIftUTION 

Juticn Bav, Western Australia southward\ 

g the southern coast of Western Australia, 

South Australia and Victotia. Ogflbj ( 1893, p. 9s>i 

records this species as occasionally reaching as far 

north as Port Jackson, N.S.W. 

Biology 

Juveniles arc common in tidal estuaries and 
creeks, particularly those which flow into semi- 
enclosed bays and coastal 'lakes'. The juveniles 
appear to be most abundant on Zostera and 
Posidonta seaweed banks in shallow sheltered 
areas, moving out into the deeper water of the 
bays at a size of about 10 cm. Large catches of 
small fish of 10-20 cm are made in the sheltered 
areas of large bays, especially during the summer 
months, the larger fish although present 
throughout the bay, are concentrated in deeper 
water of 1 to 10 fathoms, generally tn sand gutter:-. 
or adjacent to banks. The largest adults observed 
are normally solitary fish in deepeT water of 7 to 
10 fathoms where they are associated with broker 
bottom, weedbanks or sand gutters. The offshore 
range of the species is not known; adult fish ai* 
taken along the coastal beaches and may enter 
estuaries in considerable numbers during March 
in Western Australia. Adult females with 
developed ovaries ate raiely neued in shallow 
water but have been raptured by spearfisherme;i 
in 3 to 5 fathoms in coastal bays and offshore 
waters in south-western Western Australia. 

Maximum weight attained is about 10 lbs Scott 
( 1962) reports that this fish can atain a length in 
excess of 70 cm. One 9 lb, fish was i.iken by spear 
at Trigg s Island. Western Australia. 

Important commercial fisheries arc developed 
in St. Vincent and Spencer Gulfs, at Kangaroo 
Island, and the west coast bays to Ceduna, South 
Australia. Smallci fisheries occur In Victoria, and 
at Albany and Bunbury, Western Australia 

Genus SUIaginopsis Gill 

Sillaginopsis Gift, 1861, p. 505, type bv original 
designation. Siilago domirm i uvier. 1 B2$ 
( = Cheilodipients parujus Hamilton Buchanan, 
1H22). 

SUliiffirti m/m. | | e } a LS74, p. 63, iyjn- by original 
designation. Sillago dfitnino Cuvier, 1H2 1 > 



48 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



TABLE 49: Frequency Distributions op Dorsal and Anai Fin Rays Of 

iSn LAGINODES PUNCTA TA 



Dorsal rays 
Anal ravs 



Western Australia 
South Australia 
Victoria 



25 


25 


25 


26 


26 


26 


27 


'r: 


27 


21 


22 


23 


21 


■77 


23 


22 


23 


24 


4 


5 


- 


1 


25 


6 


6 


3 


- 


5 


16 


3 


3 


62 


14 


- 


"V 


1 


- 


3 


1 


- 


12 


4 


1 


7 


- 



TABLE 50: Frequency Distributions or Lateral Line Scales or Sillagisodes punctata 



Lateral line scales 


i:s 


130 


132 


134 


136 


L3K 


140 


142 


144 


146 




129 


131 


133 


135 


137 


139 


141 


143 


145 


147 


Western Australia 


L 


3 


_ 


6 


8 


5 


3 


- 


- 


- 


South Australia 


1 


6 


6 


8 


14 


7 


3 


3 


2 


- 


Victoria 


- 


- 


1 


•y 


- 


1 


1 


- 


1 


2 



TABLE 51; Vertebrae of SjllaGInODES PUNCTATA 



Abdominal 20 


21 


21 


21 


21 


21 


21 


21 


21 


IT 

ttJL 


77 


22 


■>"> 


22 


22 


23 


Preeaudal 6 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


5 


5 


6 


6 


7 


7 


6 


Caudal 17 


16 


17 


18 


16 


17 


14 


15 


16 


16 


17 


15 


16 


14 


15 


15 


Western Australia - 


_ 


— 


_ 


3 


1 


_ 


3 


I 


3 


_ 


? 


11 


1 


1 


1 


South Australia 1 


- 


2 


~\ 


4 


- 


1 


2 


1 


5 


3 


4 


I 


- 


2 


- 


Victoria 


I 


- 


- 


I 


3 


- 


1 


2 


2 


3 


5 


9 


3 


- 


- 



Diagnosis 

Head much depressed; eyes small and partly 
covered by the constricted orbits; mouth small 
with the lower jaw shorter than the upper; teeth 
villiform, in bands on jaws and vomer, the outer 
row of teeth in the jaws slightly enlarged, with the 
two anterior-most teeth in the upper jaw larger 
than the remainder. Scales small, the lateral line 
with 84 to 90 scales. Dorsal fins with 10 spines, 
the second filamentous, and 25 to 27 rays; anal 
fin with 2 spines and 24 to 27 rays. Branehiostegal 
rays 5 or 6. Swimbladder absent or vestigial 
Vertebrae 15 + 27 = 42. One species. 

Sillagitiopsis panijus (Hamilton-Buchanan) 

Gangetic or Flathead Whiting 
(Figs. 5D, 13Y-Z, 14R, 16) 

Cheilodiplerus panijus (Hamilton-Buchanan. 1822, pp. 

57, 367 (Ganges estuaries). Day, 1876, p. 315. 
Siiiago dom'ma Cuvier, fa Cuvicr and Valenciennes, 

1829, p. 415, pi. 69 (PondicherryL Swainson, 1838, 

p. 205. Cantor, 1850, p. 1003. Bleeker, 1853, p. 34; 

1859. p. 167_ dumber, I860, p. 246. Day, 1869, p. 

299; 1876, P- 315; 1878, p. 264, pi. 58, fig. 3; 1888, 

p. 791. Lloyd 1907, p. 228. Mookerjee, Ganguly 

and Mazumdar, 1946, p. 564. 
Sillaginopsis domina. Gill, 1861, p. 505. Fowler, 1930, 

p. 654. 



SUlaginopsis panijus, Fowler, 1933, pp. 432-3. Palckar 
and Bal, 1955, p. 128. Misra, 1962, pp. 231-2. Dutt 
and Sujatha, 1980, pp. 371-374. 

Siiiago panijus. Day, 1876, p. 315 footnote. 
Krishnayya, 1963, pp. 391-412. 

Material EXAM! I 

Types: Cheilodiplerus panijus Hamilton Buchanan. 
Location of holotype unknown. 

Sillago dominu Cuvier. Holotype dried skin registered 
A5450 in the Museum National IVHistoire Naturelle, 
Paris. No veriebrae count is possible. 

Oiher Material WAM P 15370-9 (15) Bay of 
Bengal. SOSC 4 (5), Lat. 21°52'N, Long. 91°36'E. 

Diagnosis 

Dorsal Fins X, 1, 26-27; anal fin II, 24-26; 
lateral line scales 84-88; total vertebrae 42; head 
greatly depressed, eye very small. 

Description 

(Based on 10 examples from ihe Bay of Bengal 
SL 95-293 mm). 

Dorsal Fins, X, l f 26-27; anal fin II, 24-26. 
Lateral line scales 84-88. TR. 6 above, 13 below, 
6-7 scales between L. lat. and spinous dorsal 
origin. Cheek scales in 3-4 rows, cycloid and 
ctenoid (mostly ctenoid, but some cycloid scales 
on all examples). 



V Kl VISION OF SlLLA(..lMD-\r 



49 



Proportional dimensions as percent of SL 
(modal frequency within parentheses). Greatest 
depth of body 14-16 (14-15); head length 2&-30 
(29); snout tip to ventral fin origin 30-33 (31); 
ll tip |Q spinous dorsal fin origin 31-34 (33); 
snout tip to second dorsal fin origin 45-47 (47); 
snout rip to anal fin origin 51-54(54); least depth 
of caudal peduncle 6. 

Proportional dimensions as percent of head: 
Length of snout 40-43 (43); horizontal diameter 
of eye 3-1 1 (7), a specimen of 95 mm was 10.7, all 
others were less than 7,4; least width oj 
interorbital 14-18 (18), 

VtKTi bkai: 15 abdominal, 27 caudal, total 42. 

SWIMBLADDER: No swimbladder was observed, 
although Cuvicr (1929) states "I he air Madder 
ears like a silvery dot. the size of a pin-head, 
suspended above the base of the stomach in a 
transparent and very thin membrane*. No 
accessory duct. 

Colour in Alcohol: Body light brown above, 
paler to whitish below. Fins pale brownish with a 
light dusting of fine black spot, 

Distribution 

Pondieherry northwards along the Coromandel 
coast, Ganges delta, Burma, southwards ro 

Malaysia and rarely ro The Indonesian 
Archipelago. 

Biokho 

Sillaginopsis pan'ijus attains a length of 44 cm, 
and is a commercially important fish captured by 
nets and longlines in the Plooghly and Ganges 
delta. Krishnayya (1963) studied the otoliths and 
size-age compositions ot the commercial catches 
trom the Kofl i tuary and arrived at the 

conclusion that S. pamjus probably spawns twice 
a year during the months November 10 February 
and August to September and the juvej 
migrate towards the upper reaches during March 
and April and during December -a here they 
remain for two to three months. Sexual maturity 
is attained at a length ol about 120 mm. Cuvier 
( IK2V) found numerous small fishes and Crustacea 
in the gui contents Mocriterjee, Ganguly and 
Mazumdar < 1946) recorded the gut contents ol Id 
specimens and found them to be feeding primarily 
on crustacea, algae, and fish. 

Remarks 

The small eyes, flattened head, filamentous 

nd dorsal spine, and the lack of a 

swimbladder suggests demersal adaptation to 

muddy water conditions. Fowler (1933) placed 

i his species in a separate subfamily 



Sillaginopsinae, a procedure not adopted in this 
revision. 

TABLE ^2: FfcEQI tvv Disiribltion or DoHSal 
\NAI FlNRAtSOl SlLLAGtNOP&tS PANfJtX 



Dorsal rays 



26 


26 


26 


27 


2" 


1 


25 


26 


25 


26 



Bav ot Benjul 



TABLE 53*. FftEqUENC\ DISTRIBUTIONS OJ LATBRW 

1 ,m --.. «■ i cw Sou iGwppsn r itfuitf 



Lateral lint scales 



84 85 86 87 



Hay of Bengal 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

1 wish to express my appreciation to the large 
number of colleagues who assisted mc in 
providing specimens for study or who through 
friendly discussion encouraged me to conn, 
this revision (abbreviations refer to institutions 
and are listed above). Dr T. Abe, Tokaiku 
Fisheries Research Laboratories, Tokyo; Dr G.R. 
Allen, WAM: Dr KM. Bailey, University of 
Michigan; Dr M. Blanc, MNHN; Mr B.K. 
Bowen. Western Australian State fisheries and 
Wildlife Department; Mr B. Campbell, QM; Mr 
N J. Cross, Western Australia; Dr W.N. 
Lschnicvcr. CAS, Dr T.H. Fraser, USNM; Dr 
W.C. Freihofer, SU; Dr R.W George WAM; Di 
A.J. Gilmour, Fisheries and Wildlife 
Department, Victoria; Mr D.I Grey, Fish 
Department, Northern Territory, Dr M. Hayashi. 
Yakosuka City Museum, Japan; DrC.L. Hubbs, 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Mr B. 
Mutchins, WAM; Dr H. Ida, University ol 
Tokso; Mrs P. kailola. FRSK; Dr L.W. Knapp 
SOSC; Dr E.A. Laehnet , USNNfc Mr R. 
Lenanton, Western Australian Fisheries 
Laboratories; Mr J.L. Maclean, Queensland; Dr 
B, Malcolm, State Fisheries Laboratories, 
N.S.W.; Mrs L. Marsh, WAM; Dr A.G.K 
Menon formerly of ZS1C; Mr H . Moore, DA 
Daru, Papua New Guinea; Mr l.S.R. Munro, 
C S1RO; Dr L Nakarnura, Kyoto University, 
Japan; Dr J. Nielsen, UZMK; Dr G.B. Ocampo, 
Philippines; Mr D. Oelriehs, Tewaniin, 
Queensland; Dr V, Okada, Fisheries Rest 
Laboratories, Tokai University, Japan; Dr D. 
Pathansali, Malaysia; Dr J. Paxton. AM; Mr R. 
Plummcr, Western Australia; Dr M.R. Quresht. 
Pakistan; Dr J.L. Randall, Berniec P. Bishop 
Museum. Hawaii; Dr W.D.L. Ride, former !■ 



sn 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



WAM; Mr E.O.G. Scott, Queen Victoria 
Museum and An Gallery, Launccsron; Mr T. 
Scott, formerly SAM; Dr Sema, Singapore; the 
late Professor J.L.B. Smith, RUSI; Dr W.F. 
Smith- Vaniz, Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadephia; Dr W. Soetikno, Museum 
/oologicum Bogoriense, Indonesia; Mr E.G. 
Stioton. Bournemouth, Hampshire, U.K.; Dr 
P.L. Talwar, ZSIC, Dr Y. 1'ominaga, University 
of Tokyo, Japan; Dr .UP. Tonnier, 
O.R.S.T.6.M., New Caledonia; the late Mr. 
Ci.P. Whitley, AM; Mr T. Wongrataua, Marine 
Fisheries Laboratories r Bangkok; Dr Ming-jenn 
Yu, THUP 

I am also indebted to Mrs P.L- Johnson, 
formerly of the Western Australian Museum for 
her illustration of the holotype of Sillago vtttuiu. 
Mrs Janet Byrne typed the manuscript, and Mr A, 
Easton photographed illustrations of the 
swim bladders. 

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McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAF 






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McKAV: R[- VISION OF SiLLAGlNID 



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1928. Checklist of the marine fishes of South 

Australia. J. pan-Pacif. Res. Instn. 3 (I): 3-10. 
Weber. M. and Beaufort, L.F. de., 1931. 'The fishes 

of the Indo-Australian Archipelago'. 6. pp. 448. 

(E.J. Brill : Leiden). 
Whitehead, P. J. P. and Joysey, K.A., 1967. The 

Vachell collection of Chinese fishes in Cambridge. 

Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. Zool. 15 (3): 123-65. 
Whitley, G.P., 1928. A checklist of the fishes of the 

Santa Cruz archipelago, Melanesia. J. pan-Pacif. 

Res. Instn. 3 (1): 12. 
1932a. Studies on ichthyology, No. 6. Rec. Aust. 

Mus. 18: 321-48. 
1932b. Fishes. Sci. Repts. Great Barrier Reef Exped. 

4(9): 267-316. 
1943. lchthyological notes and illustrations (Part 2). 



Aust. Zool. 10: 167-87. 
1944. New sharks and fishes from Western Australia. 

Aust. Zool. 10: 252-73. 
1948. A list of the fishes of Western Australia. Fish. 

Bull. West. Aust. 2: 1-35. 
1951. New fish names and records. Proc. R. zool. 

Soc. N.S.W. 1949-50: 61-8. 
1954. New locality records for some Australian 

fishes. Proc. R. zool. Soc. N.S. W. 1952-3: 23-30. 
1962. 'Marine fishes of Australia' L 142 pp. 

(Jacaranda Press : Brisbane). 
1964. A survey of Australian ichthyology. Proc. 

Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 89: 11-127. 
Wongratana, T., 1977. Sillago intermedins, a new 

species of sand whiting from the Gulf of Thailand 

(Pisces : Sillaginidae). Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam. Soc. 

26: 257-262. 
Woodland, D.J. and Slack-smith, R., 1963. Fishes of 

Heron Island, Capricorn Group, Great Barrier 

Reef. Pap. Dep. Zool. Univ. Qd. 2: 15-70. 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



5*7 



WMMWM^H 





B 



Fig. 1. A. Sillago {Parasillago) ciliata showing modified caudal vertebrae overlying the posterior extension of the 
swimbladder and the tubular duct-like process arising from the ventral surface of the swimbladder. B. Modified 
ventral fin of Sillago {Sillaginopodys) chondropus. 



5S 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 














^q^ 








Fig. 2. A. Sillago (Sillaginopodys) chondropus Bleeker (from Bleeker). B. Si/lago (Sillago) sihama (Forskal). C. 
Sillago {Si/lago) intermedins Wongratana (from Wongratana). D. Sillago (Sillago) parvisquamis Gill (from 
Tanaka). E. Sillago (? Sillago) megacephalus Lin (from Lin). 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



59 





vVV. 








Fig. 3. A. Sittago (Parasillago) ciliata Cuvier (from Grant). B. Siilago (Parasillago) analis Whitley (from Grant). 
C. Siilago {Parasillago) maculata maculaia Quoy and Gaimard (from Grant). D. Siilago (Parasillago) maculata 
burrus Richardson (from Richardson). E. Siilago (Parasillago) maculata aeolus Jordan and Evermann (from 
Martin and Montalban). 



60 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




^Hv 







Fig. 4. A. Sillago(Parasillago) bassensis bassensis Cuvier (modified from Quoy and Gaimard) B. Siilago 
(Parasillago) vittata sp. nov. C. Siilago (Parasillago) robusta Stead (from Grant). D. Siilago (Parasillago) 
schomburgkii Peters (from Scott). E. Siilago (Parasillago) macrolepis Bleeker (from Bleeker). 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



6 1 







Fig 5 A. Sillago argent if asciata Martin and Montalban (from Martin and Montalban). B. Siiiago (Parasillago) 
japonica (from Bleeker). C. Sillaginodes punctata (Cuvier) (from Quoy and Gaimard). D. SUtaginopsis panijus 
(Hamilton-Buchanan) (from Day). E. swimbladder of Sillago indica. 



62 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 





Fig. 6. Variation in the swimbladder of Sillago sihama. A. Red Sea. B. Queensland. 




" . - 




B 



Fig. 7. Swimbladders of A. Sillago parvisquamis. B. Sillago maculata maculata. 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



63 






Fig. 8. Swimbladders of A. Sillago intermedius (after Wongratana). B. Sillago chondropus. C Sillago ingenuua 
(anterior half only). 



64 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 





B 









Fig. 9. Swimbladders of A-D. Sillago analis. E-H. Sillago ciliata. I-L. Sillago bassensis flindersi. 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



65 








Fig. 10. Swimbladders of A. Sillago maculata aeolus. B. Sil/ago maculata burrus. C. Sillago vittata. D. Si/lago 
lutea. E. Sillago asiatica. 



66 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 







Fig. 11. Swimbladders of A-B. Sillago japonica. C. Sillago schomburgkii. D-F. Sillago robusta (Western 
Australia). G-J. Sillago robusta (Queensland). 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



67 






Fig. 12. Swimbladders of A. Sillago attenuata. B. Sillago vincenti. 
F Si/laginodes punctata. 



C-E. Variation in anterior part of Sillago lutea. 



68 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 







B 



*=& ^ *=3 



D 



H 



E 





Fig. 13. Dorsal surface (suborbital shelf) of the third suborbital bone (right side) of A. Sillago sihama. B. Sillago 
parvisquamis. C. Sillago attenuata. D. Sillago boutani. E. Sillago vincenti. F,G. Sillago japonica. H,I. Sillago 
lutea. J. Sillago macrolepis. K. Sillago ciliata. L. Sillago analis. M-O. Sillago vittata. P. Sillago maculata 
maculata. Q. Sillago maculata aeolus. R,S. Sillago robusta (New South Wales). T. Sillago robusta (Shark Bay, 
W.A.). U,V . Sillago bassensis bassensis. W '. Sillago schomburgkii. X. Sillaginodes punctata. Y ,Z. Sillaginopsis 
panijus. 



McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGIN1DAE 



69 




Fig. 14. Otoliths (right side) of A Sillago sihama, Madras, India. B. Sillago parvisquamis, Taiwan. C. Sillago 
vincenti, India. D,E. Sillago ciliata, Sydney. F. Sillago analis, Shark Bay. G. Sillago maculata maculata, New 
South Wales. H. Sillago maculata burrus, Shark Bay I. Sillago maculata aeolus, Singapore. J. Sillago bassensis 
bassensis, Western Australia. K. Sillago bassensis flindersi, New South Wales. L. Sillago vittata, Shark Bay. M. 
Sillago robusta, New South Wales. N. Sillago robusta, Western Australia. O. Sillago schomburgkii, Shark Bay. 
P. Sillago ingenuua, Thailand. Q. Sillago japonica, Tokyo. R. Sitlaginopsis panijus, Bay of Bengal. S. 
Sitlaginodes punctata, South Australia. 



70 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



71 




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MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




McKAY: REVISION OF SILLAGINIDAE 



73 




Memoirs 

OF THE 

Queensland Museum 



Brisbane 



© Queensland Museum 

PO Box 3300, SouthBrisbane 4101, Australia 

Phone 06 7 3840 7555 

Fax 06 7 3846 1226 

Email qmlib@qm.qld.gov.au 

Website www.qm.qld.gov.au 

National Library of Australia card number 
ISSN 0079-8835 

NOTE 

Papers published in this volume and in all previous volumes of the Memoirs of the 
Queensland Museum maybe reproduced for scientific research, individual study or other 
educational purposes. Properly acknowledged quotations may be made but queries regarding 
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journal can be purchased from the Queensland Museum Shop. 

A Guide to Authors is displayed at the Queensland Museum web site 

A Queensland Government Project 

Typeset at the Queensland Museum 



Mem. Qd Mus. 22(1): 75-100. [1985] 



IYPE-SPECIMENS OF D1PTERA (INSECTA) IN THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 

G. Damc i s 
Department of Entomology, University oJ Queensland 

ABSTRACT 

The types ol Australian and South Pacific Island Diptera representing 350 nominal specie*, 
housed in the Queensland Museum collection, are listed. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Diptera collection housed in the 
Queensland Museum contains types ot 350 
nominal species, represented by 777 specimen--. 
These types are from Australia and the South 
Pacific Islands, the latter represented by types ol 
58 nominal species and 93 specimens. Types of 11 
Australian species have not been located, whilst 
13 specimens representing II species bear 
erroneous labels, usually 'Allotype'. 

Families are listed as they appear in Colless and 
Mc Alpine, 1970 with one or two additions. 
Subfamilies, genera and species are represented 
alphabetically under their original combinations 
without reference to subgenera, incorrect generic 
Spellings hoi being noted. Synonyms are listed as 
they occur and are treated according to the latest 
revision of the group concerned. 

Each taxon is followed by author, year and 
page number o\ publication. If the current 
accepted combination differs from that originally 
proposed, the revision is listed along with the year 
and page number of publication- Synonyms are 
treated similarly although publication dala are 
not presented for the valid taxa. Locality data has 
been stated as it occurs on the labels, but where 
more information is available this is given in 
square brackets. 

The collection contains types designated by 
several early Australian Diptensts, namely 
Hardy, Ferguson, Roberts, Mann and Taylor. Mr 
1 . Taylor appears to be the first to deposit types 
in the collection with the deposition in 1913 of fl 
number of Tabanidae. 

AUSTRALIAN SPECIES 

Suborder NEMATOCERA 

Family TIPULIDAE 
Subfamily UMNOBIINAE 
Gynoptistia wiisonetlu Alexander i 1930: 126. 



PA.RATYPE ': D3743; Grampians, Vic, F.E. 

Wilson. 
Lachrio suhlacvis Alexander, 1920: 54. 

HOI OTYP1 r . ALLOTYPE : 17:504; Caloundra, 

Qld. These specimens have not been located in 

the collection. 
LimnophUa borehi Alexander, 1929a: 486. 

Pa&ATYPE ': D3744; Millgrove V(ic]. (Right 

wing missing). 
Molopfttlus hurretfi Alexander, 1929: 328. 

P\k\m i ! r : D3745; Bayswater, Vic, 

20.v. 119)28, F.E. Wilson. (Abdomen and hind 

legs missing). 

Subfamily Limonmm \i 

Limonia < TkryptlCOtnyia) marksat- Alexander. 
1956: 42 
Hplotype \ Allotype : T5303-4; Low 

I[sland]. N Q[ld], 14.8. [19)54. fc.N Marks. A 
paratypc ■' has not been located in the 
eollecton. 

Subfamily TlPUUNAH 

Clvtocosmtts a/exanderi Dobroi w Of sk > . 1 968 - 

509. 

ALLOTYPE . T6604; [Lamington] National 

Park, Qld, Dec 1921. H. Hacker- (Four legs 

missing). 
Doliclwpeza hrevi/urcu queenslunduu Alexander, 

1920: 55, 

(= Doiichopeza (Doitchopetfl) queenslandka 

Alexander alter Dobrotworsky, 1974c: 21). 

HOLOTYPE ': Oxley, [near Brisbane], Qld. 

This specimen has not been located in the 

collection 
Hahrotnusux parallelu Alexander, 1920: 58. 

( [~ Leptocarsus {Huhmmastix) parallelus 

(Alexander) alter Dobrotworsky, 1974a: 21). 

Hoioivpi . T7498; Brisbane. [Qld], H 

Hacker. (Genitalia mounted on a slide). 
Habrumasrix lerrae-reginae Alexander, 1920: 59. 

( = Lepto tarsus i Hahromastix) terraereginae 

(Alexander) alter Dobrotworsky, 1974a: 20). 



76 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Hoiotype *: T7499; (Brisbane. Qld]. (This 
specimen is in poor condition, with only 2 
femora remaining on the body; a femur and 
tibia is glued lo [he pin; genitalia mounted on a 
slide). 

Leptotarsiu (Hahromastix) bulburinensis 
Dobrotworsky, 1974a: 28, 
HOtOTYPE ': T7177; Bulburin State Forest, 
Qld, 27-29 May I960. S.N. Thorburn. 

Leptotorsus (Ilabromastix) eunninghamensis 
Dobrotworsky, 1974a: 23. 
Paratypes 1 f; 1 ; T7476-7; Cunningham's 
Gap. Qld. 2500\ 5.iv.fl9]67, N. 
Dobrotworsky. 

Leptotarsu\ (Leptotarsus) fktcherens'ts 

Dobrotworsky. 1972: ^. 
Paratypes 2 J : T7 134-5; Fletcher SE Qld, 
16.U969, E. Dahms. 

Leptotarsus iiponeura Alexander, 1920: 57. 
I = Leptotarsus (Pseudofeptararsus) Iiponeura 
Alexander after Dobronvorsky, 1972: 38). 
FiOLOTYPf : T7505; Brisbane, [Qld], H. 
Hacker. 

Macromast ix flavopygialis Alexander, 1920: 60. 
{ = L eptotarsus iPhymotopsis) ftavopygtalis 
(Alexander) after Dobrotworsky, 1974: 11). 
HoLOTVPt r : T7503; Brisbane, [Qld], 
23.5.[I9]16, H. Hacker. (Antennae and wings 
missing, some legs glued to pin; genitalia 
mounted on a slide). 

Macromasiix hacken Alexander, 1920; 62. 
( as Leptotarsus (Macromasax) hackeri 
(Alexander) after Dobrotworsky. 1974b: 51). 
Hoi.otypl -; 17500; Brisbane, [Qld], H. 
Hacker. (Left wing and most of abdomen 
missing; legs glued to pin). 

Macromasiix tort His Alexander, 1920: 61, 
( = Leptotarsus {Macrornastix) tort Ills 
(Alexander) after Dobrotworsky. 1974b; 45). 
Holotu'E ■', ALlvOTYPE : T7502; Brisbane, 
Qld. 1 Jul. 1913, H. Hacker. 

Family PSYCHODIDAE 

Phlebototnus englishi Tonnoir, 1935: 144. 

Syntypf : T6071; Vass. N.S.W., Jan-Feb, 

1932, K. English. 

Syntype . T6072: same data except Feb-Mar, 

1933. 

Family CULICIDAE 
Aedes (Finluya) alocasieofa Marks. 1947: 35. 
Paratype f: T8398; Mount Glorious, Q[ld], 
15.3.1943. J.C. Wassell. 

Paratype -: T8399; same data except 
13.2.1945. 



Aedes iFintuva) eandidoscutellum Marks, 1947a: 

I. 

Paratyphi 1 ', I . : T840I-2; Binna Burra, 

Lamingtori National Park Q[ld] f v. 1945, F.A. 

Perkins. 
Aedes (Ftitiaya) gahmcola Marks, 1947: 43. 

Paratvpe * : T8397; Caloundra, Q[ld], 

13.8.[19]45. Perkins & Wassell 
Aedes {Finlava) josephinae Marks, 1958: 5S. 

PARATYPE t : T5751: Skull Ck. N Q[ld], 

15. v. 1953. E.N. Marks. 

Paratype -: T5752; Cowal Ck, N Q|ld], 

13.sii.1952. Maekerras & Marks. 
Aedes {Finlava) monocelfatus Marks, 1948: 14. 

PA* rt ITPES M; 1 : T8403-4; Upper Cedar 

Creek (Qld], 14.ix.I943, Wassell & Marks. 
Aedes [Ochlerotatus') calcariae Marks, 1957; 74. 

Paratype 5: D5749; Robe. W.A., 

24 .9.119153, E.W. Lines. 

Paratype i : D5750; same data except 

10,8,[19]53. 
Aedes (Ochlerotatus) ratetiffei Marks. 1959. 123. 

Paratype i : D5761; Gnangara, W.A.. 

1 1.x. 1954. F.N. Ratcliffe. 
Aedes {Ochlerotatus) turneri Marks, 1963: 42. 

Allotype ': T8405; Perth, W.A., 6.9.[I9]38, 

A.J. Turner. 
Anopheles {Anopheles) colledsei Marks, 1956: 

41. 

Paratypes 2 *: D5529-30; Mossman, Q[ld], 

2.7.[19]46. E.N. Marks. (Specimen D5530 is 

represented by a leg whilst the other specimen 

has 4 legs missing). 

Family CERATOPOGONIDAE 
Culicoides gludvsue Kettle. Elson and Dyee, 1976: 
L73 

HOIOTYPE : T7220; Mount Glorious, 30 km 
YVNW of Brisbane. Qld. 2.V.1973, D.S. Kettle. 
ALLOTYPE ': T7221; same data. 

Family CECIDOMYI1DAE 

Coniarirua atloteropsidis '.Harris, '979: 179. 

Holotype : 17773: nr Cooktown, Qld, 

4. U. 1973, Passlow. 

Paratype f: T8373; nr Cooktown, Qld, 

Passlow. 

Para n pes 2 : T8374-5; Cullen River, Stuart 

Highway. N.T., 26. ui. 1972, Passlow. 
Cotitarirua bothriochloae Harris, 1979: 175. 

HOLOTYPE : T7770; PARATYPES 1 r , 2 • 

T83G7-9; W of Cooktown. Qld, Passlow. 

Pvrahpls 2 \ \ : TS370-2; Finch Bay, 

Cooktown, Qld, Passlow. 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF DIPTERA 



77 



Contahnia brevipalpis Harris, 1979: 179. 

Holotype 2; T7774; 10 miles N of Cardwell 

Yellow Waterholes, nr Kennedy, Qld, 

30.iii.1973. 

Paratypes 1 S, 1 2: T8376-7; same data, no 

date, Passlow. 
Contahnia dichanthii Harris, 1979: 176. 

Holotype 2: T7771; Bullock Ck, [Qld], 

28.iii.1973, Passlow. 

Paratypes 2 £,4 2: T8340-5; same data, no 

date. 

Paratypes 2 2: T8346-7; Warlock Ponds, 

N.T., Passlow. 

Paratypes 1 <J, 1 9: T8348-9; S of 

Normanton, Qld, Passlow. 

Paratype S: T8350; Croydon, Qld, 7.iv.l973, 

Passlow. 
Contarinia fimbristylidis Harris, 1979: 180. 

Holotype 2: T7776; Swim Creek [N.T.], 

Passlow. 

Paratype S; T8378; same data. 
Contahnia intrans Harris, 1979: 173. 

Holotype 2: T7768; Cullen River, N.T., 

26.iii.1972, Passlow. 

Paratypes 2 £,2 2: T8331-4; same data, no 

date. 

Paratype 2: T8335; 13 mis S of Hayes Ck, 

N.T., 26. ii. 1971, T. Passlow. 

Paratype 2: T8336; Katherine, N.T., 

24.iii.[19]71, T. Passlow. 

Paratype £: T8337; Cullen Riv[er], N.T., 

26.iii.1972, Passlow. 

Paratypes 2 2: T8338-9; Douglas River 

crossing, N.T., 27.iii.1972, T. Passlow. 

Contarinia passlowi Harris, 1979: 178. 

Holotype 2 : T7772; Townsville, Qld. 

27.iii.1973, Passlow. 

Paratype 6: T8351; W of Townsville, Qld. 

27.iii.1973, Passlow. 

Paratypes 1 & t 2 2: T8352-4; Townsville, 

[Qld], Passlow. 

Paratypes 3 ,*, 2 2: T8355-9; Daly Waters, 

N.T., Passlow. 

Paratype 2; T8360; Georgetown, Qld, 

Passlow. 

Paratype 2: T8361; Roper Ponds, N.T., 

Passlow. 
Contarinia plumosi Harris, 1979: 172. 

Holotype 2: T7767; M[oun]t Molloy, Qld, 

4.iv.l973, Passlow. 

Paratypes 4 2: T8320-23; same data. 

Paratype j : T8324; Daly Waters, N.T., 

17. hi. 1972, Passlow. 

Paratype 2: T8325; Edith River, N.T.. 

25.iii.1971, T. Passlow. 



Paratypes 5 2: T8326-30; Katherine, N.T., 

23.iii.1971, T. Passlow. 
Contahnia roperi Harris, 1979: 171. 

Holotype $: T7766; Roper R[i]v[er] R[oa]d, 

[N.T.], 22.iii.1972, Passlow. 

Paratypes 1 6, 4 2: T8314-18; same data. 
Contarinia scirpi Harris, 1979: 180. 

Holotype 2: T7775; Elsey Creek, N.T., 

23.iii.1972, Passlow. 

Paratypes 2 <?, 1 2: T8379-81; same data, no 

date. 
Contarinia sehimae Harris, 1979: 173. 

Holotype 2: T7769; Normanton, Qld, 

[8.iv.l973], Passlow. 

Paratype S: T8362; same data. 

Paratypes 2 2: T8363-4; Edith River, N.T., 

[26.iii.1972], Passlow. 

Paratypes 2 2: T8365-6; Katherine, N.T., 

[27.iii.1972], Passlow. 

Family MYCETOPHILIDAE 

Arachnocampa (Campara) flava Harrison, 1966: 
882. 

Holotype $ : T6430; Numinbah, Q[ld], 
21.4.[19]35, F.A. Perkins. 

Suborder BRACHYCERA 
Division ORTHORRHAPHA 

Family PELECORHYNCHIDAE 

Pelecorhynchus mirabilis Taylor, 1917: 513. 
Syntype 2: D2625; Stradbroke Is[lan]d, Qld, 
17 Sept. 1915, (labelled 'type - '). 

Family EXERETONEURIDAE 

Exeretoneura angustifrons G . Hardy, 1924a: 458. 
Paratype ?: D3064; Ebor, [N.S.W.], 
8.1. [19] 14, A.J. Turner. (Head missing). 

Family RHAGIONIDAE 

Atherimorpha vernalis occidens G. Hardy, 1927: 

126. 

(= Atherimorpha occidens Hardy after 

Paramonov, 1962: 166). 

Syntype S: T8546; Cradle M[oun]t[ain], Tas., 

3000 ft, 2I.1.[19]25. 

Syntype J : T8547; same data except 

22.1.[19]25. (Forelegs and left wing missing 

from T8546; both specimens labelled 

paratype). 
Spaniopsis tabaniformis White, 1914: 44. 

Syntype --: D2639; Freycinet's Pen[insula]. 

Tas., 12.4.1914. 



7S 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Family TABANIDAE 
Subfumilv Chk>m>pinae 

Silvius angusticallosus Taylor, 1919: 44. 

(= Mesomyia (Mesomyia) montana (Ricardo) 

after Mackerras, 1961: 894) 

Holotype : D2632; Stradbroke Island, IQid], 

3.12.[19]12, H. Hacker. 
Silvius hackeri Taylor, 1919: 45. 

(= Mesomyia (Lifaea) luridu (Walker) alter 

Mackerras. 1955a 606). 

Holoiype ! D2630; Brisbane, [Qld], 

|5.1i,[l9jl6, H. Hacker. 
Silvius puraluridus Ferguson and Henry . 1920: 

839. 

(- Mesomyia (Lilaea) paraluruJa (Ferguson 

and Henrv) after Mackerras. 1955a: 606). 

Syntype -: D2633; Kendall, N.S.W. (labelled 

paratype). 
Silvius siratibrokei Taylor, 1917: 519. 

(= Mesomyia ( Lilaea) stradbrokei (Taylor) 

after Mackerras. 1955a: 606). 

Hoi.otYPF. : D2631; Stradbroke Island, [Qld], 

5.12.[I9]13. H. Hacker. 
Silvius vianus Taylor, 1919: 46. 

( = Mesomyia {Perisilvius) detveijerei (Ricardo) 

after Mackerras, 1961: 861 J. 

Hot otype : D2627; Stradbroke Island. [Qld], 

5.12.[19]13, H. Hacker. 

Subfamily Pangonunae 

Caenoprosopon hamlyni Taylor, 1917: 521. 

( - Ectenopsis (Parasifvius) hamlyni (Taylor) 

after Mackerras, 1956: 429). 

HoLOTvrt r : D2629; Brisbane, [Qld], 

10.10.[19]16, H. Hacker. 
Diatomineura auripteura Taylor, 1917: 516. 

( = Svapiia (Pseudosaane) aunp/eura (Taylor) 

after Enderleiu, 1925: Z?8). 

Syntype r: T8396; Stradbroke ls[lan]d, Qld, 

17 Sept. 1915, H. Hacker (Labelled Type ■")■ 

Symypi- : D2626; Stradbroke Is[Jan]d, Qld, 

17 Sept. 1915, H. Hacker (labelled 'Type '}. 
EcteriOpsis (Leptonopsis) vitiata Mackerras, 

1955: 471. 

P'VR.viVPr : T5452; Northampton, W.A., 

I8.il.[l9]38, A.J. Turner. 
Ercphopsis subtxmiigua Ferguson, 1921: 5. 

( - Scapiia (Pseudosc'tone) subcotUigua 

(Ferguson) alter Mackerras, 1960: 109). 

Paratype : D2624; Deervale, [near] 

Armidaie. [N.S.W.], Dee, 
Paiimmecomyia celaenospiia Taylor, 1917: 518. 

( ^ Scapiia (Paiimmecomyia) walkeri 

(Newman) after Mackerras, 1955: 498). 

H«n otype r : D2628; Brisbane. [Qld], 



1S.9.[I9|14, H. Hacker (labelled 'Type "). 
Scapiia (Scapiia) alpina alpina Mackerras, I960: 

67. 

PAMTVPE ": D5686; Alpine Creek, Kiandra, 

[N.S.W. J, 8.1. U9]38 a Mackerras 
Scapiia (Pseudoscione) calahyi Mackerras, I960: 

106. 

Paratype - : T5688; 6 ml SE of Karragullen, 

W.A., 27.2.1953, Mcintosh and Calaby. 
Scapiia (Pseiidoscione) neoconcolor Mackerras, 

1960: 115. 

Paratype i: T5689; Kuranda N Q[ld], Dodd. 
Scapita ( Pseudoscione) orientalis Mackerras, 

I960: 89. 

Paratype : T5687; jervft Bay, [n.s.w.]. 4 

Sept. [19]48, E.F, Riek. 
Therevopangoftla insolita Mackerras, 1955: 475. 
Paratopes 2 ': T5450-1; Eradu, W.A., 8 

Sept. [19]26, Nicholson. 

Subfamily Tabaninae 

Tabarms australicus Taylor, 1919: 53. 

Hot otype -: D2617; Brisbane, [Qld]. 

23.11.tl9]15, H. Hacker. 
Tabanus brisbanensis Taylor, 1917: 526. 

(= Das vbasis spadix (Taylor) after Mackerras, 

1959: 1741. 

SYN I ': T2610; Brisbane, [Qld], 

20.9.[19]16, H. Hacker, (labelled Type '. 

head nrissinm. 

Syn n PE : T8384; Brisbane [Qld], 

27 2.[19]16, H. Hacker, (labelled "Type '). 
Tabanus confasus Taylor, 1917: 523. 

(= Dasybasis moretonensis (Ferguson and 

Hill) after Mackerras, 1959: 181). 

Hoiotype -: D261I: Brisbane, [Qld], 

6.10.[19]14, H. Hacker. 
Tabanus diemanensis Ferguson. 1921: 25. 

( - Dasybasis spadix diemanensis (Ferguson) 

after Mackerras, 1959: 175). 

PARATYPSS 2 : D3093. TS395; Bream Creek 

[Tas.L 20.2.[19]1S. G. Hardy. 

P'\r\i vpe r : T8394; same data excepr 

18.2.(19|18. 

Paratype : D26I4; same data except 

18.2.[19]»8. 
Tabanus griseus Taylor, 1919: 55, 

(- Dasybasis clavieallosa (Ricardo) after 

Mackerras, 1959: 170). 

HoroTYPE -: D2623; Brisbane, [Qld], 

20.12. [19]17, H. Hacker, (labelled Type -'). 
Tabanus hackeri Taylor, 1917: 522. 

(= Dasvbasis nemopunctata (Ricardo) after 

Mackerras. 1959: 172). 

Hoiotype : D2615; Bribie Is[Iand], Qld, Jan. 

1915. 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF DIPTFRA 



:•■' 



Tahunus mnotarus Ferguson and Henry, 1920: 

847, 

(= Dasybasis innotata (Ferguson and Henry) 

after MaCkerras, 1959: 183). 

Syntype . : D2622; Kendall, N.S.W. (labelled 

paratype). 
Tabanus lati/rons Ferguson, 1921: 19. 

| - Dasytwis neoladfrons (Ferguson and Hill) 

after Mackerras, 1959: ISO). 

Paratype : D3094; Cradle M[oun|i[ain], 

[Tas.], 12.I.[19]I7. G.H. Hardv. 

Paratype : T8393; same data except 

17.1. |19)I7. 
Tahunus ochreoflavus Ferguson and Henry, 

1920: 845. 

f ■ Dasvbasis ochreofiava (Ferguson and 

Henry) after Mackerras", 1959: 173). 

Smn pl : T261 2: Kendall, [N.S.W.], 

31.1.[19]1S (labelled paratype). 
Tabanus parvus Taylor, 1913: 69. 

( = Dasybasis parva (Tavlor) after Mackerras, 

1959: 172). 

SYNTYPE -, : D2620: Darwin, M.T.. Dr 

Strangman (labelled paratvpe). 
Tabanus pseudoardens Taylor, 1913: 66. 

(= Cydisfomyia pseudourdens (Taylor) alter 

Macketras, 1959: 166). 

Syntype , : D2619; Port Douglas, [Qld], 1891. 

C.J. Wild (labelled Cotype). 
Tahunus robnsius Taykte, 1919: 69. 

( = Dasvbasis cirrus (Rieardo) after Mackerras, 

1959: 177). 

HOtOTVFE : D2621; Brisbane, |Q!d], 

29.10.[I9]17. H. Hacker. 
Tahunus rufoabdotninaiis Taylor , 1917: 525. 

(= Cvdisiomvia laticuitosa (Rieardo) after 

Mackerras, 1959: 167). 

SYMYPf ' . D2613; Stradbroke Is[lan]d. [Qld], 

17 Sept. 1915, H. Hacker, (labelled 'Type r). 

Syntype i : D8385: same data, (labelled Type 

')■ 

Tabanus sdviformis Taylor, 1919: 62. 

Hoiom-L : D2618; Stradbroke Island [Qld], 

3.12.[19J12, H. Hacker. 
Tabanus tasmarucus Ferguson. 1921: 20 

(- Dasyhasis neocirrus (Rieardo) after 

Mackerras, 1959: 173). 

Paratvpe : D26I6, Dunalley. [Tas.], 

I5.2.[19]l«. 

Family STRATJOMYIDAE 
Subfamily Beridinae 

Ac/tna imperfecta G. Hardy, 1932a: 54. 
Paratvpe - : T8587: Mapletdn, [Qld]. 
26.3.[19]24, H. Hacker. 



Paratvpe : D3162; [l.amington] National 
P[ar]k, Q[ld], 25.10.[19]23, H. Hacker. 
PARATVPE "' D3162| same data except Dec, 
1921. 

Subfamily CHIROMV2WAE 

AHermeioponia flava James, 196S: 155. 

(^ Inopus ffavus (James) after Bull. 1976 

567). 

HOLOTVPE -: T6627; Aleoivpe ' : T662X; 

Paratvpe t T6684; Proserpine, Qld, Apr 

1967, G. Wilson. 
Archimyza ava Enderlein, 1921: 157. 

( = Chiramxza ava (Enderlein) after G. Hardv, 

1924: 369). 

Syntype . : D2S4S; Tambourine ( = 

Tamborine), [Qld], 2.4.1911, H. Hacker. Il is 

possible this specimen may not have any type 

status. 
Sicnunus sicfiintaiicalis Enderlein, 1921: 175. 

(= Chirotnvza stemmaticulis (Enderlein) after 

G. Hardy, 1924: 368). 

There are 3 ' labelled as paratypes in the 

collection which could not hjve been studied by 

Enderlein and should not be considered as 

types, 3 : D284S; (Lamingion] National Park. 

Q[Id], Dec. 1921, H. Hacker. 

Subfamily P\>- h> i ,asterin\e 

Damaromyiu ciivosa G. Hardv. 1931: 128. 

Syntype : D4729; Brisbane, [Qld], No\ . 

1924, G.H. Hardy. 

Syntypes 2 : D4729; same data except Sept. 

1930. 
Danwromyia discolor G. Hardy, 1931: 123. 

Paraiype : D4727; [Lamington] Nat[ionalJ 

P|ark|, Qld. Mar. 1929. 

Subfamily SARGINAE 

SargUS darius G. Hardy, 1932b: 47. 
Parah pe : Tamborine Mountain, Qld. 
Paratypes 2 : Dunk Island, Qld. 

Whilst no ^peciniens of this species bearing 
paraiype labels have been located, there are 2 
specimens from Dunk Island with a label 
'Sarins sp. nov.' and nearby an aparently 
COnSperifie specimen from Tamborine 
Mountain without any further labelling. It is 
possible these specimens are paratypes. 

Subfamily Stratiomyjn \l 

Odontamviu carinifacies var. zrandimaculuta G. 
Hardy, 1920: 56. 

(= OdoMotflcia ^randiwaculata Hardy aftei 
G. Hardy, 1938: 72). 



so 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Syntypls 2 '■; D3095; Bream Creek, [Tas.J, 
18. 2. [19)18, G,H. Hardy (labelled paratype). 
SVNTYPt f: D2634; same data. 

Family NEMESTRINIDAF 

Trichophthalma bivitta nigricos/a Mackerras, 

[925: 524. 

PAR iFYPE : D3061; Barrington T[o]ps. 

[N.S.W.], Feb. ( 19)25, SfydneyJ U[niversiiv j 

Zoo[logy] Expedition]. 
Trichophthalma confttsa Mackerras, 1925: 521 . 

Parai yse 5 : 03060, Kendall. N.S.W., 

14.12.[19]I9. 
Trichophthalma costalis apicalis Mackerras, 

1925; 512. 

Paratype ?: D3054; Hamel, [W.A.|. 
Trichophthalma fusca Mackerras, 1925: 516. 

Pakaiype: ': D3056; Pori Curtis, fQld]. 
Trichophthalma harrisoni Mackerras, 1925: 525. 

Paratype r : D3062; Barrington Tfojps, 

[N,S.\\ ], Jan. [19)25, SJydney] U[niversity] 

Zoo[ology] Expedition]. 
Trichophthahna intermedia Mackerras. 1925: 

517. 

Holotype n D3057; Russell ls[Iand], [Qld]. 

Dec. 1921, H. Hacker. 

Allotype : D3057; Stradbroke Island, [Qld], 

3.12.119(12, H. Hacker. 
Trichophihalma nigrovittata Mackerras, 1 925 : 

531. 

Paratyphs 1 \ 1 : D3063; Barrington 

T[o]ps, [N.S.W.], Feb. [19)25, S[>dncy] 

Ufnivcrsity] Zoo[logy] Expedition]. 
Trichophthalma punctata oriental® Mackerras, 

1925: 519. 
1 RATYPE r : D3058: Barrincton T[op]s, 

[N.S.W.], Jan. [19)25, S[ydneyl U[niversity] 

Zoo[logy] Exp[cdition]. 
Trichophthalma punctata var. minima 

Mackerras. 1925. 519. 

Allotype . D3059; Russell Is[lan)d, Qld, 

Dec. 1921, H. Hacker. 
Trichophthalma rujonigra Mackerras, 1925: 513. 

Para n pes 1 \ 1 ; D3055; Barrineton 

T|o)ps, [N.S.W], Feb. [19]25, S[ydney) 

U(niversity) Zooflogy] Exp[edition]. 

Family ACROCERIDAE 

Mcsophy.ut ultima Ncboiss, 1971: 219. 

Holoiype -: T6920; Archerlield, Brisbane, 
Qld, 20.ix. 1969, G.J. Toop. 

Family THEREV1DAF 

Acraspisa nigrinota Mann, 1929: 20. 
Holotype r : D32SI; Gogango, Q[ld|, Dec. 



[19]2S, A. P. Dodd. 
Acraspisa obscuripes Mann, 1929: 21. 

Paratypes 5 ': D3502; Brisbane, [Qld], 

24.9.[19]14, H. Hacker. 
Acraspisa trijasciata Krober, 1912a: 286. 

There is a labelled allotype in the collection, 

designated by Mann (1929: 20). As this 

specimen was not included in the type series it 

cannot be considered to be a type. 

1 : D3505; Forest Reefs, N.S.W. , Lea. 
Acupalpa albttarsa Mann, 1929; 24. 

Holotype ': D3282; Paratyphi 9 \i 

T8548-56; Brisbane Qld. 24.9.[19]14, H. 

Hacker. 
Acupalpa poliinosa Mann. 1929: 25. 

HOLCrn PE D3283; Brisbane, [Qld], 

1S.9.[19]14. H. Hacker. 

Parah pe I : D3283; Caloundra, [Qld], 

28. 10. [19] 13, H. Hacker. 

Paratopes 3 ' : D3283; same data as holotype 

except 24.9.(19]14. 
Acupalpa semifiava Mann, 1929: 2<S. 

Holotype : D3495; Paratype ; T8560; 

Brisbane. |Qld|, 24.9.(19)14, |H.| Hacker. 

P\R\iH'i : T8557, same data except 

24.9.[19]I2. 

Paratype ; T8558, same data except 

N.10.[I9]13. 

Para type : T8559: same data except 

10.10.(19)16. 
Acupalpa semirufa Mann, 1929: 27. 

Ai.h.ivn ; D3494; Bribie Island. [Qld], 

12.9.[19]18, H. Hacker. 

P<\ratype : D3494; Tambourine ( = 

Tamborine) Mountain, [Qld], 29.1 1.[19]25, H. 

Hacker. 
Agapophytus alhobasalis Mann, 1929: 37. 

IhucHYPi *\ Ai i MtYPE : D3501; Chinchilla, 

Qld, Nov. I19J27, A. P. Dodd. 

P^ratyt'f ; : D3401: Brisbane. [Qld]. 

9.4.[19]!9 S H. Hacker. 

PARATVP5 : D3 501; same data as paratype 

except 20.11.(19)11. 
Agapophytus aterrimus Mann, 1929: 36. 

HOLOTYPE t : D3500; Brisbane, [Qld], 

10. 10. [1 9] 16. H. Hacker. 
Agapophvtus flavtcorr/ts Mann, 1929: 32. 

Holotype r : D3497; Brisbane. Qld. 

ALLOTYPE : D3497; Ferny Grove, Q[ld), 

2. J. [19)28, I. Mann. 

Par \n pe ' : D3497; Ormision, [Qld], 

17.11.[19]24, H. Hacker. 

Para r> pes 2 ': D3497: Brisbane, [Qld). 

1 2. It [19] 12. One specimen has the head, fore 

legs and hind tibiae and tarsi missing. 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECJMENS OF D1PTERA 



SI 



PAKAiMn-s 2 ': D3497; same data except 

7.1I.[19]16. One specimen has the fore tarsus 

and a hind tibia and tarsus missing. 

Paratyph \ : D3497; same data except 

5.1. [19] 14. The antennae are damaged and a 

hind leg and fore tibia and tarsus are trussing, 

PaRAEYPE ' : D3497; same data except 

2. 12. [19] 13, An antenna, the fore legs and a 

mid leg are missing. 

PARATYPE ': D3497; same data except 

15.1 1.[19]16. The antennae are damaged and a 

hincj leg is missing. 
Agapophyiuv rujicaudus Mann. 1929; 36. 

Holotyi'L : D3499; Samford, [Qld], Jan. 

1923, H. Hacker. 

Allotype : D3499; Brisbane [Qld], 

25.2.119)22, H. Hacker. 

PASATYPE 2 ': D3499; Alderlev, Brisbane, 

(Old], 30.9.[19]23, H. Hacker. 
{gapophytus $QUQm&sit& Mann, 1929: 39, 

HoioiYPi- '; ALLOTYPE . D3503; Brisbane, 

Qld, 26.12. [I9]24. H. Hacker. 
Anabarhynchus argenteus Mann, 192S: 176. 

Holotype : D327S: Wynnum, [Qld], Ma\ 

1927, B. Smith. 
Anabarhynchus f lavas Maun, 1928; 181. 

Hi II 01 ypl ; : D3279: CaJoundra. [Qld] ? 

2S.10.[19]I3, H. Hacker. 

Paratype r : D3280; Bribie Island. [Qld], 

29.8.(19120, H. Hacker. 
Ectinorhynchus tews Mann, 1933: 334. 

Holotype r ; Allotype -: T5I91-2; Swan 

River, W.A., L.J. Newman. 
Neodtalincura strialUhorax Mann. 1928; 172. 

Hoiotype ': D3267; [Lamington] National 

P(ar]k. Qld. 25.U>.[I9]23, H. Hacker. 

Alloeype -; Paratypl : D3267; 

Tambourine (- Tamborine) Mountain, [Qld], 

W.H. Davidson. 

Paratypes 2 : D3267; [Lamington] 

National] P[ar]k, Q[ld], 25.10.[19]23. H. 

Hacker. 
Parapsilocephala parva Mann, 1933: 342. 

Allotype : T5190; Brisbane, [Qld], Nov. 

1929. G.H. Hardy. 
fyycus imitans White, 1915: 28. 

( - AgapOphytUS imitans (White) after Mann, 

1929: 4( M. 

There is a ' labelled allotype in the collection, 

designated by Mann (1929: 41). As this 

specimen was not included in the type series, it 

cannot be considered as a type. 

1 r : D3504, Mount Tamborine, Qld. 
Psilocepkt&a aggera Mann. 1933: 327. 

Holotype -: T5187; Chinchilla, Q[ld), Aug. 

[19] 30, J. Mann. This specimen is in poor 



condition. 
Psiloccphala duocolohs Mann, 1933: 329, 

Holotype : Allotype r : D5 185-6; 

Denman, N.S.W., 1S.4.[19]29, A.P. Dodd. 

(Wings missing from allotype, which is in pooi 

condition). 
Psiloeephala lutea White, 1915: 49. 

There is ;t ' Libelled allotype in the collection, 

designated by Mann (1933: 331). As thi 

specimen was not included in the type series it 

cannot be considered as a type. 

1 r : T5188; King Island, Tas. 
Taenogsta gracilis Mann, 1928: 167. 

Holotm i ; Paratype : D3266; 

Tambourine { = Tamborine) Mountain, [Qld], 

W,H. Davidson. 
Jacnogera rtofaitthcrax Mann, 1928: 169. 

Holoevpe ' ; Ait cm PI ; D3265; 

Tambourine (= Tamborine) Mountain, [QId[, 

W.H. Davidson. 
Therem singula Walker, 1S4S: 227, 

( - Eapsilocephala singula (Walker) after 

Krober, 1912: 255). 

There is a ' in the collection labelled allotype, 

designated by Mann (1933: 337). As this 

specimen was not included in the type series, n 

cannot be considered as a type. 

1 ': T5184: Chinchilla, Qld. 

Family SCENOPINIDAE 

Neopscudatrichia inglcwoodi Kelsey, 1970: J41 

Holotype "; TX13U fnglewodd. oiidi. 

1.9.[19]25. 
Rtektella wovdwardi Kelsey, 1971: 301. 

Holotn Tfc ' ; Allut> pe - : T6S7S; 28 ml S ol 
Ti-Tree Well, NT.. 26.viii.1964, T.I 
Woodward. 
Sceuopinus crista frons Kelsey, 1971: 186. 

Holotype : 16976; 37 ml s of Dunmarra, 

N.I., 23.viii.l964, T.E. Woodward. 
Scenopinus mti/arac Kelsey, 1971: 189. 

HOLOTYPE : T6975; Moggill, Qld. 2. v. 1967, 
L. Millar. 

Family ASILIDAE 
Subfamily Asu inae 

Asitw UtinvworthiG. Hardy, 1922: 196. 

(= .\'eourattr\ illingworthi (Hardv) alter G. 

HaTdy, 1935: 180). 

PAJtATVPE ': 02635; Gordonvale, N Q|Id|, 

.1.(19122. P.. Jarvis (labelled Cotype). 
Cerdistus constrktus G. Hardy, 1926: 654. 

(= Cerdistus fnscipennis (Macquurt) after Ci. 

Haidy. 1929: 81). 

PARATYPE : TS5M; Pbor. N.S.W., 2.i.|19|16. 



MEMOIRS Of THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Para i ypp ; T8562; same data except 

3.1.119)16. 

Pakaiypl: r : T8563; Brisbane, [Qld], 

23,10.[19]21. H. Hacker. 

Par \ fYPE * : T8564; same data exeepi 

20JO.[19]14. 

Paratype < : T8565; same data except 

16.10.[19]l2. 

Para rYPES 1 ' , 1 » : T8566-7; Tambourine ( - 

Tamborine) Mountain, [Qld], 28. 10. [19112, H. 

Hacker. 

Subfamily Dasypogomnm 

Brachyrhopala semiruja G. Hardy, 1929a: 65. 
Paruypl ': D2635; Brisbane, [Qld], 
29.12.[19]12, H. Hacker. 
Paraia Hi- ( : D2635: Stradbroke Island, [Qld], 
3.12.[19]I2, H. Hacker. 

Family APIOCERIDAF 

Apiocera hardvi angustifrons Paramonov, 1953: 

493 

SYN1 ypl ' . T8568; Brisbane. [Qld), 

14.12,119115, H. Hacker, (labelled ' ' typus 1 ). 

Symypl TS569; same daia except 

4.i2.[19]U (labelled 4 typus': head in vial 

attached to pin). 
Apiocera lottgitudmalis Paramonov, 1953: 510. 

Holotype : T5502; Cunderdin, [W.A.]. 
Apiocera lugubhs Paramonov, 1953: 497. 

Hoi OTYPh: t : T8570; Stradbroke Island, [Qld], 

3 12.[I9]12. H. Hacker. 
Apiocera simi/is Paramonov, 1953: 505. 

Pakaimm : T5501: Stradbroke Is[ian]d, 

[Qld), 17 Sept. 1915, H. Hacker. 

Family MYDA1DAE 

Diochlistus hacked Paramonov. 1950: 25. 

Para ! ypi- - : TS585; Tambourine ( - 
Tamborine) Mountain, [Qld], W.H. Davidson, 
{labelled * ' typus*). 

Par atypp : T8588; same data as above, but 
without ParamonoVs type label. 

Family BOMBYL1IDAE 

Subfamily Anthracinap 

Anthrax conjluensis Roberts, 1928: 139. 

Hoi ot> it r : D3254: Brisbane. Qld, 

22.1.[I9]26, F.H. Roberts. 

Ai i OTYPJ : D3254; Brisbane, [Qld], 

1.5.(19126, J. Mann. 
Anthrax lepidiota Roberts. 1928: 138. 

Holotype : D3262; Chinchilla, 

Q[ueens]Iand, Nov. [19]24, T.A« Cole. 



Subfamily Bombyliinal 
Bombylius dulcis Roberts, 1928a: 440. 

Holotype * : D3284; Westwood, 

Q[ueens]tand. Oct. 1926, A. P. Dodd. 

ALLOTYPE : T8536; Westwood, Qld, Oct. 

1927, A. P. Dodd. 
Bombvtius proprius Roberts, 1928a: 436. 

Hoiotypf ': D3285; Blackheath, [N.S.W.], 

15 Nov. 1919, G.H. Hardy. (Left wing 

missing). 
Bombylius sueeandidus Roberts, 1928a: 438. 

Holotypl ! : D3286; Wariakla, [N.S.W.], 

30. ix. [19)27, A. P. Dodd. 
Disc his/us formosus Roberts. 1928a: 451. 

HOLOTYPE t \ D3287; Brisbane, QPd], 

3.9.[19]21, J. Mann. 

Allotype : T8537; Brisbane, Qld, 9. 9.| 19127, 

F.H. Roberts. 
Dischistus pallidovenur Roberta, 1928a: 452. 

1 loi oi ypi: ' : D3288; Hobart, [Tas.J, 

14.3.(19117, G.H. Hardy. 
Dischistus perparvus Roberts, 1928a: 453. 

Holotypl ': D32S9; Morven, Qld. Sept. 

1927. A. P. Dodd. 
Systoechus cineiiventris Roberts, 1928a: 424. 

HOLOTYPE ' : D3292; Chinchilla, [Qldl, 

I4.1I.[I9I26. 

Ai LGTYPJE : T8535; Brisbane, [Qld], 

15.8. [19)27 J. Mann. 
Systoechus pallidas Roberts, 1928a: 422. 

HOLOTYPE ': D3291; Brisbane. Qld, 5 Aug. 

1927, F.H. Roberts. 
Systoechus ruhidus Roberts, 1928a: 421. 

Hot oiype ' : D3290; Chinchilla, 

Q|ueens]land, Nov. |19]26. A.P. Dodd. 

Subfamily Bci iminae 
Eciimus furvkostatus Roberts, 1929: 578. 

(- Thcvcnemvia furxkosiuta (Roberts) after 

Hull, 1969:36). 

Hoi otypi ' : D3526; Westwood, Q[ld], 

20.1 1. [19)27, A.P. Dodd. [Left wing missing). 
Eciimus nigrapiealis Roberts, 1929: 576. 

(= Thevenemyia ni^rapkalis (Roberts) after 

Hall. 1969; 65). 

Holotype Allotypl - : D3525; 

Coondiwindi, Qld, 29.12, [19]27 t F.H. Roberts. 

Subfamily Exoprosopinap 

Hyperaioma den tata Roberts, 1928: 102. 
( = Li'dvra dentata (Roberts) after Paramonov, 
1967: 130), 

Holotype : D3261; no data. 

Lepidanthrax iinguata Roberts, 1928: 130. 
HOLOTYPE r ; Allotypl : D3260; Brisbane, 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF DIPTERA 



83 



Qld, 21. and 22.11.[19]26, F.H. Roberts. 
Pseudopenihes fenestrate* Roberts, 1928: 133. 

Holotype <?: D3264; Brisbane, Qld. 

27.10.[19]26, F.H. Roberts. 

Allotype ?: D3264; Goodna, Q[ueens]land, 

20.11. [19]25, J. Mann. 
Villa albobasalis Roberts, 1928: 127. 

Holotype I : D3259; Chinchilla, 

Q[ueens]land, Nov. [19]29, A. P. Dodd. 
Villa bnmea Roberts, 1928: 118. 

Holotype 6; - Allotype : D3257; 

Gravesend, [N.S.W.], Mar. [19]27, F. Roberts. 
Villa quinqueguttata Roberts, 1928: 126. 

Holotype 2: D3256; Sydney, [N.S.W.], 

26.12.[19]18, G.H. Hardy. 
Villa rava Roberts, 1928: 125. 

Holotype S\ Allotype 9: D3263; Chinchilla, 

Qld. 2 and 3.10.[19]26. 
Villa trivincula Roberts, 1928: 119. 

Holotype 9; Paratype 2: D3258; Brisbane 

[Qld], 13.11.(19123, L. Franzen. 

Allotype &: D3258; Sydney [N.S.W.], 

2.2.[19]19, G.H. Hardy. 
Villa varipennis Roberts, 1928: 121. 

Holotype r ; Allotype D3255; 

Gravesend, [N.S.W.], Mar. [19]27, F. Roberts. 

(Head missig from allotype). 

Subfamily Henicinae 

Neosardus circumdatus Roberts, 1929: 561. 

Holotype 2: D3527; Broken Hill, [N.S.W.], 

C. Deane. 
Neosardus principius Roberts, 1929: 562. 

Holotype J: D3528; Emerald, Q[ueens]land, 

18.11. [19]28, F. Roberts. 

Allotype -; Paratype ?: D3528; Chinchilla, 

Q[ld], 20.11. [19)28, A. P. Dodd. (These 

specimens are all damaged to varying degrees 

by verdigris). 

Subfamily Platypyginae 

Cyrtosia parvissima Roberts, 1929: 567. 
Holotype $\ Allotype 9: D3532; Gogango, 
Q[ueens]land, Mar. [19]29, A. P. Dodd. (The 
allotype has some verdigris damage on thorax). 

Subfamily Systropinae 

Dolichomyia minima Roberts, 1929: 557. 

(= Zaclava minima (Roberts) after Hull, 1973: 

250). 

Holotype $: D353 1 ; C[hinc]hilla, Qld, 

2.10.[19]16, B. Smith. (Abdomen missing). 

Allotype £: D3531; Waroo, S. Queensland], 

Feb. 1927. 

Paratypes 2 -- : D3531; Brisbane, [Qld], 

7.3.[19]18, Hacker. 



Systropus doddi Roberts, 1929: 555. 

Holotype i : D3522; Stradbroke Island, [Qld], 

5.12.[19]13, H. Hacker. (Abdomen and hind 

legs carded). 

Paratype i : D3522; Kuranda, Qld, Mar. 

[19]07, F.P. Dodd. (Left wing and hind tarsus 

missing). 
Systropus flavo-ornatus Roberts, 1929: 554. 

Holotype ': D3523; Westwood, [Qld], Feb. 

[19]27, A. P. Dodd. 

Allotype i : D3523; Westwood, Q[ld], 

5.1.[19]25, A.B[urns]. 

Subfamily Tomomyzinae 

Myonema humilis Roberts, 1929: 564. 
Holotype ?, Paratypes 4 tf: D3530; 
Brisbane, [Qld], 20.8.[19]18, H. Hacker. 
(Holotype with left wing and mouth-parts 
missing; other specimens have either antennae, 
a wing or the head missing, all being somewhat 
damaged by verdigris). 

Subfamily Toxophorinae 

Toxophora compta Roberts, 1929: 559. 
Holotype f : D3529; Brisbane, [Qld] , 
6.3.[19]18, H. Hacker. 



Division CYCLORRHAPHA 
Series ASCHIZA 

Family PHORIDAE 

Chonocephalus brisbanensis Beyer, 1960: 35. 

Holotype ', Paratypes 2 £: Yeronga, Qld. 

These specimens have not been located in the 

collection. 
Megaselia (Aphiochaeta) australiae Beyer, 1960: 

23. 

Holotype ?: T5998; Lota, S E Qld, 4.2.1955, 

E.J. Reye. 
Megaselia {Aphiochaeta) biseta Beyer, 1960: 26. 

Syntypes 1 $, 6 r. T6075-7; Brisbane, [Qld], 

3.8.[19]15, H. Hacker, (all labelled paratype). 
Megaselia (Megaselia) flaviscutellata Beyer, 1960: 

29. 

Holotype r : T5999; Lota, S E Qld, 

24.2.1955, E.J. Reye. 

Allotype -: T6000; Hill End, S E Q[ld], 

23.1.1955, E.J. Reye. 
Megaselia (Megaselia) semihyaima Beyer, 1960: 

32. 

Holotype s\ T5993; Brisbane Museum, S E 

Qld, 18.1.1955, M.B. Wilson. 

Paratype J: T5997; same data except 

28.1.1955. 



84 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Allotype 2: T5994; Lota, S [E] Qld, 
13.ii.1955, E.J. Reye. 

Paratype 2 v : T5995-6; Lota, S E Qld, 
4.2.1955, E.J. Reye. 

Family SYRPHIDAE 
Subfamily Microdontinae 

Microdot! amabilis Ferguson, 1926: 175. 

Holotype -: D3087; Brisbane, [Qld], 
26.2.[19]19, H. Hacker. 

Microdon modestus Ferguson, 1926: 179. 

Syntype /: D3088; Brisbane, [Qld], 
25.9.[19]19, H. Hacker, (labelled 'Type'). 

Microdot! chalybeus Ferguson, 1926: 176. 
Paratype 5 : D3086; Brisbane, [Qld], 
4.9.[19]11, H. Hacker. 

Paratype <$: D3086; Stradbroke Island, [Qld], 
Oct. 1891, J.H. Boreham. (Abdomen and 
antennae missing from last specimen). 

Subfamily Milesiinae 

Cerioides alboseta Ferguson, 1926: 145. 

Paratype 2: D3091; no data. 

Paratype S: D3091; Brisbane, [Qld], 

23.10.[19]11, H. Hacker. 
Cerioides macieayi Ferguson, 1926: 148. 

Syntype ; : D3092; Brisbane, [Qld], 

12.11. [19] 12, H. Hacker (labelled paratype). 
Cerioides variabilis Ferguson, 1926: 146. 

Paratype 5: D3090; Rockhampton, Qld. 
Criorhina hacked Ferguson, 1926a: 524. 

Holotype - : D3089; [Lamington] National 

P[ar]k, [Qld], Dec. 1921, H. Hacker. 
Emmyia queenslandica Klocker, 1924: 55. 

Holotype $\ Brisbane, Qld, 24.9.1918. This 

specimen has not been located in the collection. 
Eristalis conjunctus Ferguson, 1926: 155. 

Syntype -: D3085; Cairns, N Q[ld] (labelled 

paratype). 
Eristalis flavohirta Klocker, 1924: 57. 

(= Dissoptera pollinosa Edwards after 

Ferguson, 1926: 166). 

Syntypes, 2 : Dunk Island, Qld. May 1914, 

Hamlyn-Harris. These specimens have not been 

located in the collection. 
Eristalis herve-bazini Klocker, 1924: 58. 

(= Eristalis maculatus de Meijere after 

Ferguson, 1926: 157). 

Syntypes, 2 S; Brisbane, Qld, 3.10.1916 and 

4.12.1918. These specimens have not been 

located in the collection. 
Psilota hirta Klocker, 1924: 54. 

Holotype : Brisbane, Qld, 20.9.1916. This 

specimen has not been located in the collection. 
Psilota rubra Klocker, 1924: 53. 



Syntypes 2 2: Brisbane, Qld, 12.9.1916 and 
26.9.1916. These specimens have not been 
located in the collection. 

Psilota tristis Klocker, 1924: 54. 

Holotype -•: Brisbane, Qld, 26.9.1916. This 
specimen has not been located in the collection. 

Syritta hackeri Klocker, 1924: 59. 

Holotype >: Brisbane, Qld, 12.11.1918. This 
specimen has not been located in the collection. 

Subfamily Syrphinae 

Sphaerophoria kerteszi Klocker, 1924: 56. 
Syntypes, 3 J: Brisbane, Qld, 15.11.1916. 
These specimens have not been located in the 

collection. 

Series SCHIZOPHORA 

Family PLATYSTOMATIDAE 

Duomyia convallis McAlpine, 1973: 80. 

Holotype ^: T7 111; Carnarvon Gorge, Qld, 

30.1.1962, E. Exley. 
Duomyia marginalis McAlpine, 1973: 91. 

Holotype ?: T7109; Stanthorpe, [Qld], 

11.2.[19]30. 
Duomyia scipio McAlpine, 1973: 99. 

Holotype i: T7112; Noosa, [Qld], 

29.ii.[19]60, H.G.G. 
Duomyia umbrosa McAlpine, 1973: 96. 

Holotype -: T7110; Dunwich, [Stradbroke 

Island], Qld, 7. v. 1966, R. Chamberlin. 
Euprosopia subacuta McAlpine, 1973: 169. 

Holotype ^: T7113; Lam[ington] National] 

P[ar]k, Qld. 11-17 Feb. 1963, A. Macqueen. 



Family TEPHRITIDAE 

Afrodacus brunneus Perkins and May, 1949: 18. 

( = Dacus {Afrodacus) brunneus (Perkins and 

May) after D. Hardy, 1951: 118). 

Syntype ?: T5260; Toowoomba, [Qld], Dec. 

1937, H. Jarvis (labelled holotype). 

Syntype S : T5261; Gayndah, Qld, Nov. 1945, 

A.W.S. M[ay] (labelled holotype). 
Afrodacus flavinotus May, 1957: 293. 

( = Dacus {Afrodacus) flavinotus (May) after 

Drew, 1972: 21). 

Holotype 2 : T5603; Atherton, Q[ld], 

27.5.[19]57, A.W.S. May. 
Afrodacus furvus May, 1957: 294. 

( = Dacus {Afrodacus) furvus (May) after 

Drew, 1978: 85). 

Holotype J; T5605; Atherton, Q[Id], 

19.3.[19]57, A.W.S. May. 

Allotype ? : T5606; same data except 

8.4.[19]57. (Left wing missing from holotype). 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF DIPTERA 



&5 



Afrodacus mesoniger May, 1951: 8. 

(= Dacus (Afrodacus) mesoniger (May) after 

D. Hardy, 1955: 10). 

Holotype ?: T5264; Toowoomba, [Qld], Apr. 

1950, A.W.S. May. (Right wing missing). 
Afrodacus tigrinus May, 1952: 339. 

( = Dacus {Afrodacus) tigrinus (May) after 

Drew, 1978: 85). 

Holotype 2: T5274; Cairns, Q[ld], 7.12.1951, 

A.W.S. May. 

Paratype 9 : T5274; same data except 

19.12.1952. 

There is a 6 labelled allotype in the collection, 

collected in 1956. As this specimen was not 

included in the type series it cannot be 

considered as a type. The allotype appears to be 

conspecific with D. (A.) furvus. 

1 S: T5604; Cairns, Qld. 
Asiadacus calophylli Perkins and May, 1949: 16. 

(= Dacus (Gymnodacus) calophylli (Perkins 

and May) after D. Hardy, 1951: 130). 

Syntypes 1 3, 1 v: T5258-9; Cairns, Q[ld], 

3.2.[19]38, F.A. Perkins. 
Bactrocera pulcher Tryon, 1927: 206. 

( = Dacus {Bactrocera) pulcher (Tryon) after 

Drew, 1978: 85). 

Holotype S: D5163; [Glass House Mountain, 

Qld]. 
Callantra auricoma May, 1955: 153. 

(= Callantra smieroides Walker after Drew, 

1973: 2). 

Holotype J: T5309; Ayr, Q[Id], 17.5.[19]54, 

A.W. May. 

Allotype 2: T5310; Ayr, Q[ld], Nov. 1954. 
Callantra petioliforma May , 1955: 151. 

Holotype ? : T5308; Rockhampton, Q[ld], 

1.4.[19]55, A.W.S. May. 

There is a 6 labelled allotype in the collection 

designated by May (1962: 63). As this specimen 

was not included in the type series it cannot be 

considered as a type. 

1 ?: T5883; Lawes, Qld. 
Callantra pusilla May, 1965: 58. 

Holotype 5 , Paratype 3 : T6307-8; 

Kuranda, Q[ld], 17.3.[19]64, R. Grattidge. 

Paratype S: T6309; same data except 

7.5.[19]64. 
Ceratitella bifasciata D. Hardy, 1967: 133. 

Holotype £: T6529; Ravensbourne National] 

Park, S Qld, 17 Dec. 1952. 
Ceratitella unifasciata D. Hardy, 1967: 137. 

Holotype r : T6528; Eungella National] 

Park, via Maekay, Qld, ll.xii.1965, G. 

Monteith. 
Chaetodacus bancroftii Tryon, 1927: 199. 

( = Dacus (Bactrocera) bancroftii (Tryon) after 



Drew, 1978: 88). 

Holotype, Allotype, Paratype: D3130; 

[Gympie, Qld], 

There are 3 individually pinned specimens each 

bearing a label TYPE D/3130\ Two bear an 

additional label 'Cudrania'. Although Tryon 

designated a holotype, an allotype and a 

paratype it is unclear which is which. 
Chaetodacus bartingtoniae Tryon, 1927: 196. 

( = Dacus (Bactrocera) barringtoniae (Tryon) 

after Drew, 1978: 92). 

Holotype, Allotype, Paratypes : D3127; 

[Cairns, Qld]. 

There are 2 pins in the collection each with 2 

specimens and identically labelled 'B' and 

'TYPE D3127\ The type status of each 

specimen is uncertain. 
Chaetodacus bryoniae Tryon, 1927: 192. 

(- Dacus (Bactrocera) bryoniae (Tryon) after 

Drew, 1978: 20). 

Holotype, Allotype, Paratype: D3124; 

Eidsvold, [Qld], T.C. Bancroft]. 

There are 4 specimens mounted on 2 pins both 

bearing a 'TYPE' label. The sex of each 

specimen and its type status is uncertain. 
Chaetodacus dorsalis var. major Tryon, 1927: 

195. 

( = Dacus (Strumeta) cacuminatus Hering after 

D. Hardy, 1951: 149). 
Type & and Type ?: D3126; no data. 
It is not clear as to the status of these 2 
specimens as Tryon's description is somewhat 
vague. Tryon redescribed dorsalis from 2 6 and 
2 5 (labelled pleisiotypes in collection, D3125, 
without data). Additionally there is a J and a S 
each bearing 2 labels 'D1022' and 'TYPE 
D3126 var. major '. It is possible Tryon's 
redescription was partially based on these 
specimens. Perkins and May (1949:14) 
described a new species, Strumeta solani for 
Tryon's concept of dorsalis, without 
mentioning types. 

Chaetodacus fagraea Tryon, 1927: 188. 
(= Dacus (Bactrocera) fagraea (Tryon) after 
Drew, 1978: 92). 

Syntype v : D3122; Babinda, Q[ld], 
26.6.[19]25, R.W.M. (labelled type). 
Syntype ': D3122; Babinda, Q[Id], 
24.6.[19]25, R.W.M. (labelled allotype). 

Chaetodacus halj ordiae Tryon, 1927: 190. 

( = Dacus (Bactrocera) halfordiae (Tryon) after 
Drew, 1978: 31). 

Syntype t : D3123; Southport, [Qld], 
23.8.[19]26 (labelled holotype). 

Chaetodacus jarvisi Tryon, 1927: 201. 

(= Dacus (Afrodacus) jarvisi (Tryon) after D. 



86 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Hardy, 1951: 120). 

HoLOTYPh ; D3L3J; [Stanthorpe, Qld]. 

Chaetodacus jarvisi var. a/rm/ Trvon, 1927: 202. 
(= Dacus { \frodacus) jarvisi (Trvon) after D. 
Hardv, 1951: 120). 

rvra '. Tvra : D3121; Mackay. (Qld], 
6.3.119)26. 

Chaetodacus rnusae Tryon. 1927: 197 
(= Dacus (Bactrocera) musae (Trvon) after 
Drew. 1978: 37). 

When Trvon described this species he had at 
least 5 specimens before him. all of which had 
been reared from two species of banana, Musa 
cavendishi and M. banksii. On page 199 of the 
description 2 holotypes are proposed, 1 from 
each species oi banana. An allotype and 2 
paratypes were also proposed for specimens 
reared from A/, cavendish*. The following 
specimens, all of uncertain staiUS, are in the 

collection: 

TYPt : D3128; Meringa. Q|ld], 8.6.(1926], ex 

banana. 

Another identically labelled specimen bui of 

undetermined gender. 

Type:- : D3128; Geralton |?Qld], host banana, 

bred in office, |2 

1909 

Another identically labelled specimen but of 

undetermined gender. 

TYPE r : 3129; Cardwell, [Qld], 12.1.[19]26, 

native banana. 
Chaetodacus tr voni var. sarcocephalt Try on . 

1927: 188. 

(= Dacus (Strumeia) trvoni var. sarcocephalt 

(Trvon) after D. Hardy, 1951: 170). 

Holotypi . Allotype *: D3I21; Botfanic] 

Gardfcnsj, (Brisbane!, QW. 

ParaTYPE "•- 03121. no daiu. 

There area ■' and a on a common pin bearing 

the holotype label. As the alloivpe is a \ the 

must be the holotype. 
Chaetodacus trvoni vat. jugkmdis Try&n, T9Z7: 

188. 

{ = Dacus {Strumcta) trvoni (FfOggatO after D. 

Hardy. 1951: 170). 

Hoi oi \ ii : D3I20; [Slanihorpe, Qld], 

16.3.[I9]25. 
Dacutus deenrtans May. 1965; 61. 

(=I>£iCUS (PoHsnnnimetes) decurtans (May) 

after Drew, 1979: 76). 

HoLcmrT r T6310; Berrimah. N.T., 

2S.1.[19]64, C.S. Li. 
Dacus {Buctroicra) ab$eon4itU& Drew and 

Hancock. 19*1. 



tfOLOTYPE \ Paratypcs 2 ': T822I, T8239; 

II km N of Bamaga, on Somerset Road, Qld, 

L9.xii.1974, D.J. Rogers. 

PARATYPts 3 ■': TS222-3. TS226; I km S 

Narau Point. N of Bamaga. N Q[ld], 

19.xii.1974, D.J. Rogers. 

PARATYPES 3 ": TS224 -.5, T8229; 5 km N of 

Hainaga. N Q[ld|, on Somerset Road, 

t9.XH.1974, D.J. Rogers. 

PARATYPES2 r : T8227 -«; 8 km N of Bamaga, 

N Q|ld|. on Somerset Road. 19.XJL1974, D.J. 

Rogers. 

P\R\m>i:S 3 *: T8231, TS237-R; 18 km N of 

Bamaga. N Qflci], on Somerset Road. 

I9.XK.1974, D.J. Ropers. 

PAfeATYFES 3 1: T8232, T8235-6: 27 km N of 

Bamaga, N Q[Id], on Somerset Road, 

15.xii.1974, D.J. Roger-;. 

Paratypes 2 r : TS233-4; 2 1 km N of Bamaga, 

N Q[ld] t on Somerset Road, IS.xii.1974, D.J. 

Rogers. 

PARATVPfi r : TS240. 5 km £ o\' Lockerbie 

Homestead, E Bamaga, N.Q[ki], 18.xii.l974, 

D.J. Rogers. 

P \R \rvpt r : T8241; New Mappoon 

Settlement, near Bamaga, Cape York 

Pen[insula], N.Q|ld|, xif.1974, [D.] J. fcflgi 

Dacus { Batrocera) aeroi>i}iosus Drew and 
Hancock. 1981: 

Hoi on re ": TS242; 4 km E of Lockerbie. 
Cape Vork [Peninsula), N.Qld, Jan 30 - Teh 4, 
1975, G.B. Monteith. 

PARATOPES 3 ' : T8243-5; Gap C [ree|k, 6 mi N 
o\ Bloomfield Rpver]. via Cooktown, N Qld, 
12.xi.1975, C..B. Monteith. 
pAftATYPES 2 C; TS246-7; 31 km E of 
Heaihlands, N Qpd], 14. v. 1976. D. Murray. 

Dacus (Bacfroccra) alhvoodi Drew, 1979: 79. 
HOtOTYPE t, PakaIYI'Ls 4 f : T7777-S1; 
Smith Point, Cobourg Peninsula, N.T., 17 

Sept. 1976, A. Smith. 

PARVlYrns 6 ': T7782-7; Croker Isfland), 

|N.T.), I6.xi.|l9]76. W. Mollah. 

DacUS (Bactrocera) anfixone Dt$vi and Hancock. 
1981: 59. 

H"l ot-> rt- ": TX24K; Gordon's Mine area, 
Iron Range N Qld. 12-18. ii. 1976, G.B. 
Monteith. 

Paratyh • T8249; Iron Range, 25 km S W 
Loekhart, N Q[ld], 14-2I.iv. 1977, R.I. Storey. 
Pnkaiypi : TS250; Yarraman River, lOkmS 
of Iron Range, N Q[ld], 18. \. 1976, D. Murray. 
Paratypf ' TX251; Claudie River, 48 km SW 
Cape Weymouth. N 0[ldf. 19.\.1976. D. 
Murray. 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF DIPTERA 



87 



Paratype Si T8252; Claudie River, 17 km W 

of Iron Range, N Q[ld], 18.x. 1976, D. Murray. 

Paratype £• T8253; Claudie River, 15 km S of 

Iron Range, N Q[ld], 18.x. 1976, D. Murray. 
Dacus {Bactrocera) aurantiacus Drew and 

Hancock, 1981: 62. 

Holotype $ , Paratypes 2 3 : T8254, 

T8256-7; Lockerbie Scrub, 25 km NE of 

Bamaga, N Q[Id], 7-14.iv. 1977, R.I. Storey. 

Paratype S: T8255; 5 km E of Lockerbie 

Homestead, E. Bamaga, N.Q[ld], 18.xh\1974, 

D.J. Rogers. 

Paratype J: T8258; 8 km N of Bamaga, N 

Q[ld], on Somerset Road, 19.xii.1974, D.J. 

Rogers. 
Dacus {Dacus) bellulus Drew and Hancock, 1981 : 

50. 

Holotype t: T8214; 34 km S of Laura, Cape 

York Pen[insula], N Q[ld], 10.viii.1976, J. 

Donaldson. 

Paratypes 2 *: T8215-6; Gov[e], [N.T.], 

15.xi.1976, W. Mollah. 

Paratype ,': T8217; Gove, [N.T.], 16.xi.1976, 

W. Mollah. 

Paratypes 2 $; T8218-9; Gove, [N.T.], 

18.xi.[19]76, W. Mollah. 
Dacus (Bactrocera) erubescentis Drew and 

Hancock, 1981: 64. 

Holotype S, Paratype $t T8259-60; Weipa, 

Cape York Penpnsula], N Q[ld], 3.x. 1977, 

A.W.C. de Witte. 
Dacus (Zeugodacus) fa/lacis Drew, 1972a: 196. 

Holotype $: T6995; Rocky River, Cape York 

[Peninsula], Qld, Nov. 1969, B. Cantrell. 
Dacus (Bactrocera) fuliginus Drew and Hancock, 

1981: 66. 

Holotype S: T8261; 4 km E of Lockerbie, 

Cape York [Peninsula], N Q[ld], 

16-20.ix.1974, G.B. Monteith. 
Dacus (Didacus) hardyi Drew, 1979: 74. 

Holtoype $\ T7788; Fogg Dam, N.T., 

20.1.[19]78. 

Paratype 2: T7789; East Alligator Riv[er], 

N.T., 17. Jul. [19]76, A. Smith. 

Paratype £: T7790; Gordon P[oin]t, Melville 

Is[land], N.T., 16. hi. 1977, T. Angeles. 
Dacus (Bactrocera) humilis Drew and Hancock, 

1981: 68. 

Holotype f : T8262; 4 km E of Lockerbie, 

Cape York [Peninsula], N Q[ld], Jan. 30 - Feb. 

4, 1975, G.B. Monteith. 
Dacus niger Tryon, 1927: 21 1 . 

(= Dacus (Melanodacus) niger Tryon after D. 

Hardy, 1951: 139). 

Holotype, Allotype, Paratype: D3136; 

[Gympie and Cleveland]. 



There are 4 individually pinned specimens in 
the collection all without data apart from the 
label 'TYPE D/3136' on each. The status of 
these specimens is uncertain as Tryon recorded 
only 3 specimens. 

Dacus (Bactrocera) opiliae Drew and Hardy, 
1981: 131. 

Holotype S: T8427; [ex laboratory culture, 
Darwin, N.T.], Apr. [19]79, G. Fitt. 
Paratype &: T8428; Darwin, Northern 
Territory, 2.ii.l976, A. Allwood. 
Paratype S : T8429; Pine Creek, Stuart 
Highway, N.T., Feb. 1976, A. Allwood. 
Paratype $; T8430; Melville Island, Northern 
Territory, Jan. 1976, A. Allwood. 
Paratype /: T8431; Gunn P[oin]t, [N.T.], 18 
Oct. 1976, A. Smith. 

Paratype ?: T8432; Kimb[erley] Research] 
St[atio]n, W.A., 17.1.1977. 

Dacus (Bactrocera) peninsularis Drew and 
Hancock, 1981: 70. 

Holotype ■', Paratypes 9 ': T8263, 
T8265-9, T8273-6; Lockerbie Scrub, 25 km NE 
of Bamaga N Q[ld], 7-14.lv. 1977, R.I. Storey. 
Paratype £: T8264; Badu Island, Torres 
Strait, [Qld], 21. vi. 1977, R. Paton. 
Paratype £: T8270; 2 km N of Bamaga, N 
Q[ld], on Somerset Road, 19.xii.1974, D.J. 
Rogers. 

Paratype ': T8271; 5 km N of Bamaga, N 
Q[ld], on Somerset Road, 19. xh. 1974, D.J. 
Rogers. 

Paratype S\ T8272; 8 km N of Bamaga, N 
Q[ld], on Somerset Road, 19.xii.1974, D.J. 
Rogers. 

Paratype ■?: T8277; Bamaga, Cape York 
Penjinsula], N Q[ld], xii.1974, [D.]J. Rogers. 
Paratype r : T8278; Red Island Point, 3 km N 
of Bamaga, N Q[ld], 15.xii.1974, D.J. Rogers. 
Paratype $; T8279; Vallack Point, Cape 
York Penfinsula], N Q[ld], xii.1974, [D.]J. 
Rogers. 

Paratype $ : T8280; Blue Valley Creek, 1 1 km 
E of Bamaga, N Q[ld], 9.x. 1976, D. Murray. 
Paratype £: T8281; 67 km E of Weipa, N 
Q[ld], 21.x. 1976, D. Murray. 
Paratype S: T8282; Deep Creek, 37 km N of 
Coen, N Q[ld], 21.x. 1976, D. Murray. 
Paratype £: T8283; Archer Xing (= River 
crossing), Cape York Pen[insula], Qld, 
14. ix. 1974, G.B. Monteith. 

Dacus (Bactrocera) perkinsi Drew and Hancock, 
1981: 72. 

Holotype £: T8284; 3 km E of Lockerbie, 
Cape York [Peninsula], N Qld, Jan. 30 - Feb. 
24, 1975, G.B. Monteith. 



8S 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Paraiypi- ': T8285; ChinamanA Garden, 23 
km NE of Bamaga N Q[ld], 9.x. 1976, D. 
Murray. 

Paratvpp ' : T8286; Horn Island, Tone- 
Strait, N Q!d. 25-29,1.1975, R- Raven. 
PARATYPES 3 - . T8287-9, Lockerbie Scrub. 25 
km NE or Bamaga, N Q[ld], 9.x. 1976, D. 
Murray. 

Para types 3 f : T8290-2; Iron Range. Cape 
York Penfmsulal, N Q[ld], vii. 1977. R. Goebei. 
Par \n pl ': TB293; Iron Range, 25 km S\V of 
Lot khan, N Q[ld], 14-21 Lv.1977, RE Storey. 
Paraiapp r : T8294; Eet Hill vicinity, Moa 
(Banks) Isfland], Torres Str[aitl. N Qld, July 
9-13, 1977, G.B. Montieth & D. Cook. 
Dacus {Bactrocera) tomtgae Drew and Hancock, 
19SP 75. 

HOLOTVPE ', PARATYPES 2 ': T8295-6, 
T83QO; Gordon's Mine area, Iron Range, N 
Old, l2-lS.ji.J976, G.B. Motueith. 
Para i vims 3 ': T9297-9; Iron Range, 25 km 
SW Of Lockhart, N Q(ld]. 14-21. iv. 1977. R I. 

StOIYV. 

DacilS {Bactrocera) rujofuscidus Drew and 
Hancock, 1981: 77. 

HmoiYPt T : T8301; 15 km W of Captain Billy 
Creek, Cape York Pen|insula|. N Q[ld], 
142'45'E, M C 40'S, 4-9.vii.1975. D,L. 
Hancock. 

Paratvpl • T&302; Treverhan C|ree]k, via 
Helenvale. N Qld, 2-3. \. 1974, G.B. Monteith. 

Dacus (Baclrocera) russeolus Drew and Hancock, 
1981: 80. 

Hoioiypl. ' T8303; Paluma. near Mount 
Spec, N QILdJ, 8.U.1975, R.A.I. Drew. 
P\raiapes 3 r : T8304-5, TS30S; Paluma near 
M[oun]t Spec, NQ[ld], 8.ii.l975, R.A.I. Drew. 
Parma res 2 / : T8306-7; The Crater, 25 km S 
of Atherton, N Q|ld|, 6. u. 1975, R.A.I. Drew. 

Dacus \Pacifodacus) salamander Drew and 
Hancock, 1981 1 51. 

Hoioivi'h ': T8220; Bamaga, Cape York 
Peninsula), N Q[ld1, Mar/Apr, 1976. W. 
Kilpatriek. 

Dacus ugncitifer Tryon, 1927: 210. 

Dacus (Daculus) si^mtifer Tryon after D. 

Hardy, 195!: 127). 

SvMYPrs 2 . D3135; (Bowen, Qld]. tBoih 

specimens badly damaged a\u\ bear identical 

labels 'TYPE IY3135'). 
Xeodacus newmani Perkins 1937: 58. 

(= DOCUS (Dacus) newmani (Perkins) after 

May, 1963; 49). 

Hwu>[\pe : T8586; Carnarvon. W A M S 

Sept. 1929, l.M. Maekerras. 



Neodacus signatifrom May. 1955: 155. 

( = Dacus (Dacus) signuttfrons (May) after 

May, 1963: 49), 

KOLCXl ypfi ' . T5307; Brisbane, Q|ldJ, 

12.10.[19]53, A.W S May. 
Scozeugodacus aureus May. 1951: 10. 

( « Dacus {Hemtzeu^odacus) aureus (May) 

alter Drew, 1972: 21). 

fcJOLGTYPE '. Ai LOTYP1 : T5262-3; 

Ravensbourne, [QId], 13.2.[19]50. A AV.S. 

May. 
Paracerantclla curycephala D. Hardy, 1967: 140 

Hoi oi YPi- : T6527; Ganon. Q[ld], 

13.x. [19136, F.A. Perkins. 
Poiistomimetes ahsonijacics May, 1955: 156. 

(- Dacus {Dacus) ahsonifacies (May) aftei 

Drew and Hancock, 1981: 51). 

Holoim'L r , Ai | nnn : T5305-6; 

Stanthorpe. Qlld|, 21. and 23.10.[19]53, 

A.W.S. May. 
PsihdacUS exigUUS May, 1957: 300. 

( - Dacus (Dactdus) exiguits (Mav) after Drew, 

1972; 21). 

HounvPL : T5607; Atherton, Qfldl. 

5.12. [19)55. A W.5. May. 
Rioxa araucariae Tryon, 1927: 219. 

Holotypp, Ali oiypi;. PARAVYPfc: D3 138; 

[McPlicrson Range, Qld]. Only 2 specimens 

have been located in the collection, a '. and a 

headless and abdomenless specimen. Both bear 

identical labels *D3I3n' and *D453\ 
Rioxa jarvisi Tryon. 1927: 221. 

HOLOTYPE ; D3I39; Stanthorpe, Qld, 1926. 
Strumeta a/yxiae May, 1952: 335. 

I- DacUS {Baclrocera) alvxtae (Mav) after 

Drew, 1 978: 85). 

Hot or, i-f ', Ai LQTYPE -: T5275-6, 

Mossman, Q[Id], 10.8.(19151. A.W.S. May. 

Para type : T858I : same data. 
Strumeta amplextseta May, 1962. 66. 

{ - Dacus {Boi irocera) ampiexiseia (May) after 

Drew, 1978: 85). 

Holoi V pi ' : T5860: Atherton, Q[ld], 

18.S-I1916I. A W.S. May. 
Strumeta aqutlonis May. 1965: 62. 

( = Dacus [BacirOCera) aqudonis (May) alter 

Drew, 1978: 88) 

Holotypp ' , Parai vri ' : T631 1-2, 

Nightdilt. N.T.. 2.5.[19]61. E. Austwick. 

P\R\rvp(- >: T6313; same data Wicepl 

21.iv. 1961. 
Strumeta hidentata May. 1962a: 527. 

(= Dacus ( Bactrocera) bidentattts (May) after 

Drew, 1978: 91). 

holotype ' ■, Allotype , Paratvpes i ', 4 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF D1PTERA 



B9 



: T5890-6; Byfieid, IQlcJ], 24.10.[19)61, 

A.W.S. May. 
Strumeta hilineata Perkins and May, 1949: 7. 

< - Dams (Bactrocera) mavi Hardy after Drew . 

1978; 33). 

SVNrvi'ts L \ I it; T5249-50; Cairns, Q[ldj. 

12.9.[19J37, FA. Perkins (both are labelled 

holoiype). 
Strumeta endiandrae Perkins and May, 1949: 9. 

(= Dacus {Bactrocera) endiandrae (Perkirts 

and Mav) after Drew, 1 978: 79). 

BYNTVPBS 1 *, 1 15251-2; Cairns, [Q!d]. 

I6.I0.(19]37, P.A. Perkins (both are labelled 

holotype). 
Strumeta fuscatus Perkins and May, 1949: 5. 

( - Dacus {Bactrocera) laiicaudus Hardy and 

Drew, 1978: 87). 

SYNTYPBS 1 \ 1 ; T5247-S: Cairns. Q[ld] ( 

12.9.[19]37, F.A. Perkins (both are labelled 

holoiype). 
Strumefu hispidula May, 1957: 301. 

{- Dacus {Bactrocera) hispidulus (Mav) alter 

Drew, 1978: 87). 

Holotyh T5595; Atherton, Q[ld], 

23.4.(19156, A.w,s. May. 

There is a r in the collection labelled allotype, 

designated by May (1962: 68). As this specimen 

was not included in the type series, it cannot be 

considered as a type. 

1 !-, 15884; Alherton, Qld. 
Sirumeta manskii Perkins and May, 1949: 3. 

t = Dacus (Bactrocera) recurrens (Bering) ahei 

Drew and Hancock, 19SI: 82). 

Syntypcs 1 ', 1 . T5245; Cairns, Q[ld), 

12.9.119)37, F.A. Perkins (both labelled 

holotype). 
Strumeta tnetas Perkins and May. 1949: 12. 

{= Dacus {Bactrocera} me/as (Perkins and 

May) after Drew, 1978. 35). 

SYNTYPE : T5255; dayndah. [Qldl. 

10.3. [19)46, A.W.S. MJayl (labelled holotype). 
Sirumew mendosa May, 1957: 303. 

(= Dacus {Bactrocera) mendosus (May) after 

Drew, 1978: 87). 

HOLOTYFF : T5594; Atherton, Q[ld], 

18.6. [19)56, A.W.S. May. (Right wing 

missing), 
Strumeta mutabilts May, 1951. 6. 

(= Dacus {Bactrocera) mutahtlis (May) after 

Drew. 1978: 40), 

HOLOTYPE r , ALLOTYPE : T5265-6; 

Toowoomba, [Qld], Oct. 1950. A.W.S May. 

Strumeta notatagena May. 1952; 337. 

( = Dacus {Bactrocera) notalagenu (May) after 
Drew. 1978: 86) 



Hoiotvh T5277; Cairns. Q(lcl], 

5. M. 1 19)52, A.W.S. May. 

There are 3 f in the collection labelled allotype 

and paratopes designated bj May (1957; 305). 

As these specimens were not included in the 

type series, they cannot be considered as types. 

3 : T5596; Atherton, Qld. 
smimeto pallidum Perkins and May. 1949; 10. 

{-Dacus {Bactrocera} paiiidus (Perkins and 

May) after Drew, 1978: 91). 

Symypes 1 \ 1 : T5253-4; Cairns, Q[k!]. 

29.3. [19)38, F.A. Perkins. 
Strumeta pha/eriae May. 1955: I 

{ = Dacus {Bactrocera) phateriae (May) afer 

Drew, 1978: 88). 

Holotype r . Allotype :, Paratypes i t, I 

1 : T53I5 B; Port Douglas, Qlld), 2.6.[19]55, 
A.W.S. May. 
Strumeta quadra ta May, 1962a: 530. 

(= Dacus {Bactrocera) quadrants (May) after 

Drew, 1978: 91). 

Holotype r : T5897; Atherton, [Qld], 

2.3. [19)62, W. Yarrow. 

PARATYPb * : T5902: ^ame data as holotype, 

PARATYPtr ': T5903; same data except 

19.1.[I9]62. 

Paratypf J : T5904: same data except 

9.2. [19)62. 

Par.atypi-s 2 ': T5S98, T5900; Atherton 

Tableland, Q[ld), 12. [19)60, A.W.S. Mav. 

Paraiypi- ': T5899; Atherton, Q[ld], Dec. 

I960, A.W.S. Maw 

PAKAtYPES 2 ': T5901, T5907; Wongabcl. 

Atherton Tableland, Q[Id), 12. [19)60, A.W.S. 

Mav. 

Paraiypi: ? . T5905; Byfieid. [Qld], 

:S.2.[19]62, W. Yarrow. 

pAK\T\Pt '; T5906; Rita ls[Iand], [Qld|, 

31.1.[19]62, W. Yarrow. 

Strumeta robiginosa May, 1957: 305. 

i - Dacus [Bactrocera ) robiuinosus (May) alter 

Drew, 1978: 91). 

MoLOiM'i 15592; Cairns, Q[ld), 

8.11.119)55, A.W.S. May. 

Para n pp : T5593; same data exeepi 

KS.U.[I9]55. 

Strumeta rureseens May, 1967: 81. 

(= Dacus {Bactrocera ) ru/escens (May) idler 
Drew. 1978: 89). 

Hoi i i i r , PARATYP1. r : T6545-6; 
Kuranda, Q[ld], 16 7. [19)64. R. Grattidge. 

Strumeta sitvtcola May, 1962: 68. 

(= Dacus [Bactrocera ) sihucoia (May) after 
Drew, 1978: 89). 



90 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



HotOTYPE : T5862; Riiigrose National] 

Park, Atherton Tableland, Qld, .12.[I9]60, 

A.W.S. Mas. 

p70P9017 ': T5850-5, T5862-72, Atherton, 

Qld. 
Slrumeta solani Perkins and May, 1949: 14. 

(= Dacus {Bactrocera ) GQCUmirtUtUS (Hering) 

alter D. Hardy. 1951: 149; Drew, 1978: 22). 

P70P9O1 M i T5257-S; Atherton. Q[ld], 

26.7.[19]37, F.A. Perkins (both labelled 

holotype). 
Strumeta tetiuifascia May, 1965: 64. 

(= Dacus (Bactrocera ) tenuifascia (Mav) after 

Drew, 1978: 91). 

Holotype ! , Paratopes 2 r : T6315-7; 

NightclifT, NT., 28.7.[|9]6h E. Austwick. 
Zeugod&tiiS chonstus May, 1962: 72. 

( = Dacus (Zeuzodacus ) chonstus (May) after 

Drew, 1972- 20). 

HOU ii Yi>! f : T5874, Atherton, Q[ld], 

30.3.[I9J6l, A.W.S. Mav. 

ALLOTYPE : T5875; Ayr, Q[ld], !9.12.[19]56; 

A.W.S. May. 

Paratvpi ; T5878; same data except Apr, 

1957. 

PARATVPh ': T5876; Atherton, Q[ld], Dec. 

I960, A.W.S. May. 

Paratypf : T5877; same data except 

I.8.fl9]55. 

PARATYPE ' j T5S79; same data except 

3.6.1960. 

Family CYPSELOSOMAT1DAL 

Cypselo&OHta australis McAlpine, 1966: 676. 
p70P90l '.I : T8031-2; Bat Cave, Carrai via 
Kempsey, N.S.W., 19-20 Jul. 1964, D.K. 
McAlpine. 

lamilv LALXANUDAE 

Saptomyza hardii Lower, 1953; 73. 

HOLOTVPE j Paka TYPES 4 : T8571-5; 

Blaekheath. [NS.WJ, 13 Nov. 1919, OH. 

Hardy. 
Supmmyza venusta Lower, 1953: 74. 

HoLOTYiM : TS576; Brisbane, [Qld]. 

10. 8. [19] 15, H. Hacker. (Right wing missing). 
Homoneura uuhila I ower, 1953: 75. 

Houmn- \ PARATYPES 1 '. 1 : T6365-7; 

Tooloom, N.S.W., Jan. 1926, H. Hacker. This 

species tfl a primary homonvm (see Malloch, 

1929: 322). 

Family HELEOMYZ1DAE 

Leriopsis montana McAlpine, 1967: 76. 

Pxrmm'i : T6069; Cradle M[oun]t(ain], 



Tas.,24J.[l9]25 |G.H. Hardy]. 
Paratypb i : T6070; .same data except 
21.1.[I9]25. 
Cairnsimyia excavata McAlpine, 1968: 271. 
Hon ) i \ n : T6530; Stanthorpe. Q[Id], 
26.8.1925, F.A. Perkins. 

Family SPHAEROCER1DAE 

Leptocera (Biroina ) dodo Richards, 1973: 348. 
Hoi on hi- ': T7128i Hellvcr Gorge, 15 ml. N 
of Waratah, NW Tas., 2-4.it. 1967, G. 
Monteith. 

Monteuhiana cynthia Richards, 1973: 394. 
Holotype t : T7125; Cynthia Bay, Lake St 
Clair. Tas., 7-8. ii. 1967, G. Monteith. 

Monietthiuna dealata Richards, 1973: 393. 
Holoiypl ; : T7126; Hellyer Gorge, 15 ml. N 
of Waratah, NW Tas., 2-4.ii.l967. G. 
Monteith. 

Otwayia sahina Richards, 1973: 390. 

HOLOTYPE *: T7129; Grey R[iver] crossing, 
Otway Ranges, Vic. 26.1.1967, G. Monteith. 

Family CLUS1IDAE 

AUometapon perkinsl McAlpine, i960: 86. 

Hoioium fj T5684; Lamington National 

Park. Qld. 
Heteromeriri'jiu hypoteuca McAlpine, I960: 72. 

Hoi.otypp f: T5683; Lamington National 

Park, Qld. 

Family AGROMYZIDAE 

Afelanui>ro/nv?,u caulophaga Kleinsehmidt, 1960: 

334. 

{ - I iriomvza caulophaza (Kleinsehmidt) after 

Spencer, 1963: 332). 

Hoi ot vim- : T5810; Nudgee, (QUI, Oct. 

[19]57, R.P. Kleinsehmidt. 
Meianaarornvza dianeiiue kleinsehmidt, 1960: 

331. 

( = Op/uomyia diunellae (Kleinsehmidt) after 

Spencer, 1966:49). 

HotOTYPE : T5808; Coolangatta, [Qld], 

25.4.(19156. A.R. Brimblecombe. 

A[ loiyiu ■ : 1 5809; same data except 

II. 6. [19]60. 
Meianagromyza indigo ferae Kleinsehmidt, I960: 

329. 

(= Ophiomyia ituiiiioferae (Kleinsehmidt) after 

Spencer, 1978: 86). 

HotOTYPl \ ALLOTYPE .: T5806-7; Eight 

Mile Plains, |Qld], May 1955, R. Colbran. 
Melanagromyza pisi Kleinsehmidt, I960: 324 

( = Ophiom via pisi (Kleinsehmidt) after 

Spencer, 1978: 98). 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF DIPTERA 



91 



HOLOTVPfi ; T5804; Toowung. (Qld], Oct. 
1957, R.P. Kleinschmidt. 
Melunugromvza potvphvta Kleinschmidt, i960: 
326. 

(= Tropicomva polvphvia (Kleinschmidt) after 
Spencer, 1973: 19t). 

HCft ot\pe . Allotype l : T5802-3; 
Kenmore, [Qld], Feb. 1957, R.P. Kleinschmidt. 

Melanagrotnyza wikstroemiae Kleinschmidt, 

I960: 321. 

I < )phiomyta wikstroemiae (Kleinschmidt) 

after Spencer, 1978: 106). 

Holotypl ': T5800; Kenmore, (Qld], Feb. 

1954, R.P. Kleinschmidt. 

Allotype : T580 1 ; Coolangatta, Qld. , 

.i.[19]59. A, Brimblecombe. 

Family NEUROCHAETIDAE 

Neurochaehi mvcrsa McAlpine, 197S: 285. 
PARATYPES 1 ', 1 : T8029-30; Brinerville, 
near Bellingen. N.S.W.. Apr. 1977, H.C. 
Cogger and E. Cameron. 

Family DROSOPHILIDAE 

Acletoxenus quadristriaius Duda. 1936: 347. 

SYNTYPES 3 : F8582-4; Thursday ls[land], Qld, 

vii.1934, H.J Hockings. (All bear round 

eotype labels). 
Drosophita canceltata Mather, 1955: 550. 

SYNTYPES : \ 2 : T5326-9; Moggill, S E 

Q|ld) t 19. m. 1452 (labelled paratypes). 
Drosophita dispar Mather, 1955: 570. 

SYNTYPES 2 !,2 . T5346-9; Samford, S E 

Q[ld], 22.vii.1953 (.labelled paratypes). 
Drosophila fumida Mather, 1960: 230. 

Paratyphi 2 f , 2 : T6005-7, Pemberton, S 

\Y Wat Australia, 12 Dec. 1956. W.B. Mather. 

I Specimen^ badly damaged). 
opbila tev/5 Mather, 1955: 561. 

( - Drosophita hrvuni Malloch after Mather, 

1956: 65), 

S> N i WES 2 ' 3 : T5341-4; Maroochydore, S 

E Q|ld|, 8.01.1953 (labelled paratypes). 
Drosophila maculosa Mather, 1955: 560. 

(= Drosophila novamacutosa Mather, 1956: 

65, maculosa preoccupied) 

SYNTYPES 2 \ 2 : T5336-9; Moggill, S E 

Q[Id], 19. x). 1952 (labelled paratypes). 
Drosophila novamacutosa Mather, 1956: 65 (See 

Drosophita maculosa Mather, 1955: 560). 
Drosophila opaca Mather, 1955: 558. 

(-Drosophila submticla Malloch after Bock, 

1976: 74). 

Sv\ i ypES 2 \ 2 : T5331-4; Noosa, S E Q[ld). 

9.1.1953 (labelled paratypes). 



Drosophita rubida Mather, I960' 234. 

P-\k N rVT*£S 2 r . 2 : T6001-4, Crystal 

Cascades, N E Q[idl, 31 May 1958, W.B. 

Mather. 
Drosophila versicolor Mather, 1955: 573. 

( = Drosophila buzzulii Paterson and Wheeler 

after Mather, 1957; 224). 

PI s 2 ( . 2 : T5346-9; Samford, S E 

Q(ld|, 22.vii.1953 (labelled paratypes). 

Family MUSCIDAE 

Dichactomyia ar rowans Pont, 1969: 270. 

PftH yi \ i T6606; Cairns, Q|id]. 

27.6.[19|50, W.A. Smith. 

Para r\ pl I : T6607; Dceral, Q|ld|. 

27.6 [19J50, W.A.Smith. 
Musca jeniusont Johnston and Bancroft, 1920 

201. 

LECTO'tYPE '. PaRALFCTOTYPE i D26?7; 

[Eidsvold, Qld]. 
Musca hitli Johnston and Bancroft, 1920a: 35. 

( = Musca icrraereginac Johnston and Bancroft 

after Pont and Paterson, 1971: 110). 

LECTOTYPB ! , Parau.'TOI vpf ; D2636 

[Eidsvold, Qld]. 
Musca ierrae-regmae Johnston and Bancroft. 

1920a- 31. 

Lit toiYpr ', Paralectotype : D2637-S. 

[Eidsvold, Qld]. 

Family SARCOPHAGIDAL 

Blaesoxipha si milts Cantrell, 197S: 363. 

Holotypl ' : T7692; Tarome area, S E Q[ld]. 

16.iii.1975, B.K. Cantrell. 

Paraeype - : T7698; Emerald, [Qld], 5.3.1974, 

G.K. Wane. 
Ilclicohia ausiratis Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 50. 

(~ Phytosurcophaga aus/ralis (Johnston and 

Tiegs) after Lopes, 1967: 145). 

HOLorvPE D234S; Brisbane, [Qld]. 

.9.1I9]20. 
Sarcophaga alpha Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 57 

(= Tricholioproctia alpha (Johnston and 

Tiegs) after Lopes. 1954: 244). 

Hou'tYPi ': D235I: Brisbane, [Qld]. 
Sarcophaga hancrofii Johnston and Tiegs, 192L 

85. 

{ - rerpusonimyia bancrofti (Johnston and 

I icL-s) after Fopes, 1958: 547). 

Holuiypi ': D2362; [Lamington] National 

Park, Qld, .1.119]21. 
Sarcophaga beta Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 58. 

( » Tricholioproctia beta (Johnston and Tiegs) 

after Lopes. 1954: 242) 



92 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



ftOLOTYPf : D2366; Bred from carrion, Feb 

17, 1921. 

ALLOTYPE -: D2366; no data. 
Sarcophaga bnmneopalpis Johnston and Tiegs, 

1922: 184. 

I - Parasarcophaga orchidea (Boeitcher) after 

G. Hardy. 1932: 27y and 1943: 30). 

KOLOI 1 PE I : TS577; Brisbane |Qld], 

20.12. [19117, H. Hacker. 
Sarcophaga delta Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 62. 

( - Tncholioproctia beta (Johnston and Tiegs) 

after Lopes, 1954: 242). 

KOI arm ': D2354; Brisbane. QkL 

(Abdomen on B separate pin with labels 

'Caught on flowers Brisbane' and 'delta 1 ). 
Sarcophaga depressa (Robineau-Desvoidy), 1830: 

322. 

There is a labelled allotype in the collection 

which was not included in the type species and 

cannot be considered as a type. 

1 : D2360; Brisbane, [Qld]. 

S. iota Johnston and Tiegs was considered to be 

eonspeeific with this specimen by Johnston and 

rfegS (1922a: 179). 
Sarcophaga eta Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 65. 

( = ParasarcophagQ eta (Johnston and Tiegs) 

after Lopes, 1959; 64). 

HoLOTYPr ?: D2357; no data. 

Allotype : T8578; Brisb|ane, Qld]. 

.10.[19]20. 
SarcophagQ gamma Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 

60. 

(= Parasarcophaga orchidea (Bocttchcr) after 

G. Hardy, 1943: 30). 

Holotype ': D2350; Brisbane, Qld. 
SarcophagQ impatiens Walker, 1S49: 828. 

(- Thchoiioprocfia impatiens (Walker) alter 

Lopes, 1954: 246). 

There is a * labelled allotype in the collection, 

designated by Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 52- As 

this specimen was not included in the type 

.series, il cannot be considered as a type. 

1 ' : D236I; Brisbane, Qld. 
Sarcophagi iota Johnston and Tie^s. 1921: 79. 

( = Taylarimvia tota (Johnston and Tiegs) after 

Lopes. 1959: 47). 

Houmn t; D2360; Brisbane, [Qld|, Nov. 

1920. 
Sarcophaga kappa Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 81. 

( = Johnstonimyia kappa (Johnston and Tiegs) 

alter 1 opes. 1959: 50). 

Hoi.otv it t : D2356; Brisbane. [Qld], 

.4.[19]21. 
Sacrophaga misera Walker, 1S49* 829. 

( = Parasarcf'phava mtsera (Walker) after G. 

Hardy, 1943: 30). 



There is a I specimen Of 1 his species in the 

collection labelled allotype, designated by 

Johnston and Tiegs (1921: 67). As this 

specimen was not included in the type series, it 

cannot be considered as a type. 

1 ',no data. 
Sarcophaga {Parasarcophaga ) omega Johnston 

and Tiegs. 1921: 86). 

( - Parasarcophaga omega (Johnston and 

Tiegs) after Lopes, 1959: 57). 

Holotype r: D2355; Brisbane, [Qld]. 

.4.[19]21. 
Sarcophaga omikron Johnston and Teigs, 1 92 1: 

82. 

(= Tncholioproctia omikron (Johnston and 

Tiegs) after Lopes, 1954: 256). 

Hoi ot> pe ' , Allotype l : D2623; no data. 

Para i ypl I : D2623; Brisbane, [Qld], 

7.2.[19]2K (labelled eotype). 
Sarcophaga Sigftia Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 84. 

( = Parasarcophaga aurijrons (Macquart) after 

Lopes, 1959: 62). 

Hoi on pi ; , ALLOTYPE : D2347; no data, 
Sarcophaga theta Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 78. 

(- Trieholioproctio froagatti (Taylor) after 

Lopes, 1954: 268). 

Holotype & : D2364: B[ris]bane, [Qld), 

.6.[19]20. 

ALLOTYPE : TfBlty Brisbane. Qld]. 

.1. [I9]20. 
Sarcophaga trvoni Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 54 

(= TrichoHoproctta tryoni (Johnston and 

Tiegs) after Lopes, 1954: 258). 

Holotype r . Allotype : D2365; no data. 
Sarcophaga triplex G. Hardy, 1943: 27. 

| TrickoKoptot tia triplex (Hardy) after 

Lopes. 1954: 264). 

HOLOTYPE : : T8580; Aramara, [Qld], Dec. 

1939 A.R.B. 
Sarcophaga zeta Johnston and Tiegs, 1921: 76. 

( ^ Tricholtoproaia zeta (Johnston and Tiegs) 

after I opes, 1954: 240). 

HoLonpi. ': D2353; no locality, Apr I, 1921. 



family TACHINIDAL 

Besserioides sexualis Cufraci, 1938: 185. 

(- Besserioides varicolor (Curran) after 

Crosskey, 1973: 111). 

PARVtYPE i: D5197; Latdley. Qld, 2.1.1928. 

M.G. Lvans. (Specimen badly damaged). 
Thrycotyga curriei Cujtba, 1938: 197, 

(= txortsta curriei (Curran) after Crosskey, 

L973: 143). 

Paratype ': D5195: Biloela, Qld. 20.ii.1927, 

G.A. Curne. 



P \N1ELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF D1PTERA 






Zenil/ia noetuae Curran, 1938: 199. 

(= Carcelia noetuae (Curran) alter Crnsskcv. 

1973; 147). 

Paratype P: D5196; Bitocla, Qld. I4.d. 1927, 

G.A. Currie. 
Zosteromyw brevijaaes G. Hardy, 1934: }tf. 

(= Trisonospila hrevifacies (Hardy) after 

Crosskey, 1973: J4I). * 

Lectotvpe - : H 127; Tooloom , NSW . , 

29.1.[19]26. 



SOUTH PACIFIC SPECIES 

Family TEPHRIT1DAE 

Asiadacus nigrescens Drew, 1968: 23. 

( - Dacus (Strumeta ) nigreseens (Drew) after 

Drew, 1972. 21). 

Holotype f : T6576; Rabaul, New Britain, 

14.xii.1966, Sir A. Mann. 
Asiadacus triangularis Drew, 1968: 21. 

(= Dacus (Pacifodacus ) triangularis (Drew) 

after Drew, 1972: 20). 

Holotype r . Paratope r : T6574-5; Rabaul, 

New Britain, 14.xii.1966, A. Mann. 
Callantra capillaris Drew, 1972a: 185. 

Holotype ': T6982; Wabirone Village, Kieta, 

Bougainville Isfland], 18.vi.1970, R.M. 

Berena. 

Parahpl T69S3; DASF, Buin, 

Bougainville Is[land], 3-7. vi. 1970, R.M. 

Berena. 
Cat/antra mayi Brett, 1972a: 187. 

Hololype t\ T6984; Wau, N[ew] G[uinea], 

3-t0.iv.1965, E.N. Marks. 
Dacus (Zeugodacus ) abdoangusius Drew , 1972a: 

191. 

Holotype ' : T6996; Daru Village, 

Bougainville Isfland]. 15- 30. v. 1970, R.M 

Berena. 
Dacus {Strumeta ) abdofuscatus Drew. 1971: 48. 

Holotype r : T6938; Aroana Estate, Aroa 

Rliver], Papua, 29 Nov. 1963, D.K. McAlpine. 
Dacus {Strumeta ) abdolonginquus Drew, 1971: 

50. 

Hhiotypl ': T6939; L.A.E.S. Keravat, E 

New Britain, .ix.1969, D.F. O'Suliivan. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) abdonigellus Drew, 1971: 52. 

Holotype j : T6940; Bubia, near Lae, 

T.P.N.G., 28 Dee. 1963, D.K. McAlpine. 

Allohpe : T6941; Bainyik, T.P.N.G., 20 

Dec. 1963. D.K. McAlpine. 
Dacus (Asiadacus ) abdopaliescens Drew, 1971: 

31. 

( = Dacus i Pacifodacus ) abdopaliescens Drew 

after Drew, 1972: 21). 



Holotype *: T6929; Lumi, West Scpik 

District), New Guinea, 8.\ii.I967, A. Mann. 
Dacus (Zeugodacus ) arnoenus Drew, 1972a: 192. 

Holotype i : T6999; Kieta, Bougainville 

Island, 13.V.1970, R.M. Berena 
DacUs {Strumeta ) ampins Drew, 1971: 55. 

Holotype ■ : T6942; Keravat, E New Britain, 

be 1969, D.F. O'Suliivan. 
Dacus (Asiadacus ) uneuviitutus Drew, 1971: 33. 

(- Dacus (Pacifodacus ) aneuvittatus Drew 

after Drew, 1972. 21). 

Hoi orvpt J : T6930; Sarramea, New 

Caledonia, 19.xii.l969, P. Cochereau. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) anomalus Drew, 1971: 57. 

Holotype S, Paratype. 5: T6943-4; Vila, 

New Hebrides, 6 Jan. 1970, E. Kanas. 
Dacus {Strumeta ) anthracinus Drew. 1971: 59, 

HOLO i yp» I : T6945; Upper Warangoi 

V[alleyl, E New Britain, 10-27. \\1969, D.F. 

O'Suliivan. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) aterrimus Drew, 1972a: 204. 

HOLOTYPE • T6991; Daru Village, 

Bougainville Is[land], 15-20.V.1970, R.M. 

Berena. 
Dacus (Zeugodacus ) brachus Drew, 1972a: 194. 

Holot\pe T : T6994; Mount Lawes, Centlral) 

Distinct 1, Papua, 9-13.iti.1970, T.L. Fenner. 
Dacus (Asiadacus ) confine ns Drew, 1971: 35. 

(= Dacus {Strumeta ) confluens Drew aftei 

Drew. 1972: 21). 

Holotype 1 : 1693 1 ; Daru Village. 

Bougainville [Island], May 1970. R.M. Berena. 
Dacus (Paratridacns ) coraanus Drew, 1971: 46. 

HOLOTYPE ': T6937; Bainyik, T.P.N. C M 2(1 

Dec. 1963, D.K. McAlpine. 
Dacus (Zeugodacus ) eurtus Drew, 1972a: 195. 

Holotypl ■': T6997; Vudal, E New Britain. 

Jun. 1970, S. Medcalf. 
Dacus (Paradacus ) decipiens Drew, 1972: 13. 

Holotypl ; Allotype '. T6987-8; Keravat. 

New Britain, May 1966. G.S. Dunn. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) decumanus Drew. 1972a: 205, 

Holotype ': T6989; Daru Village, 

Boungainville Is[land], I5-30.V.1970, R.M. 

Berena. 

Paratype ': T6990; Yura Village, Buin. 

Bougainville [Island]. 4-8.vi.l970. R.M 

Berena. 
Dacus (Strumeta 1 denigraius Drew, 1971: 61. 

( = Dacus (Bactrocera ) tongicornis Macquart 

after D. Hardy, 1976: 246). 

FJoi on i j f •' : T6946; Namatanai, New 

Ireland, 24-30.iv.1970, D. O'Suliivan. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) dyscritus Drew, 1971: 63. 

HOLOTYPE r : T6947; Keravat, E New Britain 

ix, 1969. D.F O'Suliivan. 



94 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Paratype ': 16948; Vudal. E New Britain, 

6.x. 1969, A. Luck-Ie. (Head missing from 

paratype). 
Dacus (Strumeta ) ebeneus Drew, 1971: 65 

HoroTVPE T; T6949; Anse Vata, Noumea, 

New Caledonia, Dec. 1966, P. Cochercau. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) enochrus Drew, 1972a: 207. 

HOLpTVPE ': T6993; Daru Village, 

Bougainville Island, I5-30.V.I970. R.M. 

Berena. 
Dacus (Zeugodacus \ gracilis Drew, 1972a: 198. 

IfOLoTYFE *: T6998: Malekula inland], New 

Hebrides, Apr. May, 1970, D. Malosu. 
Dacus [Asiadacus ) indecorus Drew. 1971: 37. 

(= Dacus (Strumeta ) indecorus Drew after 

Drew, 1972: 21). 

HoLOTYPn ': T6932; Samo Village, Lihir 

Island, May 1970, T. August. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) tampabilis Drew, 1971: 67. 

HOLOTYPE r *. T6950; Salelubu, W New 

Britain. I3.viii.1969, R.M. Bcrcna. 
Dacus (Afrodacus ) minutus Drew. 1971: 29. 

Holotype Pi T6927; Vila, New Hebrides, 6 

Jan. 1970, E. Kanas. 

Paratype ■': T6928; Lychee Plantation, Vila, 

New Hebrides, 29.xii.l969, H. Kanas. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) mucronis Drew. 1971: 70. 

HoLorYPh ': T695I; Anse Vata, Noumea, 

New Caledonia, 19.iii.1966, P. Cochereau. 
Dacus {Strumeta ) nizrescentis Drew, 1971: 72. 

Holdtm'L ' : T6952; Keravat, E New Britain, 

iv 1969, D.F. O'SuUivan. 

Paratope ■ T6953; Keravat, New Britain, 

29,vii. (19J69. D.F. O'SuUivan. 

Paratope f: T6954; Lakakot Pi[anta]t[io]u. 

Lihir Island, 25-29. iv 1970, D. O'SuUivan. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) nigritus Drew, 1971: 75 

MOLOTVPE '• T6955; Keravat, New Britain, 

wii.1969. D.F. O'SuUivan. 
Dacus [Asiadacus ) ochromarginis Drew. 1971: 

40. 

( = Dacus I Strumeta) ochromargtnis Drew after 

Drew, 1972: 21) 

HOLOTYPE ; : T6933; Vudal, Keravat, New 

Britain, lS.viii.1969, A Lucfcie. 
Uncus {HemiZA'uxuducus ) paliescentis Drew , 

LOT I: 44 

( = Dacus (Papuodacus ) paliescentis Drew 

alter Drew, 1972: 21), 

I li IJ OTYPi: ' : T6936; Konedobu, Central 

District], Papua. :7,.s,p9]66, N. Kobman. 
DaCiiS (Asiadacus ) perpusii/us Drew, 1971: 42. 

t - Dacus (Pacifodacus ) perpusii/us Drew after 

Drew, 1972: 21*). 

HotOnryPE ': T6934; New Caledonia, 

29.xii.1969, P. Cochereau. 



Parmypk -': T6935; New Caledonia, 1967, P. 

Cochereau. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) phaeus Drew, 1971: 77. 

Hoiotype r : T6956: Keravat. New Britain, 

30.v.[L9]67, D.F. ? Sullivan. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) piceus Drew, 1972a: -208. 

Houhyph ' : T6992, Buin, Bougainville 

Is[land], 3-7. vi. 1970, R.M. Berena. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) pseudodistinctus Drew, 1971: 

79. 

HQLOTYPE 1 : T6957; Keravat, E New Bntain, 

ix.1969, d.f. O'SuUivan. 

Dacus (Strumeta ) reduncus Drew, 1971: 82. 

Holotype r : T6958: Vila. New Hebrides, 6 

Jan. 1970, K. Kanas. 

P arm vpt: r : T6959; Kieta, Bougainville 

ls(land], 13.x. 1970, R.M. Berena. 

Para type *: T6960; Tubiana, Kteta, 

BougainviQe Is(land), 2.vi.l970, R.M. Berena. 
Dacus (Zeugodaeus ) reflexus Drew, 1971: 101. 

1-iOKMYPi -'; T6974; Keravat, New Britain. 

26.V.J967, D.F. O'SuUivan. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) resimus Drew, 1971: 85. 

HuLonPE ": T6961; Ambunti, East Sepik 

District], New Guinea, 8.xii.l967, A. Mann. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) trifarhts Drew, 1971: 87. 

HOLOTYPE '. T6962; Keravat, New Bntain, 

24 vii.1969, D.F. O'SuUivan. 

ALLOTYPE : T6963: Gela Gela Pl[antatio|n, 

New Bntain, 14,\ii.l965, T.L. Fenner. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) triseriatus Drew, 1971: 90. 

Holotype *: T6964; Vila. New Hebrides, 6 

Jan. 1970, E. Kanas. 

Paratype -: T6966; same data except 3 Jan. 

1970. 

Allotype : T6965: Lytchee (= Lychee) 

Plantation, Vila, New Hebrides, 29.xii.1969, E. 

Kanas. 

Paratype t: T6967; Malekula ls[land], New 

Hebrides, Apr-May 1970, D. Malosu. 
Dacus (Strumeta ) tnvialis Drew. 1971: 93. 

Holotypk ■': T6968; Sepi Village, Kiwai 

Island, Western Dist[ict]. Papua. 4.\ii.l967, 

T.L. Fenner. 
Dacus (Strumeta I unisthatus Drew, 1971: 96. 

Holotype : T6969; Keravat, New Britain, 

3.ix.l969, D. O'SuUivan. 

ITYFE : T6970; Vunapau. E New Britain, 

16-27J.1970, R.M. Berena. 

Pakmypk * : T6971 : Namatanai, New Ireland. 

24-30. iv. 1970, D. O'SuUivan. 

Parahpe r : T6972; Upper Warraneoi 

VlalleyJ. E New Briiain, 10-27. x. 1969, D.F. 

O'SuUivan. 
Dacus (Pacifodacus ) imivittatus Drew, 1972a: 

189. 



DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF DIPTERA 



95 



Holotype S: T6985; Wabirong Village, Kieta, 

Bougainville Is[land], 18. vi. 1970, R.M. 

Berena. 

Paratype 6 : T6986; Arawa Plant[atio]n, 

Kieta, Bougainville Is[land], 12. v. -2. vi. 1970, 

R.M. Berena. 
Dacus {Strumeta ) vulgaris Drew, 1971: 99. 

Holotype 3 : T6973; Yenke, Kaimantu, 

S[outhern] District] E[a]st[ern] H[igh]l[an]ds, 

T.N.G., 4.1.[19]64. 
Melanodacus rubidus May, 1957: 297. 

(= Dacus (Paratridacus ) athsetosus (Perkins) 

after May, 1962: 64). 

Holotype % Allotype V: T5601-2; Goroka, 

E[astern] H[igh]l[an]ds, Papua New Guinea, 

24.4.[19]55, J. Szent-Ivany. 
Neodacus strigifinis atritus May , 1962: 65. 

(= Dacus (Pacifodacus ) strigifinis atritus 

(May) after Drew, 1972: 20). 

Holotype £, Allotype 2: T5880-1; Aiyura, 

E[astern] Highlands], 3.3.[19]58, J.H. Barrett. 
Strumeta brevistriata Drew, 1968a: 77. 

( = Dacus (Strumeta ) brevistriatus (Drew) after 

Drew, 1972: 21). 

Holotype $\ T6611; Wau, N[ew] Gfuinea], 

31.iii.-ll.iv.1965. E.N. Marks. 
Strumeta nigella Drew, 1968a: 78. 

( = Dacus (Strumeta ) nigellus (Drew) after 

Drew, 1972: 21). 

Holotype $: T6612; Wau, N[ew] G[uinea], 

3-10.iv.1965; E.N. Marks. 
Zeugodacus trichotus May, 1962: 74. 

( = Dacus (Zeugodacus ) trichotus (May) after 

Drew, 1972: 20). 

Holotype f , Allotype 2 : T5856-7; 

Kerowaghi, E[astern] Highlands], T.N.G., 

13.8.[19]60, K. Cole. (Only the right fore and 

mid legs remain on allotype). 

Family DROSOPHILIDAE 

Drosophila argentostriata Bock, 1966: 273. 

Paratypes 1 $, 1 2: T6539-40; Bisianumu, 

Papua, May 1965, W.B. Mather. 
Drosophila nigrilineata Angus, 1967: 32. 

Paratypes I ', 1 -: D6617-8; Bulolo, 

T.P.N.G. 
Drosophila pararubida Mather, 1961: 251. 

Holotype t , Allotype i , Paratypes 2 £, 2 

3: T5844-9; Sogeri, Port Moresby, N[ew] 

Gfuinea], May 1959, W.B. Mather. 
Drosophila pseudotetrachaeta Angus, 1967: 37. 

Paratypes 2 $ r 2 2; T6617-20; Brown River, 

T.P.N.G. ex culture. 
Drosophila silvistriata Bock and Baimai, 1967: 
20. 



Paratypes 1 & t I 2: T6585-6; Bulolo, New 
Guinea, Aug. 1965. 
Drosophila tetrachaeta Angus, 1964: 156. 
Paratypes H, 1 S: T6427-8; Bulolo, N[ew] 
G[uinea], 20.viii.1963, Angus. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I am grateful to Mr E. Dahms, Queensland 
Museum, for permission to examine the Diptera 
collection. 

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DANIELS: TYPE-SPECIMENS OF DIPTERA 



9? 



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H 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



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1952. Three new species of Dacinae 



DANIELS TYPE-SPECIMENS OF D1PT1 KA 






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MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



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Mem. Qd Mus, 22(1): 101 — 104. [19X5] 

THE WOLF SPIDERS OF AUSTRALIA (ARANEAE . LYCOSIDAE): 14. 
A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PARDOSA. 

R.J. McKay 
Queensland Museum 

ABSTRACT 

A second species of the genus PxnJasu, P. humphrrysi is described from the goIUlicUh 
region ol Western Australia. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Australian species of the genus Pardosa 
were discussed by McKay (1979). Recent 
collecting in the goldfields region of Western 
Australia by Dr W.F. Humphries and colleagues 
ot the Western Australian Museum has resulted in 
The discovery of several new species of the family 
Lycostdae, and a thorough documentation of the 
lycosid fauna ol this area. One of the new species 
is closely related to Pardosa serrata (L. Koch 
1877) known from sandy soils of Western 
Australia, South Australia and New South Wales, 
and is described below. Abbreviations; WAM = 
Western Australian Museum; QM = Queensland 
Museum; M = mature specimen. 

Pardosa humphreysi sp, nov. 
(Fig. I A-C, E t G, H, PI. I) 

mm Examined 

Hoiotvpe. WAM $4-602 I M. C.L.. 6.0 mm. Lake 
^r,, W.A., 32"22'15'S, II9"49 '30' E, Collected by 
W.F. Humphrey^,, pitfall trap, February. 1981. In 
spirit 

PAWmP^S: WAM 84-603-7, 5 A M, QM S409, 3 ' 
M, Lake Cronin, data as for holotypc; WAM 
84-608-13; 6 / M, WAM 84-614. 1 f M, WAM 
84-615-22. 8 - M. 32"22'30*$< 1 19 C 49'35'E; WAM 
84-623-4, 2 M. WAM 84-025, 1 I M, WAM 84-626, 1 
' M. 32 2V15-S, l!9°4_V00'h; WAM 84-627. 1 M, 
Boorabbin. 31 13S. 12M 13L; WAM 84-62*. I M, 
3ri5'S, 120^04^; WAM 84-629-31, 3 ! M f WAM 
H4-632-9, 8 ' M, WAM S4-640-8, 9 r M, Ooongarric. 
29^55'20'S, 121^07'55'R; WAM 84-649, I M. 

29°55 , S, I2J°08'E. 

Diagnosis 

A narrow pale buff to white line extending 
anteriorly on the carapace between the PL, PM 
and AM eyes; longitudinal median stripe on 
abdomen without sharp serrations; male palpal 
organ with an anteriolaterally directed hook-like 
median apophysis with a small spine on the 
ventral surface; epigynum with a broad median 
guide and a narrow ridge-like transverse guide. 



Description 

Male: Carapace dark brown; lateral margin 
with bright pale golden hair; a brown lateral band 
containing four or five blackish spots is outlined 
above with pale golden to white hair from the 
posterior declivity to below the PL eyes; a pale 
golden to cream median longitudinal stripe, 
narrowing posteriorly to a point immediately 
behind the fovea, broadens anteriorly to behind 
the PL eyes and generally covers the cephalic 
part; within this median sLripe are two curved 
dark brown lines behind the PL eyes continuing 
forwards between the PL eyes, broadening 
slightly inside the ocular quadrangle and 
descending down the face to the AM eyes thus 
forming a very conspicuous fine golden line 
through the centre of the ocular quadrangle down 
the face between the PM and AM eyes; dark 
brown wedges outlined by golden hair radiate out 
from the fovea! region to terminate abruptly 
above the pale lateral band; the remainder of the 
carapace sparsely covered with fine buff to 
orange hairs; membrane above the mandibles pale 
laterally but jet black below the anterior row of 
eyes and above the coxae; mandibles brown, 
darker anteriorly; maxillae, labium, sternum and 
ventrai surface of coxae pale brown to fawn. 
Abdomen pale brown; anterior slope and sides 
blotched and streaked with black-brown 
enclosing pale spots anteriorly and elongate pale 
spots and lines posteriorly; anterior dorsal surface 
with a longitudinal black-edged grey-brown 
undulating stripe that terminates in a series of 
narrow transverse connected chevrons, followed 
by single or double dark brown to black chevrons 
containing pale spots {Fig. 1A); ventral surface 
pale brown with a very short black transverse bar 
behind the epigastric furrow. Legs uniform dark 
brown above, darker below. 

Anterior row of eyes gently procurved; AM 
larger than AL. PM larger than PL and a little 
less than a diameter apart (Table 2). Ratio of eyes 
AM:AL:PM:PL 17:12:33:26; distance AM-AM 



102 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



9, AM-AL 4, AM-PM 7, AL-PM 6, PM-PM 29. 
Clypeus to AM 12. Length of first eye row 71; 
length of second eye row 86. 

Chelicerae with three promarginal teeth, the 
middle one largest; three (4 + 3 in one paratype ') 
retromarginal teeth of about equal size. 

Male palpal organ with a broad anteriorly 
directed embolic guide, the tip of the inner flange 
recurved dorsally (Fig. IB); median apophysis 
robust, directed anteriolaterally and with the tip 
curved inwards to form a flattened hook; the flat 
ventral surface of the median apophysis, towards 
the base of the sharp ridge descending from the 
apical hook, with a short but conspicuous sharp 
spine (Fig. 1C, E, PI. 1). 

Female: Similar to male in coloration but lacks 
the short black transverse bar behind the 
epigynum. 

Anterior row of eyes gently procurved; AM 
larger than AL; PM larger than PL. Ratio of eyes 
AM:AL:PM:PL = 20:14:36:31; distance 
AM-AM 8; AM-AL 3.5; AM-PM 9; AL-PM 8; 
PM-PM 31. Clypeus to AM 20. Length of first 
eye row 81; length of second eye row 98. 

Epigynum with a short broad median guide 
that widens posteriorly without joining the sharp 
ridge-like transverse guide (Fig. 1G); internal 
genitalia simple (Fig. 1H). 

Variation: In life, the coloration may be a rich 
chocolate-brown with silver-grey to white lines 
which radiate out from the centre of the carapace, 
and form a complex pattern that surrounds the 
fovea as a posteriorly directed triangle; the lines 



diverge anteriorly to the PL eyes, and a very 
narrow median line originates behind the PL eyes, 
frequently from two pale streaks or from the base 
of the foveal triangle, and projects anteriorly to 
become a very distinct line between the PL, PM 
and AM eyes similar to Pardosa serrata. The 
longitudinal stripe on the abdomen may be grey, 
grey-brown or charcoal, with the edge bright 
chocolate-brown to orange-tan. The legs are 
brown with silver-grey to ash-grey hair. The 
venter may have a light buff triangular field 
narrowing from the epigastric furrow to the 
spinnerets. 

Size Range: Mature females 5.0 to 6.7 mm. 
Matures males 4.3 to 6.2 mm. 

Life History 

Mature males were captured in pit-fall traps 
during February and March. Mature females were 
dug from burrows during March at Boorabbin, 
and July at Goongarrie. 

Habitat 

Goldfields area of Western Australia on or near 
the base of sand dunes, dune shrubland, mallee 
and Triodia grasslands, and heath at Lake 
Cronin. 

Burrow 

Both mature females were dug from burrows 
described by Dr Humphreys as having iitter 
turrets' constructed from plant litter in a similar 
manner to those to Pardosa serrata (McKay 1979, 
Fig. 2A, B). 



TABLE I: Measurements of Leg Segments of 
Pardosa Humphreys! in mm. 



Leg 


Femur 


Patella 


Tibia 


Metatarsus 


Tarsus 


1 


6.4 


2.3 


5.6 


6.8 


4.0 


2 


5.8 


2.0 


4.9 


6.5 


3.8 


3 


5.8 


1.9 


4.4 


7.0 


3.6 


4 


7.7 


2.3 


6.6 


9.7 


4.1 



TABLE 2: Eye Diameters and Interspaces of 
Pardosa Humphreys/ Converted to Percent of the 
Total Width of the First Row of Eves. 



Regd. No. 


Sex 


C.L. 


AM 


AL 


PM 


PL 


AM. AM 


AM.AL 


PM.PM 


AM.PM 


AL.PM 


Holotype 
WAM 


?M 
M 


6.0 
6.7 


24 
25 


17 
17 


46 
44 


37 
38 


12 
9 


5 
4 


41 
31 


10 
11 


8 

lu 



McKAY: NEW SPECIES OF PARDOSA 



103 



DISCUSSION 

Pardosa humphreysi is remarkably similar to 
P. serrata in morphology, coloration and 
behaviour, and may be confused with the latter 
species in the field. The dark longitudinal stripe 
on the dorsal surface of the abdomen is much 
more serrate in P. serrata (Fig. ID), and P. 
humphreysi lacks dark stripes on the femora. The 
epigynum of P. humphreysi has a well developed 
median guide, and the transverse guide is very 
thin and compressed into a sharp ridge quite 
unlike that of P. serrata. The male palpal organ is 
similar to P. serrata but the median apophysis has 
the tip strongly curved to form a flattened hook, 
and the flat ventral surface has a small but 
conspicuous cusp-like spine which is absent in P. 
serrata (Fig. IF). 



Both species were collected at Boorabbin; P. 
humphreysi appears to replace P. serrata in the 
more arid areas of the goldfields region. 

Derivation 

Named after Dr W.F. Humphreys of the 
Western Australian Museum in recognition of his 
studies on behavioural thermoregulation of 
Australian wolf spiders, and in appreciation of 
his comprehensive collection of lycosids in the 
goldfields region of Western Australia. 



LITERATURE CITED 

McKay, R.J., 1979. The wolf spiders of Australia 
(Araneae : Lycosidae): 9. Pardosa serrata (L. Koch 
1877). Mem. Qd Mus. 19 (3): 225-9. 



104 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




H 



Fig. 1. Pardosa humphreysi. A. Mature female, Boorabbin. B. Dorsa! surface of embolic guide of male palpal 
organ. C. Median apophysis of male palpal organ. E. Male palpal organ. G. Epigynum of female from 
Goongarrie. H. Internal genitalia. 

Pardosa serraia. D. Abdomen of female from Boorabbin. F. Median apophysis of male from Boorabbin. 



McKAY: NEW SPECIES OF PARDOSA 



105 




PLATE 1 

Pardosa humphreysi. Male palpal organ, X60. 



CONTENTS 

McKay, Roland J. 

A revision of the fishes of the family SiUaginidae. ., > ..„.......: I 

Daniels, G. 

Type-specimens of Diptera (Insecta) in the Queensland Museum 75 

McKay, Roland, J. 

The wolf spiders of Australia (Araneae:Lycosidae):14. 

A new species of the genus Pardosa 101 



\