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THE MANUFACTURE AND PROPERTIES OF COKE.
The chemical and physical properties of fuel, having much to do with the physical and chemical properties of cast iron, when made or remelted, the author has thought that a general article on this subject would be very fitting in this work. Coke was first successfully used in this country at the Clinton Furnace, in Pitts-burg, in 1860. Prior to this anthracite and bituminous coal, also charcoal, had been almost wholly used for smelting in furnaces; while anthracite coal was the chief fuel used by founders. In changing from the use of anthracite coal to coke for making and remelting iron, Pennsylvania and Ohio took the lead. It wavs not long until its use increased to such a degree that few are now found in this country depending on coal entirely as a fuel for making and remelting iron. Coke has forced its adoption for making iron mainly because it is. a cheaper fuel, and for remelting iron because, aside from cheapness, it requires less blast and melts more quickly than coal. Coal, however, has still some advantages for remelting iron.
The process of making coke consists of taking soft or bituminous coal and letting it burn for a number of hours in what are called coke ovens, generally of the form seen in Fig. i. Other forms and methods are of , a foundryman engaged in the actual practice of his art, who, with ability, enthusi- •