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0                           METALLURGY   OF   CAST   IRON.
heaps, and the method has the disadvantage of requir- • ing the coal to be in lump form. It is only where it is costly to secure building material, or where the coking qualities of coal are to be tested before expensive ovens' are erected that mounds are used to coke coal at the present time.
Coke has been found in a natural state. Appleton's Encyclopedia cites a bed existing on both sides of the James River and near Richmond, Va. It is said to be hard, very uniform, and dark in color, but rather porous. It is claimed to be serviceable for melting purposes.
By-product coke ovens have been erected by some firms -owning steel plants, etc., whereby they can make their own coke at their works or at the mines. By this process, in connection with the by-products, such as gas, tar, and other substances produced, it is claimed they can make a good profit on money invested and also be independent of the regular coke manufac-turers. It is said that out of one ton of coal ten thou-sand feet of gas can be produced, and out of fifteen hundred pounds of coke ninety to one hundred pounds of tar, with other by-products, can be produced. The gas from such ovens could prove of much value to some founders in drying moulds, cores, etc., and run-ning boilers. What coke the author has seen and used coming from by-product ovens is not as solid as the regular Connellsville coke, and it required a greater percentage of it to melt iron.
In charging the bee-hive ovens enough coal is gen-erally carried by one larrie, A, to fill an oven at one charge. This larrie runs on a track over the top of the oven, as shown at B, Figs, i, 3, and 4. The latter is said to be of very good quality, but as a general thing there is a considerable loss in the yield where coal is coked in mounds ory from the practical founder about matters seldom found in print, because practical foun-               I dry men of Mr. West's attainments are, as yet, a rarity/"               v<»undrymen*:. Association's Test:".,    .   .       ... 539