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PROPERTIES OF ORES USED IN MAKING CAST IRON. 31
tiful ores, which, can be made to produce an iron that will be accepted in some cases as equally satisfactory. An ore approaching black band, and called 't band iron stone,'' is now often used. This is of a bluish gray color, and exists in coal formations similar to black bands. Some of these ores are smelted in their raw state, while others are roasted and converted into higher oxides before being smelted.
Titaniferous ores, free of sulphur and phosphorus, containing 10 to 16 per cent of titanium and 50 to 60 per cent iron, found in the Adirondack mountains, are now being used to make ferro-titanium by the Ferro-Titanium Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y., Mr. A. J. Rossi being the inventor of the process. Nearly half the ores found on this continent contain more or less titanium, but furnacemen have always found it most difficult to use titaiiiferous ores on account of the . titanic acid making an infusible slag. Since Mr. Rossi has lately succeeded (January, 1901) in overcoming this difficulty, it is rather early to predict to what extent this ferro-titanium may prove of value to steel manufacturers and founders, as titanium is known to strengthen or chill iron by holding the carbon more in a combined form, similar as with manganese and sulphur.
Mill cinder iron is a grade of metal derived from the smelting of rolling mill cinder exclusively, or in admixture with iron ores. Rolling mill cinder can be classed under the heads of puddle, tap cinder, heating furnace, flue cinder, roll cinder, and bosh cinder; the latter being collected in a trough or bosh of water in which the puddlers cool their tools. Roll scale is generally supposed to contain the most iron, followed in ordersent in the ore. Both these manganese metals are jf|V