MOULDING AND CASTING PIG IRON, ETC. 107 sow. After the pigs are all separated, the sow is then broken by taking the ends of the pigs of the next row as a rest to pry the sow up; if not broken by being lifted, a sledge is then used. When two to three men will separate about five hundred pigs-and break about eighteen sows in several pieces in about a half-hour's time and not seem in any hurry, it is safe to conclude that the work is done by a very commend-able system. After the pigs and sows are broken as* above de-scribed, a stream of water is turned on to cool them off so that they can be handled and removed from the cast-ing house in time to permit the bed being re-moulded for its next turn in casting. This, in a furnace of the size as seen on page 49, making five taps every 24 hours, leaves but about three hours for the '' iron car-riers " to break up and load on buggies, for removal from casting house, about 40 tons of pig metal. To permit a buggy being brought close to the iron to be loaded, a wooden track fastened together in sections of about 10 feet is laid down on the casting floor to any length or turn desired. There are always two floors to a casting house, so as to permit one being molded and got ready for a cast while the other is being relieved of its pig metal and wet down ready for molding. A cast-ing house, as it generally appears about one-half hour before casting time, is seen in Fig. 34. The keeper seen standing by the notch of the furnace has his runner made with the runner staples and cutters in position. The man on the right, at the lower end of the runner, is shown just finishing the ramming of the last bed of pigs. To afford an idea of casting, the first man on the left of the main, runner is Iom thean opening to admitt it struckat the regular notch. It is often surprising how rapidly, as about 75 per cent of the heat generated from the solid fuel is utilized. This is attained where one ton of coke will produce one ton of iron; and Sir........................ 2,720 "