MOULDING AND CASTING PIG IRON, ETC. Ill the surface of wood would cause it to splinter and be uneven for leveling purposes. In using these patterns and bedding them in the floor, there is no heavy sledge hammer used to settle them, as a moulder generally does with his patterns. In fact, no sledge or hammer is used on them, the only thing leveled is the sow; if one end is high, the pattern may be lifted and sand scraped away from under it, or the low end may be raised and sand tucked under it by means of the handle end of the shovel or a push of the foot. The sow having been leveled, the pig patterns are then laid down on the floor, which has previously been leveled off with a shovel as near as the eye can judge, and which is generally done truer than many of our moulders are capable of doing. When the patterns are all in place, sand u riddled through the shovel'' fills up the space between them, and a man with a rammer 12 inches long, as seen at the right, in Figs. 32 and 34, rams the sand between the patterns. After going over with this rammer once, sand is then shoveled over the bed, and a flat scraper 18 inches long scrapes the sand off level with the top surface of the patterns, which is all the packing or sleeking the surface or joint of the bed receives. Sand having been pushed with the back of the scraper to raise a mound of sand between the pig beds to prevent metal flowing over, the sow pattern is now drawn out by means of the lifting iron seen at D, Fig. 33. The sow having been removed, the pig patterns are then drawn out by first raising one end with the hand in the recess at the end R until they can be lifted by the center, when they are tossed on to the next bed ready to be set up for another filling of sancl. Some moulders might feelhe metal will have a good chance to is often surprising how rapidly, as about 75 per cent of the heat generated from the solid fuel is utilized. This is attained where one ton of coke will produce one ton of iron; and Sir........................ 2,720 "