CHAPTER XIV. CHILLED OR SANDLESS PIG IRON AND ITS ADVANTAGES. Casting pig iron in sand moulds is objectionable in many ways. To overcome these objections there have, since 1896, been several different methods adopted for casting the metal in chills instead of sand moulds, aside from the practice of casting in chills placed in the floor of a casting house, which some follow, especially as used for making basic pig iron. The principle involved in the latest improvement lies in having iron moulds, the form of pigs arranged on a movable table, etc., so that the metal first running from the furnace into ladles can be poured into the pig moulds; after which, by self-dumping devices, they may carry the pig iron into cars ready for shipment. This saves the arduous labor of breaking the hot pigs and sows in the casting house and then handling them by hand to remove the pigs from the casting floors, and, aside from this, produces pigs which do not require breaking, and is also free of sand and scale, the advantages of which are stated on the next page. There are several machines on the market, among which are those patented by Mr. E. A. Euling, Mr. R. W. Da vies, and Mr. H. R. G.eer. A large number of furnaces are now using these different machines, and it is probable that many more will do so in the future.ikes the flat surface of the mould, and the trouble as above described with "open sand" work in a foundry will decrease. is now drawn out by means of the lifting iron seen at D, Fig. 33. The sow having been removed, the pig patterns are then drawn out by first raising one end with the hand in the recess at the end R until they can be lifted by the center, when they are tossed on to the next bed ready to be set up for another filling of sancl. Some moulders might feelhe metal will have a good chance to is often surprising how rapidly, as about 75 per cent of the heat generated from the solid fuel is utilized. This is attained where one ton of coke will produce one ton of iron; and Sir........................ 2,720 "