ADVANTAGES OF CHILLED OR SANDLESS PIG IRON. 115 A stove manufacturer says: " From the experience we have had we believe, thus far, that you can be sure there is one foundryman who does not fear the sandless Pig-" A prominent tool builder says: " We have tried the sandless iron and find it very nice. You may ship more on our orders.'' The head of a large ship-building concern says: £ c I am pleased to say that your sandless pig is very satisfactory. I hope hereafter you will always ship me sand-less pig, it saves a good bit of trouble in the cupola." A stove works says: '' We have watched the results very carefully thus far, and find it most satisfactory. The only objection we have to the ' sandless iron' is that the pig:s are too heavy and hard to break. Our cupola men can hardly handle them, as our facilities are such that trie short, heavy pigs of the sandless iron cannot be broken, otherwise we are very much pleased with it.'' With reference to the complaint that sandless pigs are too large, this has been remedied in some of the machines so as to make the pigs of a convenient size for all cupolas over thirty inche's inside diameter. It is not to be understood that all chilled or sandless pig will show wliite fractures should they be broken; this will largely depend upon the percentage of silicon and sulphur in tlie iron. Iron above 1.20 silicon and not over .04 in sulphur, with manganese below 1.25, will rarely show any chill, but, of course, be more dense or higher in combined carbon than if the same iron was cast in sand moulds. Cuts of sand and chilled cast pig are shown in Figs. 35 and 36. These cuts were originally presented by Mr. Alfred Ladd Colby in the Iron Trade Review, June 13, 1901. during 1899 by courtesy of Mr. Edgar S. Cook, president of the Warwick Iron Co. of Pottstown, Pa. is often surprising how rapidly, as about 75 per cent of the heat generated from the solid fuel is utilized. This is attained where one ton of coke will produce one ton of iron; and Sir........................ 2,720 "