n6 METALLURGY OF CAST IRON. As far as saving of labor and other expenses is concerned, the casting machines do not prove as advantageous as some other improvements in making pig iron; however, they dispense with the hardest labor and give a product that, in many cases, is much more desirable than sand pig. For this reason their use will continue to increase, but probably will not% do away with sand pigs entirely; at least, FIG' 35'~SAND CAST PIG' most of the furnaces not using floor chills will be required to keep sand beds in order to take care of their metal FIG. 36.—-MACHINE CAST PIG IRON. in case of accidents to the machine. For this and other reasons the author has thought it well to retain, in this revision, the information in the preceding chapter,rdly handle them, as our facilities are such that trie short, heavy pigs of the sandless iron cannot be broken, otherwise we are very much pleased with it.''