T82 METALLURGY OF CAST IRON. atories would often find the chemist using these standards, to test chemicals, short-cut methods, or the correctness of results that had been qnestioned. The process by which individual chemists obtained their own standards was, as a rule, long and tedious. It often took from four to six months to get in all the results. Then again, as a rule the results varied so much that the average accepted for a standard seemed more like guesswork than the result of accurate work and methods. The variation in analyses thus obtained has often caused great difference in standards in use in different circles and perplexed managers of steel works, furnaces, founders, and chemists rather than helped them to correct evils and prevent losses. It was the opportunity of observing the practice of blast furnace chemists making their own standards that caused the author to conceive the idea of one central agency, from which all could obtain standardized drill-. ings, which had been determined by a few of our best known chemists. After devising a plan for a central agency or bureau for the distribution of standardized drillings, the author presented a paper to the Pittsburg Foundrymen's Association, April 25, 1898, setting forth the need of greater uniformity in analysis and suggesting, in outline, his plan for establishing a central agency. At this meeting a committee was appointed with the author as chairman to introduce the project before the American Foundrymen's Association at Cincinnati, June, 1898. This convention unanimously approved the project, and appointed a committee to proceed with the work. This committee consisted of Dr. Richard Moldenke, now secretary of the A. F. A., Neweason why any one should make it a point to insist on accepting only open or close grained iron in connection with exacting any certain specified analyses from blast furnaces, as the slight difference possible in the most radical cases of open and close grained iron can be regulated by a slight variation in silicon when making a mixture, and which anyone can easily do, if they so desire, "