ORIGIN AND UTILITY OF STANDARDIZED DRILLINGS. 183 York; James Scott, superintendent of the Lucy Furnace, Pittsburg; P. W. Gates, president of the Gates Iron Works, Chicago, and E. H. Putnam, superintendent of the Moline Plow Works, Moline, 111., with the author as chairman. The appointment of the committee g^ave a sound basis on which to work, but the importance of the reform and the obstacles which had to be overcome before the same could be established were realized by but few. The first work of the committee was to adopt the plans advanced by the author in his paper before the Pittsburg Foundry-men's Association, April, 1898, and which secured for us the services of Prof. C. H. Benjamin to supervise the work of making the drillings, and of Prof. A. W. Smith to carry forward the work of preparing, standardizing, and packing the samples; also, the services of Booth, Garrett & Blair, Andrew S. McCreath, Cremer & Bicknell to analyze the drillings, the average of the four results being accepted as a standard. One of the greatest obstacles in the way of establishing and maintaining a central standardizing agency lay in the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient amount of uniform turnings or drillings from one sample of iron, free of sand, grit, slag, etc., to permit all laboratories to obtain a pound or more of "them. As a rule, chemists have found it difficult to obtain twenty-five pounds of clean, uniform, and reliable samples. A study of this phase of the subject will show that the practicability of establishing and maintaining a central standardizing bureau is largely dependent upon the ability of the founder to make large castings weighing five hundred pounds or more, from which could be obtained a large amount of clean, uniform drillings. For "thisoint to insist on accepting only open or close grained iron in connection with exacting any certain specified analyses from blast furnaces, as the slight difference possible in the most radical cases of open and close grained iron can be regulated by a slight variation in silicon when making a mixture, and which anyone can easily do, if they so desire, "