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There were comparatively few founders using chemical analysis in making mixtures of cast iron when the first edition of this work appeared, in 1897. At this time, Oct., 1901, about three-fourths of the founders are dependent upon a knowledge of the chemical constituents of their pig irons, and ignore the appearance of fractures or hardness of pig iron. There have been some ups and downs in the experience of founders working up to the present advancement. Nevertheless, as founders come to intelligently understand the science of, and methods necessary to be followed in working by chemical analysis, they become adherents of its practice. One great drawback has been in the evils resulting from practices described in Chapters XIX. and XXIV., and in the fact of depending wholly upon furnace reports of chemical analysis which would sometimes prove erroneous by reason of mistakes, and cause beginners, in trying to utilize chemical analyses to make mixtures, condemn the plan of working by analysis.
It is not safe, as a rule, to depend wholly upon furnace reports of analyses, for the reason that there are several chances for mistakes being made aside from the chemists might make. These are mistakesistry,  Sheffield  Scientific  School of Yale University."in sulphur and phc yphorus come from different chemists' standards not checking. J. O. MATHERSON, Chemist,