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PURCHASE   AND   SAMPLING   OF   PIG   IRON.             195
that may be made in numbering iron piles, transferring records of analyses from one book to another, etc., and in incorrectly carding the cars when shipping the iron to consumers. The author, being surrounded by blast furnaces, has seen serious mistakes made in all of the above points and is confident that it will pay to recognize existing conditions. The only way to
FIG.   48.
decrease the chance of errors in receiving a furnace report of analysis is for the founder to have all such reports checked after the iron is received into his yard. To do this he should take two or three pieces of pig iron from each end, and two or three from the middle of every car of iron received, or from the ends of piles after it is taken from the car as described on page 140. These pieces of pig should be about one-quarter the length of a whole pig and drilled after onex>r the other of the plans seen at A, B, and C in Fig. 48. In drilling these samples the utmost care should be taken to prevent sand or scale from the pigs getting mixed as a rule, to depend wholly upon furnace reports of analyses, for the reason that there are several chances for mistakes being made aside from the chemists might make. These are mistakesistry,  Sheffield  Scientific  School of Yale University."in sulphur and phc yphorus come from different chemists' standards not checking. J. O. MATHERSON, Chemist,