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PURCHASE   AND   SAMPLING   OF   PIG   IRON.            197
send samples of drillings of every car or pile of iron by mail to other localities where a chemist could be employed. Unless such shops are doing work of a character requiring delicacy in making mixtures, analyses of the silicon and sulphur are all that they may require of their pig metal, and these can be obtained for about one dollar for each analysis. This is a small sum compared to the assurance it affords such founders of correcting possible errors in furnace analysis reports. Many small founders are now beginning to recognize this and some are following the above plan and find that it pays them well. In cases where a small firm could give a chemist other employment they could install a laboratory at their own works for one hundred to one hundred and fifty dollars, and then be in a position not only to make analyses of their own irons but also those of what fuels, blackings, and sand they use, r*           when found advisable.
Another evil of past practices has lain in the founder relying, tipon the furnaceman to advise him of the char-;              acter of iron he should use.    This is wrong.    It is not
i              a furnaceman's business to be responsible for the char-
. acter of iron the founder should use, as his experience does not rightly afford him such knowledge.    All founders should know their own needs and be able to order their irons intelligently.    The  first  two  editions  of ;              this work have achieved much in influencing founders
to do this.    A study of  this work  should  cause the moulder or founder who may now look upon chemistry I*1*          as something beyond his comprehension,  to talk as
'?              intelligently and fluently about silicon, sulphur, man-
i             ganese, phosphorus, and the carbons, etc., in iron, as
he now can about moulding sand, ramming, venting, Steel Co., Vale University. & Sons, Hecla Works, England; R. C. Hindiey, M. Hoskins, Harvard College, Havemeyer University, Henry Hiels Chemical Co., Isabella Furnace, Iron Gate Furnace, Iroquois Iron Co., Illinois Steel Co., Jefferson Iron Co., Kittan-ning Iron & Steel Co., C. A. Kelly Plow Co., Lebanon Furnace, Longdale Iron Co., Lackawanna Iron & Steel Co., Logan Iron........................   16,720     "                                     t-