CHEMICAL AND PHYSIC AT, PROPKRTfKS, ETC. 213
Manganese is readily absorbed by slag and can be carried off as oxide of manganese during a heat, and in cupola work will greatly assist in carrying off sulphur by means of ' * slagging out.'' Manganese ranges from a trace up to 3 per cent, in pig iron. The general run of good gray pig iron averages about .50; over i.oo per cent, it would, in light work, unless proportionately higher than 2.50 per cent, in silicon, be injurious in causing hard castings, and it is seldom in massive work requiring strength that it would be beneficial for manganese to exceed 2.00 per cent. Manganese can counteract the red shortness caused by sulphur and greatly neutralize the effect of sulphur to harden iron mixtures. It can be used as a physic to purify liquid iron. If the iron is high in sulphur it will be beneficial in expelling it and thereby lessen the chances of * * blow, holes '' by expelling oxides or occulated gases.
A very peculiar property that has been noticed in pig iron containing 2 to 3 per cent, of manganese is that while it may look open-grained, like a good No. i soft iron, it has been found so hard that it could only with difficulty be drilled. Manganese gives fluidity and life to molten metal, causing it to occupy greater time in solidifying. In pig metal, as well as in castings, it can cause the crystals to be coarse grained, though the iron can be hard, as above stated.
Manganese is often found as high as 2.50 per cent, in foundry pig metal and still make good machinable castings. This quality is partly due to the great activity which manganese has in expelling sulphur in remelting iron. Sulphur is the element of greatest power in causing hardness in castings; but, on the other hand, sulphur can often be so eliminated by man-often prevents shutting down for the want of regular irons.
he now can about moulding sand, ramming, venting, Steel Co., Vale University. & Sons, Hecla Works, England; R. C. Hindiey, M. Hoskins, Harvard College, Havemeyer University, Henry Hiels Chemical Co., Isabella Furnace, Iron Gate Furnace, Iroquois Iron Co., Illinois Steel Co., Jefferson Iron Co., Kittan-ning Iron & Steel Co., C. A. Kelly Plow Co., Lebanon Furnace, Longdale Iron Co., Lackawanna Iron & Steel Co., Logan Iron........................ 16,720 " t-