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214                         METALLURGY    Ot    UAbT    IKUW,
ganese; that for this reason manganese can often high and still soft castings be obtained.    The bette cupola is fluxed and the higher its temperature,   t more the manganese will be decreased.    In mak < or remelting iron,  manganese is  affected in a n i; ner somewhat similar to silicon. *  A hot working f ' nace will send the manganese  into the pig, wher*. cold working furnace will send it into the slag, ; i -requires high heat to make manganese combine \v the iron, when making it.
A phenomenon peculiar to manganese is to be <   t in the opposite results which manganese exerts \\ ' in the pig, in process of being melted, and when   * added as ferro-manganese to soften   hard grades molten metal, as is practiced by some founders.    T atithor cannot explain the phenomenon better than   1 here inserting comments by Mr. Alexander E. OUT < bridge, Jr.,  in a paper presented by him before  i '* Franklin Institute, February 2, 1888:
A remarkable effect is produced upon the character of hare! ." * by adding to the molten metal, a moment before pouring it ?M a mould, a very small quantity of powdered ferro-manganese,   one pound of ferro-manganese in 600 pounds of iron, and I"  * oughly diffusing it through the mass by stirring with an rod.    The result of several hundred carefully conducted ex; ments which I have made enables me to say that the tra\ * strength of the metal is increased from thirty to forty per < the shrinkage is decreased from twenty to thirty per cent., the depth of the chill is decreased about twenty-five per r while nearly one-half of the combined carbon is changed free carbon; the percentage of manganese in the iron is not sibly increased by this dose, the small proportion of manga j: which was added being found in the form of oxide in the so-The philosophical explanation of this extraordinary effect i my opinion, to be found in the fact that the f erro-manganesu .R. C. Hindiey, M. Hoskins, Harvard College, Havemeyer University, Henry Hiels Chemical Co., Isabella Furnace, Iron Gate Furnace, Iroquois Iron Co., Illinois Steel Co., Jefferson Iron Co., Kittan-ning Iron & Steel Co., C. A. Kelly Plow Co., Lebanon Furnace, Longdale Iron Co., Lackawanna Iron & Steel Co., Logan Iron........................   16,720     "                                     t-