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2l8                      METALLURGY   OF   CAST   IRON.
Especial alloys of iron and chromium, called ferro-chromes, containing as high as 84 per cent, of chromium, are shown by Turner to have been attained. He also says that though ferro-chrome is more refractory than ordinary cast iron, and is very fluid, it runs dead and solidifies rapidly and renders iron hard, white, and brittle, behaving in an exactly opposite manner from silicon or aluminum. Much more might be said of this constituent, but as it has been found up to the present time of little value to founding, space is reserved for more important elements.
The constituents of iron, carbon, silicon, sulphur, manganese, and phosphorus above described are recognized as the chief elements in controlling the character of iron. Aluminum, magnesium, sodium, potassium and calcium, as well as titanium, copper, and arsenic, are properties found in iron. But of late years little note is taken of them by chemists, as they have been regarded as having practically little if any weight in affecting mixtures or the character of commercial iron, and hence we have omitted to discuss their characteristic qualities to any length in this work. We may state that titanium ores were at one time used to some extent in obtaining strong iron, but owing to the titanic acid of titaniferous ores making an infusible slag and causing great trouble in smelting, they were seldom if ever used. However, by recent improvement, as seen on page 31, such ores may come more into practical use.
Pure iron, the ideal held up by some works on metallurgy to be attained, is not the element iron free from every contamination, but iron with about 2 per cent. of carbon and free from sulphur, phosphorus,teel Institute Journal, 1893, Vol. i, p. 168.ion of manga j: which was added being found in the form of oxide in the so-The philosophical explanation of this extraordinary effect i my opinion, to be found in the fact that the f erro-manganesu .ğR. C. Hindiey, M. Hoskins, Harvard College, Havemeyer University, Henry Hiels Chemical Co., Isabella Furnace, Iron Gate Furnace, Iroquois Iron Co., Illinois Steel Co., Jefferson Iron Co., Kittan-ning Iron & Steel Co., C. A. Kelly Plow Co., Lebanon Furnace, Longdale Iron Co., Lackawanna Iron & Steel Co., Logan Iron........................   16,720     "                                     t-