EFFECTS OF ADDING PHOSPHORUS TO MOLTEN IRON.
This chapter presents results which the author obtained by experimenting- with phosphorus added to molten iron. Some of these experiments were originally presented in a paper by the author to the Pittsburg Foundrymen's Association, January, 1898. In conducting- them the metal was caught at the cupola in a ladle holding about one hundred and fifty pounds. This was carried to the moulds and about thirty pounds was poured into a hand ladle into which sticks of phosphorus had been placed before pouring the metal, and then again by placing the sticks on top of the metal. This mixture was stirred with a small rod until the phosphorus was thought to have been all absorbed. In a natural way phosphorus increases the fluidity and life of molten metal, and can greatly weaken it. By the above method results are reversed and the metal made to lose its fluidity and solidify rapidly, and give stronger iron. For castings that can be poured with dull metal the addition of phosphorus may often be very beneficial in giving strong castings. The letters P.T. at the left of Table 33, page 231, designate the tests having the phosphorus added to the metal when in the ladle, and P. B. its being placed on the bottom of the ladle and the metalsally conceded that iron has a great affinity for sulphur, and that it is an element often to be feared by both fumacemen and founders. The distribution of the first two editions of this work has done much in advancing the universal recognition of these two facts. . have found it to increase the strength only from 150 to 200 pounds, thus showing that the higher the silicon, the less effect the sulphur has in strengthening the iron to the limit of its absorption. Views of the fracture of the above bars, described in Tables 31 andthe so-The philosophical explanation of this extraordinary effect i my opinion, to be found in the fact that the f erro-manganesu .ğR. C. Hindiey, M. Hoskins, Harvard College, Havemeyer University, Henry Hiels Chemical Co., Isabella Furnace, Iron Gate Furnace, Iroquois Iron Co., Illinois Steel Co., Jefferson Iron Co., Kittan-ning Iron & Steel Co., C. A. Kelly Plow Co., Lebanon Furnace, Longdale Iron Co., Lackawanna Iron & Steel Co., Logan Iron........................ 16,720 " t-