CHAPTER LIL SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF VERTICAL-POURED CASTINGS. Below is given an extract from a paper by the author, read before the autumn meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, at Birmingham, England, August 20-23, 1895: Some authorities have asserted that a test bar cast on end, if placed on supports equidistant from either end, would not break at the point where the load is applied, but at a point an inch or so away from the point of pressure toward the uppermost cast end of the bar. In a long experience with bars cast on end, the author has failed to find any such condition. Indeed, he has not found any difference in this respect with bars that were cast flat or on end. With a view to thoroughly investigating the matter, he conducted the following experiment, and obtained the information given by the Builders' Iron Foundry of Providence, R. I., cited, and shown in Table 84, page 379. These are tests which the author first presented in a discussion on testing at the meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, held in New York City on December 3, 1894, and later gave them in a paper before the Iron and Steel Institute. In the first test of specific gravity, he wished to call attention to the fact that the specimen used was strictly a parallel gate test of much value when very close records are desired for comparisons of chill records, etc. The plan devised for using fluidity strips with test bars cast on end is described and illustrated in Figs. 121, 122, pages 509 and 514.d one j£ inch, a difference of •£$ inch.