METALLURGY OF CAST IRON.
ciently to help bring about a series of tests that would result in giving the engineering and foundry world elaborate records of tests, secured through means that recognized the different grades, and the importance of having all tests in any one grade poured at the same temperature. The many tests and papers which the author presented demonstrating the errors of past methods of testing cast iron, finally resulted in awakening foundrymen and others to the necessity of taking-some action in the matter; and by the valuable assistance and efforts of Dr. Richard Moldenke, the author had the pleasure of seeing the A. P. A. appoint a committee, at its annual convention in 1898, to obtain such tests as were thought necessary. This committee consisted of Dr. Richard Moldenke, Messrs. James S. Sterling, Joseph S. Seamen, Joseph. S. McDonald, and the author. The first work of the committee was to outline the kind, sizes, and number of test bars, and the method of moulding and casting. The latter was left wholly to the author, as he had stated that he could devise a method whereby a large number of different sized test bars, comprising green sand and dry sand moulds as desired, could all be east on end, from one ladle of iron inside of thirty seconds, thus insuring all bars of any one set being poured with metal of practically the same temperature. Some doubted the practicability of such an achievement, and not until after the first set of 192 bars were east on end from one ladle, within twenty seconds and no bars lost, was such recognized as being feasible. This was an achievement that should place all the tests of the A. F. A. on a plane far above all others ever made; at least, all who have noted to any degree the variationsin diameter. (See next chapter.)ards, see pages 573, 577 and 571;.n page 573, which show that test bars should not be smaller than \y* inches in diameter, and cast on end, us such will tfive truer results than the [J4™inch round bar in general practice, especially in making comparison <>i; the widest ranges in grades.temper '' or damp- ,| |