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Full text of "Metallurgy Of Cast Iron"

592
METALLURGY   OF   CAST   1KUJN.
HEAT UNITS.
There are three units in use for measuring the quantity of heat contained in matter.
The first is the British thermal unit, and which is the amount of heat required to raise i pound of water i° Fahrenheit.
The second is the thermal unit, and which is the amount of heat required to raise I pound of water i° centigrade.
The third is the calorie^ and which is the amount of heat necessary to raise i kilogram of water i° centigrade.
The calorie is used in Germany, France and other countries using the metric system of weights and measures.
TABLE I32.—HEAT  OF  COMBUSTION.
Heat developed by combustion of one pound of the following substances:
Substance.	Calories.	Substance.	Calories.
A r     te ................	7 200 to 8 200	Lignite	4)5oo to 6 ooo
			
Alcohol.         .  .	7 t&S	Manganese to MnO..	1,723
			
Carbon to CO	2 404	Marsh Gas       .      ..	13 063
			
Carbon to CO2	8 080	Olifient Gas      ..   .	IT 858
			
Coal — bituminous .	6,500 to 9,000	Olive Oil ...................	9,860
			
Coke	6 400 to 8 ooo	Petroleum              __	10 600 lo ii ooo
			
Diamond.... ..........	7 879	Phosphorus— P2O5-...	5>747
			
Ether ..................	9,028		7,830
			
Hydrogen .................	34,462	Sulphur to SO2 .......	2,162
			
Iron to FeO	i ^51	Sulphur 803	2 868
			
Iron toFea. Oi .........	1,887	Wood ........................	2,soo to 4,000
T
TABLE 133.—SCALE  OF TEMPERATURES  BY   COLOR  OF  IRON.
Dark red, hardly visible   970° F.
Dull red.......1300° "
Cherry, dark.....1450° "
red.....1650° "
light    ....   1800° "
Orange.......2000° F.
Yellow.......2150° V
White heat.....2350° "
4'     welding   .  .  .  2600° " "     dazzling   .  .   .  2800° "2	2300	277.78	3300  .       IS35-33