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Full text of "On the genesis of species"

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ON THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 












. 








1 











/ 



















';■ 



ON THE 



GENESIS 



OF 



SPECIES 






BY 



ST. GEOEGE MIVART, F.RS 













IToniroir : 

MACMILLAN AND CO 

1871. 



[The Right oj Translation and Reproduction is reserved] 



■ 



V 






LONDON: 
R. CLAY. SONS, AND TAYLOR, PBI! EB8, 

BREAD STREET HILL. 







Cambridge 



On 



the Botany School 


























I 



TO 



SIR HENRY HOLLAND, Bart., M.D., 

F.R.S., D.C.L., ETC. ETC. 



My bear Sir Henry, 

In giving myself the pleasure to dedicate, as I now 
do, this work to you. it is not my intention to identify you 
with any views of my own advocated in it. 

I simply avail myself of an opportunity of paying a tribute 
of esteem and regard to my earliest scientific friend — the first 
to encourage me in pursuing the study of nature. 



I remain 



' 



My dear Sir Henry, 

Ever faithfully yours, 



ST. GEORGE MI V ART 



7, North Bank, Regent's Park, 



December 8, 1870. 

















CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 



INTRODUCTORY 



The problem of the genesis of species stated. —Nature of its probable 
solution.— Importance of the question.— Position here defended.— 

Statement of the Darwinian Theory.— Its applicability to details of 
geographical distribution ; to rudimentary structures ; to homology ■ 
to mimicry, &c— Consequent utility of the theory.— Its wide accept- 
ance.— Reasons for this other than, and in addition to, its scientific 
value. Its simplicity. —Its bearing on religious questions.— Odium 
theologicum and odium antitheologimm,— -The antagonism supposed by 
many to exist between it and theology neither necessary nor universal. 
Christian authorities in favour of evolution. —Mr. Darwin's " Animals 
and Plants under Domestication."— Difficulties of the Darwinian 
theory enumerated . . . , , . . . Page 1 



CHAPTER II. 

THE INCOMPETENCY OF "NATURAL SELECTION" TO ACCOUNT FOR 

THE INCIPIENT STAGES OF USEFUL STRUCTURES. 

Mr. Darwin supposes that Natural Selection acts by slight variations. — 
These must be useful at once.— Difficulties as to the giraffe ; as to 
mimicry ; as to the heads of flat-fishes ; as to the origin and constancy 
of the vertebrate limbs ; as to whalebone ; as 10 the young kangaroo ; 












* • 



VII) 



CONTENTS. 



as to sea-urchins ; as to certain processes of metamorphosis ; as to 
the mammary gland ; as to certain ape characters ; as to the rattle- 
snake and cobra ; as to the process of formation of the eye and ear ; 
as to the fully developed condition of the eye and ear ; as to the 
voice ; as to shell-fish ; as to orchids ; as to ants. — The necessity for 
the simultaneous modification of many individuals. —Summary and 
conclusion . Page 23 



CHAPTER II] 



THE CO-EXISTENCE OF CLOSELY SIMILAR STRUCTURES OF 

DI TERSE ORIGIN. 






Chances against concordant variations. — Examples of discordant ones. — 
Concordant variations not unlikely on a non-Darwinian evolutionary 
hypothesis. — Placental andimplacental mammals. — Birds and reptiles. 
— Independent origins of similar sense organs. — The ear. — The eye. 

■ 

Other coincidences. — Causes besides Natural Selection produce concor- 
dant variations in certain geographical regions. — Causes besides Natural 
Selection produce concordant variations in certain zoological and bo- 
tanical groups. — There are homologous parts not genetically related. 
— Harmony in respect of the organic and inorganic worlds. — Summary 

• . Page 63 



and conclusion 






CHAPTER IV 



MINUTE AND GRADUAL MODIFICATIONS, 



There are difficulties as to minute modifications, even if not fortuitous. 
Examples of sudden and considerable modifications of different kinds. — 
Professor Owen's view. — Mr. Wallace. — Professor Huxley. — Objections 



to sudden changes. — Labyrinthodont — -Potto. 



Cetacea. 



As to origin 



of bird's wing. — Tendrils of climbing plants. — Animals once supposed 
to be connecting links. — Early specialization of structure. — Macrau- 



henia. — Glyptodon. — Sabre-toothed tiger. 



Conclusion 



Paqe 97 





















'■ 



CONTENTS. 



IX 









CHAPTER V. 

AS TO SPECIFIC STABILITY. 



What is meant by the phrase " specific stability ;'* such stability to be 



'■xr 



a prion, or e 



else considerable changes at once.— Kapidly 



increasing difficulty of intensifying race characters ; alleged causes of 
this phenomenon ; probably an internal cause co-operates. —A certain 
definiteness in variations.— Mr. Darwin admits the principle of specific 
stability in certain cases of unequal variability. -The goose.— The 



peacock.— The guinea fowl.— Exceptional causes of variation under 
domestication. —Alleged tendency to reversion.— Instances.— Sterility 
of hybrids. —Prepotency of pollen of same species, but of different 



race. 



Mortality in young gallinaceous hybrids. —A bar to intermixture 
exists somewhere.— Guinea-pigs.— Summary and conclusion . Page 113 



CHAPTER VI. 

SPECIES AND TIME. 

Two relations of species to time.— No evidence of past existence of minutely 
intermediate forms when such might be expected a priori. -Bats, 
Pterodactyles, Dinosauria, and Birds .— Ichthyosauria, Cheloma, and 
Anoura. —Horse ancestry. — Labyrinthodonts and Trilobites. -Two sub- 
divisions of the second relation of species to time.— Sir William Thom- 
son's views. —Probable period required for ultimate specific evolution 
from primitive ancestral forms.— Geometrical increase of time required 
for rapidly multiplying increase of structural differences.— Proboscis 



Time required for deposition of strata necessary for Dar- 
winian evolution. 



monkey 






High organization of Silurian forms of life. 



Absence of fossils in oldest rocks.— Summary and conclusion. 



Page 128 






CHAPTER. VII. 



SPECIES AND SPACE. 

The geographical distribution of animals presents difficulties.— These not 
insurmountable in themselves ; harmonize with other difficulties. 
Fresh- water fishes. —Forms common to Africa and India ; to Africa and 










■m 



. t ^^ 



■ tmm i mhm 



:1*^» 







• 



x 



CONTENTS. 



South. America ; to China and Australia ; to North America and 
China ; to New Zealand and South America ; to South America and 
Tasmania ; to South America and Australia. — Pleurodont lizards. — In- 
sectivorous mammals. — Similarity of European and South American 
frogs. — Analogy between European salmon and fishes of New Zealand, 
&c. — An ancient Antarctic continent probable. — Other modes of ac- 
counting for facts of distribution. — Independent origin of closely similar 



forms. —Conclusion 



Page 141 



' 



CHAPTER VIII 



HOMOLOGIES, 



Animals made up of parts mutually related in various ways. — What homo- 
logy is. — Its various kinds. — Serial homology. — Lateral homology. — 



Vertical homology. — Mr. Herbert Spencer's explanations. — An internal 
power necessary, as shown by facts of comparative anatomy. — Of ter- 
atology. — M.St.Hilaire. — Professor Burt Wilder. — Foot-wings. - 
of pathology. — Mr. James Paget. — Dr. William Budd. — The existence 
of such an internal power of individual development diminishes the 



Facts 



improbability of an analogous law of specific origination 



Page 155 



CHAPTER IX. 



EVOLUTION AND ETHICS, 



The origin of morals an inquiry not foreign to the subject of this book. — 
Modern utilitarian view as to that origin. — Mr. Darwin's speculation 
as to the origin of the abhorrence of incest. — Cause assigned by him 
insufficient. — Care of the aged and infirm opposed by "Natural Selec- 

UDistinctness of the ideas 



also self-abnegation and asceticism. 



tion ; 

* 

right and useful 



Mr. John Stuart Mill. — Insufficiency of "Natural 
Selection " to account for the origin of the distinction between duty 
and profit. — Distinction of moral acts into material and formal. — No 









i>» 




^ "*■ 









CONTENTS. 



XI 



ground for believing that formal morality exists in brutes. — Evidence 
that it does exist in savages. — Facility with which savages may be 
misunderstood. — Objections as to diversity of customs. — Mr. Hutton's 
review of Mr. Herbert Spencer. — Anticipatory character of morals. 
Sir John Lubbock's explanation. — Summary and conclusion . Page 188 



I 



CHAPTER X. 



PANGENESIS. 

A provisional hypothesis supplementing "Natural Selection/' — Statement 
of the hypothesis. — Difficulty as to multitude of gemmules. — As to 
certain modes of reproduction. — As to formations without the requisite 
gemmules. — Mr. Lewes and Professor Delpino. — Difficulty as to de- 
velopmental force of gemmules. — As to their spontaneous fission. — 

^Paradoxical reality. — Pangenesis scarcely 



Pangenesis and Vitalism. - 



superior to anterior hypotheses.— Buffon. — Owen.— Herbert Spencer. — 
Gemmules as mysterious as " physiological units." — Conclusion. 

Page 208 









CHAPTER XL 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



Review of the statements and arguments of preceding chapters. —Cumu- 
lative argument against predominant action of " Natural Selection." — 
"Whether anything positive as well as negative can be enunciated. — 
Constancy of laws of nature does not necessarily imply constancy of 
specific evolution.— Possible exceptional stability of existing epoch. — 
Probability that an internal cause of change exists. — Innate powers 
somewhere must be accepted. — Symbolism of molecular action under 
vibrating impulses. Professor Owen's statement. — Statement of the 
Author's view. — It avoids the difficulties which oppose "Natural 
Selection." — It harmonizes apparently conflicting conceptions. — Sum- 



mary and conclusion 



Page 220 



■ 




Xll 



CONTENTS, 












CHAPTER XII 









THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



Prejudiced opinions on the subject. — "Creation" sometimes denied from 
prejudice. — The unknowable. — Mr. Herbert Spencer's objections to 

Confusion from 



theism : to creation. 



Meanings of term "creation." 



not distinguishing between " primary " and "derivative" creation. 
Mr. Darwin's objections. — Bearing of Christianity on evolution. — Sup- 
posed opposition, the result of a misconception. — Theological authority 



not opposed to evolution. — St. 



Augustin. 



— St. Thomas Aquinas. 



Certain consequences of want of flexibility of mind. — Eeason and 
imagination. — The first cause and demonstration. — Parallel between 
Christianity and natural theology. —"What evolution of species is. 
Professor Agassiz. — Innate powers must be recognized. — Bearing of 
evolution on religious belief. — Professor Huxley. — Professor Owen.— 
Mr. Wallace.— Mr. Darwin.— A priori conception of Divine action. 

-Mr. "Wallace's view. 



Origin of man. 



Absolute creation and dogma. 



A supernatural origin for man's body not necessary.— Two orders of 
being in man.— Two modes of origin.— Harmony of the physical, 
hyperphysical, and supernatural. — Reconciliation of science and religion 
as regards evolution. — Conclusion . . . . . Page 243 



INDEX 



Page 289 













LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 





Leaf Butterfly in flight and repose (from Mr. A. Wallace's -Malay 



FA OK 



Archipelago") 
Walking-Leaf Insect 



■ * r* 



31 

35 



<r *- o 



• > 



p .- 



Pleuronectid*, with the peculiarly placed eye in different positions 

(/rom Dr. Traquair's paper in Linn. Soc. Tram., 1865) 
Month of Whale ( from Professor Owen's ' ' Odontography ") 
Four plates of Baleen seen obliquely from within (from Professor 

n ■* \ » f m 



57, 166 
40 



Owcw's " Odontography") 



il 



«- * * 



V «F 



Dugong 



» **■ 



*V %' *» 



rt 



■» » • 



^ ^ -» 



Echinus or Sea Urchin ... 

Pedicellariae of Echinus very much enlarged . . 

Eattlesnake •-• 

Cobra (from Sir Andrew Smith's "Southern Africa") 
Wingbones of Pterodactyle, Bat, and Bird (from Mr. Andrew 
Murray's ' < Geographical Distribution of Mammals ) 



O i ■ 



41, 175 

43. 187 



44 
49 

50 



t* * P 



f* w * 



Skeleton of Flying-Dragon 

Centipede (from a specimen in the Museum of the 

Surgeons) ... , 

Teeth of TJrotricIms and Perameles .... 
The Axcheopteryx (from Professor Owen' 

brcUa") 



» o 



v » 



64, 130, 157 
65, 153 




il College of 



* <* *■ 



I* O * 



C6, 159 



68 



# ff 



• a* * 



« i*- k* 



6t 



Anatomy of Verte- 






w <* 



.*#>'** 



73, 132 




*'.•-. 



mm 



WM 









XIV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



• ft 



Cuttle-Fish 



■ 
i 

Skeleton of Ichthyosaurus 



PAGE 



• • ft 



• P 



* t 



• ft 



* m 



« t 



t • « 



75, 141 



78, 107, 132, 177 



Cytheridea Torosa {from Messrs. Brady and Robertson's paper in 
Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. ,1870) 

A Polyzoon, with Bird's-liead processes 

Bird's-head processes greatly enlarged 



79 
80 
81 



Antechinus Minutissimus and Mns Delicatulus {from Mr. Andrew 



of Mammals 



82 



ft ft 



f ft 



ft ft 



• • 



ft ft 



Outlines of Wings of Butterflies of Celebes compared with those of 
allied species elsewhere 

Great Shielded Grasshopper ... 
The Six-shafted Bird of Paradise 
The Long-tailed Bird of Paradise 
The Eed Bird of Paradise 
'Horned Flies 



* 



» • 



• t m 



• • * 



* ft ft 



• ft ft 



•? • • 



* t I 



* * 



The Magnificent Bird of Paradise 

* * * "•• • • • . . . 

(The above seven figures are from Mr. A. Wallace's "Malay 

Archipelago. ") 

Much enlarged horizontal Section of the Tooth of a Labyrinthodon 
(from Professor Owen's ' < Odontography ") 

Hand of the Potto ( from life) 

4/7 * * • ••• ••• ... 

Skeleton of Plesiosaurus 

■ 

The Aye- Aye (from Trans, of Zool. Soc.) 



86 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
93 






104 
.. 105 
106, 133 

108 



Dentition of Sabre-toothed Tiger (from Professor Owen's " Odonto- 



graphy ") 
Trilobite ... 



* • - 



« * * 



• • * 



• ft A 



110 



ft ft ft 



* I 



* ft ft 



ft ft ft 



Inner side of Lower Jaw of Pleurodont Lizard (from Professoi 
Owen's ' 6 Odontography ") 

ft 

Solenodon {from Berlin Trans. ) 

Tarsal Bones of Galago and Cheirogaleus (from Proc. Zool, Soc.) 

Squill a 

x 

* 

Parts of the Skeleton of the Lobster 



135, 171 



• • 



* ft 



• • 



148 

149 
159 
160 
161 






« 



















I 
















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XY 



4- • ♦ 



Spine of Galago Allenii [from Proc. Zool. Soc.) 
Vertebrae of Axolotl (from Proc. Zool. Soc.) ... 
Annelid undergoing spontaneous fission 
Aard-Vark (Orycteropus capensis) 

Pangolin (Manis) 

Skeleton of Maims arid Pes of a Tailed Batrachian {from Professor 
Gegenbaur's " Tarsus and Carpus") 

Flexor Muscles of Hand of Nycticetus {from. Proc. Zool. Soc.) 



PAGE 

.. 162 
.. 165 
169, 211 



174 
175 



The Fibres of Corti 



•V * 



c « * 



t. .1 -. 



* % 



* '. fc 



* a * 



178 
180 

279 





















! 









i 



. 






I 



w^** 















THE 



GENESIS 



OF 



SPECIES. 



CHAPTEE I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



I 



7 I 



I 









The problem of the genesis of species stated. — Nature of its probable 
solution. — Importance of the question. — Position here defended. 
Statement of the Darwinian Theory. — Its applicability to details 
of geographical distribution ; to rudimentary structures ;. to homo- 
logy; to mimicry, &c. — Consequent utility of the theory. — Its wide 
acceptance. — Reasons for this, other than, and in addition to, its scien- 
tific value. — Its simplicity. — Its bearing on religious questions. — Odium 
tkeologicum and odium antitheologicum. — The antagonism supposed by 
many to exist between it and theology neither necessary nor universal. 
— Christian authorities in favour of evolution . —Mr . Darwin's "Animals 
and Plants under Domestication." — Difficulties of the Darwinian 
theory enumerated. 

The great problem which has so long exercised the minds of 
naturalists, namely, that concerning the origin of different kinds 
of animals and plants, seems at last to he fairly on the road 
to receive — perhaps at no very distant future — as satisfactory a 
solution as it can well have. 

But the problem presents peculiar difficulties. The birth of 
a " species " has often been compared with that of an " indi- 
vidual.^ The origin, however, of even an individual animal or 
plant (that which determines an embryo to evolve itself, — as, 

B 





t 















2 



Tffj? GENESIS OF SPECIES. 




e.g., a spider rather than a beetle, a rose-plant rather than a 
pear) is shrouded in obscurity. A fortiori must this be the case 
with the origin of a " species." 



Moreover, the analogy between a " species " and an " indi- 
vidual " is a very incomplete one. The word "individual" 
denotes a concrete whole with a real, separate, and distinct ex- 
istence. The word "species," on the other hand, denotes a pecu- 
liar congeries of characters, innate powers and qualities, and a 
certain nature realized indeed in individuals, but having no 
separate existence, except ideally as a thought in some mind. 

Thus the birth of a "species" can only be compared meta- 
phorically, and very imperfectly, with that of an "individual." 

Individuals as individuals, actually and directly produce and 
bring forth other individuals ; but no " congeries of characters " 
no "common nature" as such, can directly bring forth another 
"common nature," because, per se, it has no existence (other than 
ideal) apart from the individuals in which it is manifested. 

The problem then is, " by what combination of natural laws 
does a new ' common nature ' appear upon the scene of realized 
existence?", i.e. how is an individual embodying such new 
characters produced ? 

For the approximation we have of late made towards the 
solution of this problem, we are mainly indebted to the 
invaluable labours and active brains of Charles Darwin and 
Alfred Wallace. 

Nevertheless, important as has been the impulse and direction 
given by those writers to both our observations and specula- 
tions, the solution will not (if the views here advocated are 
correct) ultimately present that aspect and character with which 
it has issued from the hands of those writers. 

Neither, most certainly, will that solution agree in appearance 
or substance with the more or less crude conceptions which have 



Messr 



Wallace 



. 























1.1 



INTRODUCTORY. 



3 












Rather, judging from the more recent manifestations of thought 
on opposite sides, we may expect the development of some ter- 



understandings which 



tiam quid— the resultant of forces coming from different quarters, 
and not coinciding in direction with any one of them. 

As error is almost always partial truth, and so consists in the 
exaggeration or distortion of one verity by the suppression of 
another which qualifies and modifies the former, we may hope, 
by the synthesis of the truths contended for by various advocates, 
to arrive at the one conciliating reality. 

Signs of this conciliation are not wanting : opposite scientific 
views, opposite philosophical conceptions, and opposite religious 
beliefs, are rapidly tending by their vigorous conflict to evolve 
such a systematic and comprehensive view of the genesis of 
species as will completely harmonize with the teachings of science, 
philosophy, and religion. 

To endeavour to add one stone to this temple of concord, to 
try and remove a few of the misconceptions and mutual mis- 
oppose harmonious action, is the aim 
and endeavour of the present work. This aim it is hoped to 
attain, not by shirking difficulties, but analysing them, and by 
endeavouring to dig down to the common root which supports 
and unites diverging stems of truth. 

It cannot but be a gain when the labourers in the three 
fields above mentioned, namely, science, philosophy, and religion, 
shall fully recognize this harmony. Then the energy too often ' 
spent in futile controversy, or withheld through prejudice, 
may be profitably and reciprocally exercised for the mutual 
benefit of all. 

Remarkable is the rapidity with which an interest in the 

i 

question of specific origination has spread. But a few years 
ago it scarcely occupied the minds of any but naturalists. Then 
the crude theory put forth by Lamarck, and by his English 
interpreter the author of the "Vestiges of Creation/ 7 had rather 
discredited than helped on a belief in organic evolution — a belief • 

b2 






■1M ■ * 
















4 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 




that is, in new kinds being produced from older ones "by the 
ordinary and constant operation of natural laws. Now, how- 



ever 



this belief is widely diffused. Indeed, there are few 
drawing-rooms where it is not the subject of occasional discus- 
sion, and artisans and schoolboys have their views as to the 
permanence of organic forms. Moreover, the reception of this 
doctrine tends actually, though by no means necessarily, to be 
accompanied by certain beliefs with regard to quite distinct 
and very momentous subject-matter. So that the question of 

" Genesis of Species " is not only one of great interest, 
but also of much importance. 



the 



But though the calm and thorough 



consideration of this 



■ 



matter is at the present moment exceedingly desirable, yet the 
actual importance of the question itself as to its consequences 
in the domain of theology has been strangely exaggerated by 
many, both of its opponents and supporters. This is especially 
the case with that form of the evolution theory which is asso- 
ciated with the name of Mr. Darwin; and yet neither the re- 
futation nor the demonstration of that doctrine would be neces- 
sarily accompanied by the results which are hoped for by one 
party and dreaded by another. 

The general theory of evolution has indeed for some time 
past steadily gained ground, and it may be safely predicted 
that the number of facts which can be brought forward in its 
support will, in a few years, be vastly augmented. But the 
prevalence of this theory need alarm no one, for it is, with- 
out any doubt, perfectly consistent with strictest and most 
orthodox Christian theology. Moreover, it is not altogether 
without obscurities, and cannot yet be considered as fully 

demonstrated. 

The special Darwinian hypothesis, however, is beset with 
certain scientific difficulties, which must by no means be ig- 
nored, and some of which, I venture to think, are absolutely 
insuperable. What Darwinism or " Natural Selection" is, will 











_. 



I] 



INTR 01) UC1 OR Y. 



5 







be shortly explained j but before doing so, I think it well to state 

the object of this book, and the view taken up and defended 

in it. It is its object to maintain the position that " Natural 

Selection " acts, and indeed must act, but that still, in order that 

we may be able to account for the production of known kinds of 

animals and plants, it requires to be supplemented by the action 

of some other natural law or laws as yet undiscovered. 1 Also, 

that the consequences which have been drawn from Evolution, 

whether exclusively Darwinian or not, to the prejudice of religion, 

by no means follow from it, and are in fact illegitimate. 

The Darwinian theory of "Natural Selection'' may be shortly 

stated thus : 2 — ■ 

Every kind of animal and plant tends to increase in numbers . 

in a geometrical progression. 

* 

Every kind of animal and plant transmits a general likeness, 
with individual differences, to its offspring. 

Every individual may present minute variations of any kind 
and in any direction. 

Past time has been practically infinite. 

Every individual has to endure a very severe struggle for 
existence, owing to the tendency to geometrical increase of all 
kinds of animals and plants, while the total animal and vege- 
table population (man and his agency excepted) remains almost 
stationary. I 

, Thus, every variation of 



a kind tending 



to save the life 
of the individual possessing it, or to enable it more surely to 
propagate its kind, will in the long run be preserved, and 
will transmit its favourable peculiarity to some of its offspring, 



1 In the last edition of the "Origin- of Species" (1869) Mr. Darwin 
himself admits that "Natural Selection" has not been the exclusive 
means of modification, though he still contends it has been the most 
important one. 

2 See Mr. Wallace's recent work, entitled "Contributions to the Theory 
of Natural Selection," where, at p. 302, it is very well and shortly stated, 







! I 



"1 * 



6 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



which peculiarity will thus become intensified till it reaches 
the maximum degree of utility. On the other hand, individuals 
presenting unfavourable peculiarities will be ruthlessly destroyed. 
The action of this law of Natural Selection may thus be well 
represented by the convenient expression " survival of the 
fittest." 1 

* 

ISTow this conception of Mr. Darwin's is perhaps the most 
interesting theory, in relation to natural science, which has been 
promulgated during the present century. Kemarkable, indeed, is 
the way in which it groups together such a vast and varied series 
of biological 2 facts, and even paradoxes, which it appears more 



or less clearly to explain, as the following instances will show. 
By this theory of "Natural Selection," light is thrown on the 
more singular facts relating to the geographical distribution of 
animals and plants ; for example, on the resemblance between 
the past and present inhabitants of different parts of the earth's 
surface. Thus in Australia remains have been found of creatures 
closely allied to kangaroos and other kinds of pouched beasts, 
which in the present day exist nowhere but in the Australian 
region. Similarly in South America, and nowhere else, are found 
sloths and armadillos, and in that same part of the world have 
been discovered bones of animals different indeed from existing 
sloths and armadillos, but yet much more nearly related to them 
than to any other kinds whatever. Such coincidences between 
the existing and antecedent geographical distribution of forms 
are numerous. Again, " Natural Selection " serves to explain 
the circumstance that often in adjacent islands we find animals 
closely resembling, and appearing to represent, each other; 
while if certain of these islands show signs (by depth of sur- 
rounding sea or what not) of more ancient separation, the 



1 < 



< Natural Selection " is happily so termed by Mr. Herbert Spencer 
in his " Principles of Biology. " 

2 Biology is the seience of life. It contains zoology, or the science of 
animals, and botany, or that of plants. 




















T*^ 4* 







/ 



a * 


























I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



7 



?> 



animals inhabiting them exhibit a corresponding divergence. 1 
The explanation consists in representing the forms inhabiting 
the islands as being the modified descendants of a common 
stock, the modification being greatest where the separation 
has been the most prolonged. 

" Kudinientary structures" also receive an explanation by 
means of this theory. These structures are parts which are 
apparently functionless and useless where they occur, but which 
represent similar parts of large size and functional importance 
in other animals. Examples of such " rudimentary structures 
are the foetal teeth of whales, and of the front part of the jaw 
of ruminating quadrupeds. These foetal structures are minute 
in size, and never cut the gum, but are reabsorbed without ever 
coming into use, while no other teeth succeed them or represent 
them in the adult condition of those animals. The mammary 
glands of all male beasts constitute another example, as also 
does the wing of the apteryx— a New Zealand bird utterly in- 
capable of flight, and with the wing in a quite rudimentary con- 
dition (whence the name of the animal). Yet this rudimentary 
wing contains bones which are miniature representatives of the 
ordinary wing-bones of birds of flight. Now, the presence of 
these useless bones and teeth is explained if they may be con- 
sidered as actually being the inherited diminished representatives 
of parts of large size and functional importance in the remote 
ancestors of these various animals. 

Again, the singular facts of "homology" are capable of a similar 
explanation. " Homology" is the name applied to the investiga- 
tion of those profound resemblances which have so often been 
found to underlie superficial differences between animals of very 
different form and habit. Thus man, the horse, the whale, and the 
tat, all have the pectoral limb, whether it be the arm, or fore-leg, 
or paddle, or wing, formed on essentially the same type, though 

1 For very interesting examples, see Mr. Wallace's "Malay Archi- 
pelago." 



- 




. - . 



<w . 















8 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



the number and proportion of parts may more or less differ. Again, 
the butterfly and the shrimp, different as they are in appearance 
and mode of life, are yet constructed on the same common plan, 
of which they constitute diverging manifestations. No a priori 
reason is conceivable why such similarities should be necessary, 
but they are readily explicable on the assumption of a genetic 
relationship and affinity between the animals in question, 
assuming, that is, that they are the modified descendants of 
some ancient form — their common ancestor. 



That remarkable series of changes which animals 



undergo 



before they attain their adult condition, which is called their 
process of development, and during which they more or less 



closely resemble other animals 
the same process, 



during 



the early stages of 



has also great light thrown on it from the 
same source. The question as to the singularly complex resem- 

i 

blances borne by every adult animal and plant to a certain 
number of other animals and plants — resemblances by means 
of which the adopted zoological and botanical systems of classi- 
fication have been possible — finds its solution in a similar man- 
ner, classification becoming the expression of a genealogical rela- 
tionship. Finally, by this theory — and as yet by this alone — 
can any explanation be given of that extraordinary phenomenon 
which is metaphorically termed mimicry. Mimicry is a close 
and striking, yet superficial resemblance borne by some animal 
or plant to some other, perhaps very different, animal or plant. 



The u walking leaf" (an insect belonging to the grasshopper 
and cricket order) is a well-known and conspicuous instance 
of the assumption by an animal of the appearance of a vegetable 
structure (see illustration on p. 35); and the bee, fly, and spider 
orchids are familiar examples of a converse resemblance. Birds, 
butterflies, reptiles, and even fish, seem to bear in certain 
instances a similarly striking resemblance to other birds, but- 
terflies, reptiles, and fish, of altogether distinct kinds. The 



explanation of this matter which " Natural Selection" offers 






j 









, 













I 




1.1 



INTRODUCTORY. 



9 



the b 






* 

to animals, is that certain varieties of one kind have found ex- 
emption from persecution in consequence of an accidental resem- 
blance which such varieties have exhibited to animals of another 
kind, or to plants ; and that they were thus preserved, and the 
degree of resemblance was continually augmented in their de- 
scendants. As to plants, the explanation offered by this theory 
might perhaps be that varieties of plants which presented a cer- 
tain superficial resemblance in their flowers to insects, have 
thereby been helped to propagate their kind, the visit of certain 
insects being useful or indispensable to the fertilization of many 

flowers. 

We have thus a whole series of important facts which 
"Natural Selection" helps us to understand and co-ordinate. 
And not only are all these diverse facts strung together, as it 
were, by the theory in question; not only does it explain the 
development of the complex instincts of the beaver, the cuckoo, 

_ee, and the ant, as also the dazzling brilliancy of the 
humming-bird, the glowing tail and neck of the peacock, and 
the melody of the nightingale j the perfume of the rose and 
the violet, the brilliancy of the tulip and the sweetness of the 
nectar of flowers j not only does it help us to understand all 
these, but serves as a basis of future research and of inference 
from the known to the unknown, and it guides the investigator 
to the discovery of new facts which, when ascertained, it seems 
also able to co-ordinate. 1 Nay, "Natural Selection " seems capable 
of application not only to the building up of the smallest and 
most insignificant organisms, but even of extension beyond the 
biological domain altogether, so as possibly to have relation to 

1 See Miiller's work, " Fur Darwin," lately translated into English by 
Mr. Dallas. Mr. Wallace also predicts the discovery, in Madagascar, of a 
hawk -moth with an enormously long proboscis, and he does this on 
account of the discovery there of an orchid with a nectary from ten to 
fourteen inches in length. See Quarterly Journal of Science, October 18b, , 
and " Natural Selection," p. 275. 

* 
































10 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



the stable equilibrium of the solar system itself, and even of 
the whole sidereal universe. Thus, whether this theory be 
true or false, all lovers of natural science should acknowledge 
a deep debt of gratitude to Messrs. Darwin and Wallace, on 
account of its practical utility. But the utility of a theory by 
no means implies its truth. What do we not owe, for example 
to the labours of the Alchemists ? The emission theory of lio-ht, 
again, has been pregnant with valuable results, as still is the 
Atomic theory, and others which will readily suggest themselves. 
With regard to Mr. Darwin (with whose name, on account 
of the noble self-abnegation of Mr. Wallace, the theory 



is 



in general exclusively associated), his friends may heartily con- 
gratulate him on the fact that he is one of the few exceptions 
to the rule respecting the non-appreciation of a prophet in his 
own country. It would be difficult to name another living 
labourer in the field of physical science who has excited an 
interest so widespread, and given rise to so much praise, gather- 
ing round him, as he has done, a chorus of more or less com- 
pletely acquiescing disciples, themselves masters in science, and 
each the representative of a crowd of enthusiastic followers. 

Such is the Darwinian theory of "Natural Selection," such 
are the more remarkable facts which it is potent to explain, and 
such is the reception it has met with in the world. A few words 
now as to the reasons for the very widespread interest it has 
awakened, and the keenness with which the theory has been both 
advocated and combated. 

The important bearing it has on such an extensive range of 
scientific facts, its utility, and the vast knowledge and great inge- 
nuity of its promulgator, are enough to account for the heartiness 
of its reception by those learned in natural history. But quite 
other causes have concurred to produce the general and higher 
degree of interest felt in the theory beside the readiness with 
which it harmonizes with biological facts. These latter could only 
be appreciated by physiologists, zoologists, and botanists; whereas 





















• 













I.] 



INTRODUCTORY. 



11 



We 



the Darwinian theory, so novel and so startling, has found a 
cloud of advocates and opponents beyond and outside the world 

of physical science. 

In the first place, it was inevitable that a great crowd of 
half-educated men and shallow thinkers should accept with eager- 
ness the theory of " Natural Selection," or rather what they 
think to be such (for few things are more remarkable than the 
way in which it has been misunderstood), on account of a certain 
characteristic it has in common with other theories ; which should 
not be mentioned in the same breath with it, except, as now, 
with the accompaniment of protest and apology, 
its remarkable simplicity, and the ready way in which pbenomena 
the most complex appear explicable by a cause for the compre- 
hension of which laborious and persevering efforts are not 
required, but which may be represented by the simple phrase 
" survival of the fittest." With nothii 

the Darwinian theory, all the most intricate facts of distribution 
and affinity, form, and colour, be accounted for ; as well the 
most complex instincts and the most admirable adjustments, 
such as those of the human eye and ear. 
then, owing to this supposed simplicity, and to a belief in its 
being yet easier and more simple than it is, that Darwinism, 
however imperfectly understood, has become a subject for general 
conversation, and has been able thus widely to increase a 
certain knowledge of biological matters ; and this excitation of 
interest in quarters where otherwise it would have been en- 
tirely wanting, is an additional motive for gratitude on the 
part of naturalists to the authors of the new theory. At the 
same time it must be admitted that a similar "simplicity" 

the apparently easy explanation of complex phenomena 
also constitutes the charm of such matters as hydropathy and 
phrenology, in the eyes of the unlearned or half-educated public. 
It is indeed the charm of all those seeming "short cuts" to 
knowledge, by which the labour of mastering scientific details is 



It is in great measure 























































£ 












12 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



\ 



spared to those who yet believe that without such labour they 
can attain all the most valuable results of scientific research. 
It is not, of course, for a moment meant to imply that its 
"simplicity" tells at all against "Natural Selection," but only 
that the actual or supposed possession of that quality is a strong 
reason for the wide and somewhat hasty acceptance of the 
theory, whether it be true or not. 

In the second place, it was inevitable that a theory appear- 
ing to have very grave relations with questions of the last im- 
portance and interest to man, that is, with questions of religious 
belief, should call up an army of assailants and defenders. Nor 
have the supporters of the theory much reason, in many cases, to 
blame the more or less unskilful and hasty attacks of adversaries, 
seeing that those attacks have been in great part due to the un- 
skilful and perverse advocacy of the cause on the part of some 
of its adherents. If the odium theologicum has inspired some of 
its opponents, it is undeniable that the odium antitheologicum 
has possessed not a few of its supporters. It is true (and in appre- 
ciating some of Mr. Darwin's expressions it should never be 
forgotten) that the theory has been both at its first promulgation 
and since vehemently attacked and denounced as unchristian, 
nay, as necessarily atheistic ; but it is not less true that it has 
been made use of as a weapon of offence by irreligious writers 
and has been again and again, especially in continental Europe, 
thrown, as it were, in the face of believers, with sneers and con- 
tumely. When we recollect the warmth with which what he 
thought was Darwinism was advocated by such a writer as 
Professor Vogt, one cause of his zeal was not far to seek— a 
zeal, by the way, certainly not " according to knowledge f for 
few conceptions could have been more conflicting with true Dar- 
winism than the theory he formerly maintained, but has since 
abandoned, viz. that the men of the Old World were descended 
from African and Asiatic apes, while, similarly, the American apes 

# m m . ^ — 

i of tlie New World. 






• 








~_= 































Li 



INTRODUCTORY. 



13 



The cause of this palpable error in a too eager disciple one might 
hope was not anxiety to snatch up all or any arms available against 
Christianity, were it not for the tone unhappily adopted by this 
author. But it is unfortunately quite impossible to mistake his 
meaning and intention, for he is a writer whose offensiveness 
is gross, while it is sometimes almost surpassed by an amazing 
shallowness. Of course, as might fully be expected, he adopts 
and reproduces the absurdly trivial objections to absolute morality 
drawn from differences in national customs. 1 And he seems to 
have as little conception of the distinction between "formally" 
moral actions and those which are only " materially " moral, as 
of that between the verbum mentale and the verbum oris. As an 
example of his onesidedness, it may be remarked that he com- 
pares the skulls of the American monkeys (Cebus apella and 
C. albifrons) with the intention of showing that man is of several 
distinct species, because skulls of different men are less alike 
than are those of these two monkeys ; and he does this regard- 
less of how the skulls of domestic animals (with which it is far 
more legitimate to compare races of men than with wild kinds), 
e.g. of different dogs or pigeons, tell precisely in the opposite 
direction. Eegardless also of the fact that perhaps no genus 
of monkeys is in a more unsatisfactory state as to the determi- 
nation of its different kinds than the genus chosen by him 

for illustration. 

(in his supplement to Schreber's great work on Beasts) at first 

included all the kinds in a single species. 

As to the strength of his prejudice and his regretable coarse- 
ness, one quotation will be enough to display both. Speaking of 
certain early Christian missionaries, he says, 2 " It is not so very 
improbable that the new religion, before which the flourishing 
Eoman civilization relapsed into a state of barbarism, should have 



This is so much the case that J. A. Wagner 



"Lectures on Man " translated by the Antnropological Society, 1864, 



p. 229. 



2 Ibid. p. 378. 




















'■* ■ * 



_ ... . • .,-. ...-■.■ ..■-.-... : 





« 
































14 



THE 6 EWE SIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



been introduced by people in whose skulls the anatomist finds 
simious characters so well developed, and in which the phreno- 
logist finds the organ of veneration so much enlarged. I shall 
in the meanwhile, call these simious narrow skulls of Switzer- 



land ' Apostle skulls/ as I 



imagine 



that in life they must 



have grown warm ? 



have resembled the type of Peter, the Apostle, as represented in 
Byzantine-Nazarene art." 
In face of such a spirit, can it be wondered at that disputants 

Moreover, in estimating the vehemence of 
the opposition which has been offered, it should be borne in 
mind that the views defended by religious writers are, or should 
be, all-important in their eyes. They could not be expected to 
view with equanimity the destruction in many minds of " theo- 
logy, natural and revealed, psychology, and metaphysics;" nor 
to weigh .with calm and frigid impartiality arguments which 

with results of the highest 



fraught 



con- 



seemed to them to be 

moment to mankind, and, therefore, imposing on their 
sciences strenuous opposition as a first duty. Cool judicial im- 
partiality in them would have been a sign perhaps of intel- 
lectual gifts, but also of a more important deficiency of generous 
emotion. 

* 

It is easy to complain of the onesidedness of many of those 
who oppose Darwinism in the interest of orthodoxy ; but not 
at all less patent is the intolerance and narrow-mindedness of 
some of those who advocate it, avowedly or covertly, in the 
interest of heterodoxy. This hastiness of rejection, or accept- 
ance, determined by ulterior consequences believed to attach 
to " Natural Selection," is unfortunately in part to be accounted 
for by some expressions and a certain tone to be found in 
Mr. Darwin's writings. That his expressions, however, are 
not always to be construed literally is manifest. His frequent 
use metaphorically of the expressions, " contrivance," for 

has elicited, from the Duke of 



" purpose," 



example, and 

Argyll and others, criticisms which fail to tell against their 







- 
















I 






I.] 



INTRODUCTORY. 



15 



throughout the whole process of 



opponent, because such expressions are, in Mr. Darwin's writings, 
merely figurative — metaphors, and nothing more. 

It may be hoped, then, that a similar looseness of expres- 
sion will account for passages of a directly opposite tendency to 
that of his theistic metaphors . 

Moreover, it must not be forgotten that he frequently uses 
that absolutely theological term, " the Creator," and that he has 
retained in all the editions of his " Origin of Species " an ex- 
pression which has been much criticised. He speaks " of life, 
with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the 
Creator into a few forms, or into one." 1 This is merely men- 
tioned in justice to Mr. Darwin, and by no means because it 
is a position which this book is intended to support. For, from 
Mr. Darwin's usual mode of speaking, it appears that by such 
divine action he means a supernatural intervention, whereas 

it is here contended that 

physical evolution— the first manifestation of life included 

supernatural action is assuredly not to be looked for. 

Again, in justice to Mr. Darwin, it may be observed that 
he is addressing the general public, and opposing the ordinary 
and common objections of popular religionists, who have in- 

and " Natural Selection " as 
atheistic, impious, and directly conflicting with the dogma of 

creation. 

Still, in so important a matter, it is to be regretted that he 
did not take the trouble to distinguish between such merely 
popular views and those which repose upon some more venerable 
authority. Mr. John Stuart Mill has replied to similar critics, 
and shown that the assertion that his philosophy is irrecon- 
cilable with theism is unfounded ; and it would have been 
better if Mr. Darwin had dealt in the same manner with some 
of his assailants, and shown the futility of certain of their 



veighed against "Evolution" 












- 



1 See Fifth Edition, 1869, p. 579. 









i 




mm 



m 









■ 
























I 



16 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



objections when viewed from a more elevated religious stand- 
point. Instead of so doing, he seems to adopt the narrowest 
notions of his opponents, and, far from endeavouring to expand 
them, appears to wish to endorse them, and to lend to them the 
weight of his authority. It is thus that Mr. Darwin seems to 
admit and assume that the idea of "creation" necessitates a 
belief in an interference with, or dispensation of, natural laws, 
and that " creation " must be accompanied by arbitrary and 
unorderly phenomena. None but the crudest conceptions are 
placed by him to the credit of supporters of the dogma of 
creation, and it is constantly asserted that they, to be consistent 
must offer "creative fiats" as explanations of physical phe- 
nomena, and be guilty of numerous other such absurdities. It 
is impossible, therefore, to acquit Mr. Darwin of at least a 
certain carelessness in this matter ; and the result is, he has the 
appearance of opposing ideas which he gives no clear evidence 
of having ever fully appreciated, j 

in this, and perhaps merely takes up and reiterates, without 
much consideration, assertions previously assumed by others. 
Nothing could be further from Mr. Darwin's mind than any, 
however small, intentional misrepresentation ; and it is therefore 
the more unfortunate that he should not have shown any appre- 
ciation of a position opposed to his own other than that gross 

so superfluously — that he 



He is far from being alone 



combats 






and crude one which he 
should appear, even for a moment, to be one of those, of whom 
there are far too many, who first misrepresent their adversary's 
view, and then elaborately refute it ; who, in fact, erect a doll 
utterly incapable of self-defence and then, with a flourish of 
trumpets and many vigorous strokes, overthrow the helpless 
dummy they had previously raised. 

* 

This is what many do who more or less distinctly oppose 
theism in the interests, as they believe, of physical science • 
and they often represent, amongst other things, a gross and 
narrow anthropomorphism as the necessary consequence of views 



I 
I 







LI 












i.] 



INTRO bUCTORY. 



17 



opposed to those which they themselves advocate. Mr. Darwin 
and others may perhaps be excused if they have not devoted 
much time to the study of Christian philosophy ; but they have 
no right to assume or accept, without careful examination, as an 
unquestioned fact, that in that philosophy there is a necessary 
antagonism between the two ideas, "creation" and " evolution," 
as applied to organic forms. 

It is notorious and patent to all who choose to seek, that 
many distinguished Christian thinkers have accepted and do 
accept both ideas, i. e. both " creation " and " evolution." 

As much as ten years ago, an eminently Christian writer ob- 
served : " The creationist theory does not necessitate the per- 
petual search after manifestations of miraculous powers and 
perpetual ' catastrophes/ Creation is not a miraculous inter- 
ference with the laws of nature, but the very institution of those 
laws. Law and regularity, not arbitrary intervention, was the 



\ 



patristic ideal of creation. With 



notion, they admitted 



without difficulty the most surprising origin of living creatures, 
provided it took place by law. They held that when God said, 
' Let the waters produce, 7 ' Let the earth produce/ He con- 
ferred forces on the elements of earth and water, which en- 
abled them naturally to produce the various species of organic 
beings. This power, they thought, remains attached to the 

The same writer quotes St. 
St. Thomas Aquinas, to the effect that, "in 
the institution of nature we do not look for miracles, but 
for the laws of nature." 2 And, again, St. Basil, 3 speaks of the 

* 

continued operation of natural laws in the production of all 
organisms. 



elements throughout all time. " 1 
Augustine and 



1 The Rambler, March 1860, vol. xii. p. 372. 

2 "In prima institutione nature non quaeritur miraculum, sed quid 
natura rerum habeat, ut Augustinus dicit, lib. ii. sup. Gen. ad lit. e. 1." 
(St. Thomas, Sum. I 83 , lxvii. 4, ad 3.) 

3 " Hexaem." Horn. ix. p. 81. 

c 



I 
i • 









:s 





--. " &* 







18 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 






So much for writers of early and mediaeval times. As to the 
present day, the Author can confidently affirm that there are 
many as well versed in theology as Mr. Darwin is in his own 
department of natural knowledge, who would not be disturbed 
by the thorough demonstration of his theory. Nay, they would 
not even be in the least painfully affected at witnessing the 
generation of animals of complex organization by the skilful 
artificial arrangement of natural forces, and the production, in 
the future, of a fish, by means analogous to those by which 
we now produce urea. 

And this because they know that the possibility of such 

phenomena, though by no means actually foreseen, has yet been 
fully provided for in the old philosophy centuries before Darwin, 
or even before Bacon, and that their place in the system can 
be at once assigned them without even disturbing its order or 
marring its harmony. 

Moreover, the old tradition in this respect has never been 
abandoned, however much it may have been ignored or neglected 
by some modern writers. In proof of this it may be observed 
that perhaps no post-mediseval theologian has a wider reception 
amongst Christians throughout the world than Suarez, who has 
a separate section 1 in opposition to those who maintain the 
distinct creation of the various kinds — or substantial forms — of 
organic life. 

■ 

But the consideration of this matter must be deferred for the 
present, and the question of evolution, whether Darwinian or 
other, be first gone into. It is proposed, after that has been 
done, to return to this subject (here merely alluded to), and 
to consider at some length the bearing of "Evolution," whether 
Darwinian or non-Darwinian, upon " Creation and Theism." 

Now we will revert simply to the consideration of the theory 
of " Natural Selection " itself. 

1 Suarez, Metaphysica. Edition Vives. Paris, 1868. Vol. I. Dis- 
putatio xv. § 2. 



t 










IP^M 















I.] 



INTRODUCTORY. 



19 



may 



Whatever may have hitherto been the amount of acceptance 
that this theory has met with, all, I think, anticipated that the 
appearance of Mr. Darwin's large and careful work on " Animals 
and Plants under Domestication " could but further increase that 
acceptance. It is, however, somewhat problematical how far 
such anticipations will be realized. The newer book seems to 
add after all but little in support of the theory, and to leave 
most, if not all, its difficulties exactly where they were. It is 
a question, also, whether the hypothesis of " Pangenesis " 1 
not be found rather to encumber than to support the theory it 
was intended to subserve. However, the work in question 
treats only of domestic animals, and probably the next instal- 
ment will address itself more vigorously and directly to the 
difficulties which seem to us yet to bar the way to a complete 
acceptance of the doctrine. 

If the theory of Natural Selection can be shown to be quite 
insufficient to explain any considerable number of important 
phenomena connected with the origin of species, that theory, 
as the explanation, must be considered as provisionally dis- 
credited. 

If other causes than Natural (including sexual) Selection 

can be proved to have acted — if variation can in any cases be 
proved to be subject to certain determinations in special directions 
by other means than Natural Selection, it then becomes probable 
a priori that it is so in others, and that Natural Selection 

1 "Pangenesis" is the name of the new theory proposed by Mr. 
Darwin, in order to account for various obscure physiological facts, such, 
« 9- , as the occasional reproduction, by individuals, of parts which they have 
lost ; the appearance in offspring of parental, and sometimes of remote 
ancestral, characters, &c. It accounts for these phenomena by supposing 
that every creature possesses countless indefinitely-minute organic atoms, 
termed "gemmules," which atoms are supposed to be generated in every 
part of every organ, to be in constant circulation about the body, and to 
have the power of reproduction. Moreover, atoms from every part are 
supposed to be stored in the generative products. 

c2 



u 



i* 





























20 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



e 



depends upon, and only supplements, such, means, which con- 
ception is opposed to the pure Darwinian position. 

Now it is certain, a priori, that variation is obedient to some 
law and therefore that "Natural Selection" itself must b 
capable of being subsumed into some higher law ; and it is 
evident, I believe, a posteriori, that Natural Selection is 
at the very least, aided and supplemented by some other 

■ 

agency. 

Admitting, then, organic and other evolution, and that new 
forms of animals and plants (new species, genera, &c.) have 
from time to time been evolved from preceding animals and 
plants, it follows, if the views here advocated are true, that this 
evolution has not taken place by the action of " Natural Selec- 
tion" alone, but through it (amongst other influences) aided by 
the concurrent action of some other natural law or laws, at 
present undiscovered ; and probably that the genesis of species 
takes place partly, perhaps mainly, through laws which may 
be most conveniently spoken of as special powers and ten- 



dencies 



existing 



in each organism; and partly through in- 



fluences exerted on each hy 



surrounding 



agencies 



organic 



and 



inorganic 



conditions and 
terrestrial and cosmical, 
among which the " survival of the fittest " plays a certain 

■ 

but subordinate part. 

The theory of " Natural Selection " may (though it need not) 
be taken in such a way as to lead men to regard the present 
organic world as formed, so to speak, accidentally, beautiful and 
wonderful as is confessedly the hap-hazard result. The same 
may perhaps be said with regard to the system advocated by 
Mr. Herbert Spencer, who, however, also relegates "Natural 
Selection" to a subordinate role. The view here advocated, 
on the other hand, regards the whole organic world as arising 
and going forward in one harmonious development similar 
to that which displays itself in 'the growth and action of each 
separate individual organism. It also regards each such separate 












■ 





I 



I-] 



INTRODUCTORY. 



21 



organism as the expression of powers and tendencies not to 
be accounted for by "Natural Selection" alone, or even by 
that together with merely the direct influence of surrounding 

conditions. 

The difficulties which appear to oppose themselves to the 
reception of " Natural Selection 7 ' or "the survival of the fittest," 
as the one explanation of ihe origin of species, have no doubt 
been already considered by Mr. Darwin. Nevertheless, it may 
be worth while to enumerate them, and to state the considera- 
tions which appear to give them weight; and there is no doubt 
but that a naturalist so candid and careful as the author of the 
theory in question, will feel obliged, rather than the reverse, by 
the suggestion of all the doubts and difficulties which can be 
brought auainst it. 



t_ 



to be brought forward may be summed 



up as 



What 

follows I 

That "Natural Selection" is incompetent to account for the 
incipient stages of useful structures. 



■ 




That it does not harmonize with the co-existence of closely 

similar structures of diverse origin. 

That there are grounds for thinking that specific differences 
may be developed suddenly instead of gradually. 

That the opinion that species have definite though very dif- 
ferent limits to their variability is still tenable. 

That certain fossil transitional forms are absent, which might 
have been expected to be present. 

That some facts of geographical distribution supplement other 

difficulties. 

That the objection drawn from the physiological difference 

between " species" and "races" still exists unrefuted. 

That there are many remarkable phenomena in organic forms 
upon which " Natural Selection" throws no light whatever, but 
the explanations of which, if they could be attained, might throw 



light 



upon specific origination. 



■ 









i 















i 


















22 






^.ffff GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. I. 



Besides these objections to the sufficiency of " Natural 



brought 



against the hypothesis 



Selection," others may be 

of "Pangenesis," which, professing as it does to explain 



great 



difficulties, seems to do so by presenting others not 
less great — almost to be the explanation of obscurum per 
obscurius. 



. 









^ *i 




■ 








^ 























CHAPTEE II. 



THE INCOMPETENCY OF "NATURAL SELECTION" TO ACCOUNT FOR 

THE INCIPIENT STAGES OF USEFUL STRUCTURES. 



M, Darwin supposes that natural ^^^fl^ ^Z 
These must be useful at once. -Difficulties as to the giratte , as 
miScrvT as to the heads of flat-fishes ; as to the origin and constancy 
The vertebrate limbs ; as to whalebone ; as to the young kangaroo ; 

a o sea urchins ; as to certain processes ^-^^eraSesnat 
mammary gland ; as to certain ape characters ; as to the rattlesnake 
ndTbra a, to' the process of formation of the eye and^ ear ; as t 
the fully developed condition of the eye and ear ; as to the voice , as 
to she ^l-fish ;as P to orchids ; as to ants.-The necessity for the simul- 
Leous modification of many individuals-Summary and conclusion. 

« Natural Selection/' simply and by itself, is potent to explain 
the maintenance or the further extension and development of 
favourable variations, which are at once sufficiently considerable 
to be useful from the first to the individual possessing them. 
But Natural Selection utterly fails to account for the conserva- 
tion and development of the minute and rudimentary beginnings, 
the slight and infinitesimal commencements of structures, how- 
ever useful those structures may afterwards become. ^ 

Now, it is distinctly enunciated by Mr. Darwin, that the 
spontaneous variations upon which bis theory depends are indi- 
vidually slight, minute, and insensible. He says/ Slight 

i 



l " 



Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. P- 192 






r 











24 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



individual differences, however, suffice for the work, and are 
probably the sole differences which are effective in the production 



And 



again, 



after mentioning the frequent 



> 



T 



of new species." 
sudden appearances of domestic varieties, he speaks of " the false 
belief as to the similarity of natural species in this respect." x 
In his work on the " Origin of Species," he also observes, 
" Natural (Selection acts only by the preservation and accumu- 
lation of small inherited modifications." 2 And " Natural Selec- 
tion, if it be a true principle, will banish the belief ... of 
any great and sudden modification in their structure." 3 Finally 
he adds, " If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ 
existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, 
successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break 
down." 4 

Now the conservation of minute variations in many instances 
is, of course, plain and intelligible enough ; such, e.g., as those 
which tend to promote the destructive faculties of beasts of pre} 
on the one hand, or to facilitate the flight or concealment of the 
animals pursued on the other; provided always that these minute 
beginnings are of such a kind as really to have a certain effi- 
ciency, however small, in favour of the conservation of the indi- 
vidual possessing them ; and also provided that no unfavourable 
peculiarity in any other direction accompanies and neutralizes 
in the struggle for life, the minute favourable variation. 

But some of the cases which have been brought forward, and 
which have met with very general acceptance, seem less satis- 
factory when carefully analysed than they at first appear to be. 
Amongst these we may mention "the neck of the giraffe." 

At first sight it would seem as though a better example in 
support of " Natural Selection" could hardly have been chosen. 

1 "Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 414. 

2 « Origin of Species," 5th edit.', 1869, p. 110. 



» Ibid. p. 111. 



Ibid. p. 227. 






\ 






, 



' 


















:' 


















ii.] 



INCIPIENT STB UCTURES. 



25 



Only the high- 



Let the fact of the occurrence of occasional, severe droughts in 
the country which that animal has inhabited he granted. In 
that case, when the ground vegetation has been consumed, and 
the trees alone remain, it is plain that at such times only those 
individuals (of what we assume to he the nascent giraffe species) 
which were able to reach high up would be preserved, and 
would become the parents of the following generation, some 
individuals of which would, of course, inherit that high-reaching 
power which alone preserved their parents, 
reaching issue of these high-reaching individuals would again, 
ceteris paribus, be preserved at the next drought, and would 
again transmit to their offspring their still loftier stature j . and 
so on, from period to period, through aeons of time, all the indi- 
viduals tending to revert to the ancient shorter type of body, 
being ruthlessly destroyed at the occurrence of each drought. 

(1.) But against this it may be said, in the first place, that 
the ' argument° proves too much ; for, on th is suppos ition, many 
species must have tended to undergo a similar modification, 

and 



at least several forms, similar to the 
giraffe, developed from different Ungulata. 1 A careful observer 
of animal life, who has long resided in South Africa, explored 
the interior, and lived in the giraffe country, has assured the 
Author that the giraffe has powers of locomotion and endurance 
fully equal to those possessed by any of the other Ungulata 
of that continent. It would seem, therefore, that some of these 
other Ungulates ought to have developed in a similar manner 
as to the neck, under pain of being starved, when the long neck 
of the giraffe was in its incipient stage. 

To this criticism it has been objected that different kinds of 
animals are preserved, in the struggle for life, in very different 





















■ 
























1 The order Ungulata contains the hoofed beasts ; that is, all oxen, deer, 
anteolpes, sheep, goats, camels, hogs, the hippopotamus, the different 
kinds of rhinoceros, the tapirs, horses, asses, zebras, quaggas, &c. 












^^ 












■ 






■ 









26 



me 1 GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



ways, and even that " high reaching " may be attained in more 
modes than one — as, for example, by the trunk of the elephant. 
This is, indeed, true, but then none of the African Ungulata x 
have, nor do they appear ever to have had, any proboscis what- 
soever ; nor have they acquired such a development as to allow 
them to rise on their hind limbs and graze on trees in a kangaroo- 
attitude, nor a power of climbing, nor, as far as known, any other 
modification tending to compensate for the comparative short- 
ness of the neck. Again, it may perhaps be said that leaf-eating 
forms are exceptional, and that therefore the struggle to attain 
high branches would not affect many Ungulates. But surely, 
when these severe droughts necessary for the theory occur, the 
ground vegetation is supposed to be exhausted; and, indeed, 
the giraffe is quite capable of feeding from off the ground. So 
that, in these cases, the other Ungulata must have taken to 
leaf eating or have starved, and thus must have had any acci- 
dental long-necked varieties favoured and preserved exactly as 
the long-necked varieties of the giraffe are supposed to have been 
favoured and preserved. 

The argument as to the different modes of preservation has 
been very well put by Mr. Wallace, 2 in reply to the objection 
that " colour, being dangerous, should not exist in nature." 
This objection appears similar to mine ; as I say that a giraffe 
neck, being needful, there should be many animals with it, 
while the objector noticed by Mr. "Wallace says, "a dull 
colour being needful, all animals should he so coloured." And 
Mr. Wallace shows in reply how porcupines, tortoises and 
mussels, very hard-coated bombadier beetles, stinging insects 
and nauseous-tasted caterpillars, can afford to be brilliant by 
the various means of active defence or passive protection 




A 









i The elephants of Africa and India, with their extinct allies, constitute 
the order Proboscidea, and do not belong' to the Ungulata. 

2 See " Natural Selection," pp. 60—75. 












\ 1 






• 



v 
















II.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



2 



/ 



they possess, other than obscure colouration. He says "the 
attitudes of some insects may also protect them, as the habit of 
turning up the tail by the harmless rove-beetles (Staphylinidae) 
no doubt leads other animals, besides children, to the belief 
that they can sting. The curious attitude assumed by sphinx 
caterpillars is probably a safeguard, as well as the blood-red 
tentacles which can suddenly be thrown out from the neck 
by the caterpillars of all the true swallow-tailed butterflies.'' 

But, because many different kinds of animals can elude the 
observation or defy the attack of enemies in a great variety of 
ways, it by no means follows that there are any similar number 
and variety of ways for attaining vegetable food in a country 
where all such food, other than the lofty branches of trees, has 
been for a time destroyed. In such a country we have a 
number of vegetable-feeding Ungulates, all of which present 
minute variations as to the length of the neck. If, as 
Darwin contends, the natural selection of these favourable 
variations has alone lengthened the neck of the giraffe by pre- 



Mr 



serving it 



during droughts ; similar variations, in similarly- 









_ 






feeding forms, at the same times, ought similarly to have been 
preserved and so lengthened the neck of some other Ungulates 
by similarly preserving them during the same droughts. 

(2.) It may be also objected, that the power of reaching 
upwards, acquired by the lengthening of the neck and legs, 
must have necessitated a considerable increase in the entire size 
and mass of the body (larger bones requiring stronger and more 
voluminous muscles and tendons, and these again necessitating 
larger nerves, more capacious blood-vessels, &c), and it is very 
problematical whether the disadvantages thence arising would 
not, in times of scarcity, more than counterbalance the 

advantages. 

For a considerable increase in the supply of food would be 
requisite on account of this increase in size and mass, while at 
the same time there would be a certain decrease in strength ; 

ffi 4^ *t»^ 




I 






Hv~ 



cfajkt**- j 



f i 



L fJCL tz 



* 9 









■ 









\ t 


















r 




























■ 



-V 
















■ 





















OQ 



27/^ GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



for, as Mr. Herbert Spencer says, l " It is demonstrable that 
the excess of absorbed over expended nutriment must, other 
things equal, become less as the size of an animal becomes 



greater. 



it has to overcome eight times 



and resisting 



In similarly-shaped bodies, the masses vary as the 
cubes of the dimensions ; whereas the strengths vary as the 
squares of the dimensions." . . . . " Supposing a creature which 
a year ago was one foot high, has now become two feet high, 
while it is unchanged in proportions and structure— what are 
the necessary concomitant changes that have taken place in it 1 
It is eight times as heavy ; that is to say, it has to resist eight 
times the strain which gravitation puts on its structure ; and 
in producing, as well as in arresting, every one of its movements 

the inertia. Meanwhile, the 
muscles and bones have severally increased their contractile 

powers, in proportion to the areas of their trans- 
verse sections ; and hence are severally but four times as strong 
as they were. Thus, while the creature has doubled in height, 
and while its ability to overcome forces has quadrupled, the 
forces it has to overcome have grown eight times as creat. 
Hence, to raise its body through a given space, its muscles have 
to be contracted with twice the intensity, at a double cost of 
matter expended." Again, as to the cost at which nutriment is 
distributed through the body, and effete matters removed from 
it, " Each increment of growth being added at the periphery of 
an organism, the force expended in the transfer of matter must 
increase in a rapid progression — a progression more rapid than 
that of the mass." 

There is yet another point. Vast as may have been the time 
during which the process of evolution has continued, it is never- 
theless not infinite. Yet, as every kind, on the Darwinian 
hypothesis, varies slightly but indefinitely in every organ and 
every part of every organ, how very generally must favourable 


















" Principles of Biology," vol. i. p. 122. 






■ 



~ 














'i^^e " * -o 

























II.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



29 



variations as to the length, of the neck have been accompanied 
by some "unfavourable variation in some other part, neutralizing 
the action of the favourable one, the latter, moreover, only taking 
effect during these periods of drought ! How often must not 

individuals, favoured "by a : 

have failed to enjoy the elevated foliage which they had not 
strength or endurance to attain ; while other individuals, excep- 
tionally robust, could struggle on yet further till they arrived 

at vegetation within their reach. 

However, allowing this example to pass, many other instances 

will be found to present great difficulties. 

Let us take the cases of mimicry amongst lepidoptera and 
other insects. Of this subject Mr. Wallace has given a most 
interesting and complete account, 1 showing in how many aind 
strange instances this superficial resemblance by one creature to 
some other quite distinct creature acts as a safeguard to the first. 
One or two instances must here suffice. In South America there 
is a family of butterflies, termed Heliconidce, which are very conspi- 
cuously coloured and slow in flight, and yet the individuals abound 
in prodigious numbers, and take no precautions to conceal them- 
selves, even when at rest, during the night. Mr. Bates (the author 



of the very 



interesting 



work " The Naturalist on the Eiver 



Amazons," and the discoverer of " Mimicry") found that these 
conspicuous butterflies had a very strong and disagreeable odour; 

i 

so much so that any one handling them and squeezing them, as 
a 'collector must do, has his fingers stained and so infected by 
the smell, as to require time and much trouble to remove it. 

It is suggested that this unpleasant quality is the cause of 
the abundance of the Heliconidse ; Mr. Bates and other observers 
reporting that they have never seen them attacked by the birds, 
reptiles, or insects which prey upon other lepidoptera. 

Now it is a curious fact that very different South American 



See " Natural Selection," chap. iii. p. 45 






















«-* 





/ 






* i p 



I 












30 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



butterflies put on, as it were, the exact dress of these offensive 
beauties and mimic them even in their mode of flight. 

In explaining the mode of action of this protecting resem- 
blance Mr. Wallace observes: 1 "Tropical insectivorous birds 
very frequently sit on dead branches of a lofty tree, or on those 
which overhang forest paths, gazing intently around, and darting 
off at intervals to seize an insect at a considerable distance, 
with which they generally return to their station to devour. If 
a bird began by capturing the slow-flying conspicuous Heliconidse, 
and found them always so disagreeable that it could not eat them,' 
it would after a very few trials leave off catching them at all • 
and their whole appearance, form, colouring, and mode of flight 
is so peculiar, that there can be little doubt birds would soon 
learn to distinguish them at a long distance, and never waste 
any time in pursuit of them. Under these circumstances, it is 
evident that any other butterfly of a group which birds were 
accustomed to devour, would be almost equally well protected 
by closely resembling a Heliconia externally, as if it acquired 
also the disagreeable odour ; always supposing that there were 
only a few of them among a great number of Heliconias." 

" The approach in colour and form to the Heliconid se, however, 
would be at the first a positive, though perhaps a slight, advan- 
tage ; for although at short distances this variety would be 
easily distinguished and devoured, yet at a longer distance it 
might be mistaken for one of the uneatable group, and so be 
passed by and gain another day's life, which might in many 
cases be sufficient for it to lay a quantity of eggs and leave a 
numerous progeny, many of which would inherit the peculiarity 
which had been the safeguard of their parent." 

As a complete example of mimicry Mr. Wallace refers to a 
common Indian butterfly. He says : 2 "But the most wonderful 
and undoubted case of protective resemblance in a butterfly, 



1 Loc. cit. p. 80. 



2 Ibid. p. 59. 


















I 







\ 










II.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



31 



which I have ever seen, is that of the common Indian Kallima 



in achis. 



Kallima 



The upper 




LEAF BUTTERFLY IN FLIGHT AND REPOSE. 

(From Mr. Wallace's "Malay Archipelago") 

surface of these is very striking and showy, as they are of a, 






























' 












3? 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



I 




CH^P 



large size, and are adorned with, a broad band of rich orange on 
a deep bluish ground. The under side is very variable in colour 
so that out of fifty specimens no two can be found exactly alike 
but every one of them will be of some shade of ash, or brown 
or ochre, such, as are found among dead, dry, or decaying leaves 
The apex of the upper wings is produced into an acute point 
a very common form in the leaves of tropical shrubs and trees 
and the lower wings are also produced into a short narrow 
tail. Between these two points runs a dark curved line exactly 
representing the midrib of a leaf, and from this radiate on each, 
side a few oblique lines, which serve to indicate the lateral veins 
of a leaf. These marks are more clearly seen on the outer portion 
of the base of the wings, and on the inner side towards the 
middle and apex, and it is very curious to observe how the 
usual marginal and transverse striae of the group are here modi- 
fied and strengthened so as to become adapted for an imitation 
of the venation of a leaf." . . . " But this resemblance, close 
as it is, would be of little use if the habits of the insect did not 
accord with it. If the butterfly sat upon leaves or upon flowers, 
or opened its wings so as to expose the upper surface, or 
exposed and moved its head and antennae as many other but- 
terflies do, its disguise would be of little avail. We might 
be sure, however, from the analogy of many other cases, that 
the habits of the insect are such, as still further to aid its 
deceptive garb ; but we are not obliged to make any such sup- 
position, since I myself had the good fortune to observe scores 
of Kallima paralekta, in Sumatra, and to capture many of them, 
and can vouch for the accuracy of the following details. These 
butterflies frequent dry forests, and fly very swiftly. They were 

*een leaf, but were many times 
lost sight of in a bush or tree of dead leaves. On such occa- 
sions they were generally searched for in vain, for while gazing 
intently at the very spot where one had disappeared, it would 
often suddenly dart out, and again vanish twenty or fifty yards 



























X 



II.j 



INCIPIENT STR UCTURES. 



33 



further on. On one or two occasions the insect was detected 
reposing, and it could then he seen how completely it assimi- 
lates itself to the surrounding leaves. It sits on a nearly upright 
twig, the wings fitting closely back to back, concealing the mi- 
tennee and head, which are drawn up between their bases, 
little tails of the hind wing touch the branch, and form a 
perfect stalk to the leaf, which is supported in its place by the 
claws of the middle pair of feet, which are slender and incon- 

. * till 



The 



spicuous 



The irregular outline of the wings gives exactly the 



We 



have size 



perspective effect of a shrivelled leaf, 
colour, form, markings, and habits, all combining together to 
produce a disguise which may be said to be absolutely perfect ; 
and the protection which it affords is sufficiently indicated by 
the abundance of the individuals that possess it." 

Beetles also imitate bees and wasps, as do some Lepidoptera ; 
and objects the most bizarre and unexpected are simulated, 
such as dung and drops of dew. Some insects, called bamboo 
and walking-stick insects, have a most remarkable resemblance 
to pieces of° bamboo, to twigs and branches. Of these latter 
insects Mr. Wallace says: 1 "Some of these are a foot long 
and as thick as one's finger, and their whole colouring, form, 
rugosity, and the arrangement of the head, legs, and antennas, are 
such as 'to render them absolutely identical in appearance with 
dry sticks. They hang loosely about shrubs in the forest, and 
have the extraordinary habit of stretching out their legs asym- 
metrically, so as to render the deception more complete." 
let us suppose that the ancestors of these various animals were 
all destitute of the very special protections they at present 
possess, as on the Darwinian hypothesis we must do. Let it 
also be conceded that small deviations from the antecedent 
colouring or form would tend to make some of their ancestors 
escape destruction by causing them more or less frequently to 



Now 



1 Loc. cit. p. 64. 












D 



1 



I ■ 



— **' 






V 




















: 



; 



: 
























^ 









i 









34 



v. 
















•••■, 











< 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 






[chap. 



be passed over, or mistaken by their persecutors. Yet the 
deviation must, as the event has shown, in each case be in some 
definite direction, whether it be towards some other animal or > 
plant, or towards some dead or inorganic matter. But as, 
according to Mr. Darwin's theory, there is a constant tendency 
to indefinite variation, and as the minute incipient variations 
will be in all directions, they must tend to neutralize each other, 



and at first to form such unstable modifications that it is 
iifficult, if not impossible, to see how such indefinite oscillations 






of infinitesimal beginnings can ever build up a sufficiently 
appreciable resemblance to a leaf, bamboo, or other object, for 
^' Natural Selection " to seize upon and perpetuate. This difficulty 
is augmented when we consider — a point to be dwelt upon 
hereafter — how necessary it is that many individuals should be 
similarly modified simultaneously. This has been insisted on 
in an able article in the North British Review for June 1867, 
p. 286, and the consideration of the article has occasioned Mr. 
Darwin to make an important modification in his views. 1 

In these cases of mimicry it seems difficult indeed to imagine 
a reason why variations tending in an infinitesimal degree in any 
special direction should be preserved. All variations would 
be preserved which tended to obscure the perception of an 
animal by its enemies, whatever direction those variations might 
take, and the common preservation of conflicting tendencies 
would greatly favour their mutual neutralization and oblitera- 
tion if we may rely on the many cases recently brought forward 
by Mr. Darwin with regard to domestic animals. 

Mr. Darwin explains the imitation of some species by others 
more or less nearly allied to it, by the common origin of both the 
mimic and the mimicked species, and the consequent possession 
by both (according to the theory of " Pangenesis ") of gemmules 

i 

tending to reproduce ancestral characters, which characters the 



i « 



Origin of Species," 5th edit. p. 104, 



x 






















'1 




I 



J 






■ 



II.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



35 






mimic must be assumed first to have lost and then to have re- 
covered. Mr. Darwin says, 1 " Varieties of one species frequently 
mimic distinct species, a fact in perfect harmony with the 

joing cases, and explicable only on the theory of descent'' 

But this at the best is but a partial and very incomplete expla- 










THE WALKING-LEAF INSECT. 



nation. It is one, moreover, which Mr. Wallace does not 
accept. 2 It is very incomplete, because "it has no bearing on some 
of the most striking cases, and of course Mr. Darwin does not 
pretend that it has. We should have to go back far indeed 
to reach the common ancestor of the mimicking walking-leaf , 



a 



Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 351. 









2 Loc. cit. pp. 109, 1 10. 

d 2 





















:> 



36 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



.insect and the real leaf it mimics, or the original progenitor of 
both the bamboo insect and the bamboo itself. As these last 



most remarkable cases 



have certainly nothing 



to do with 



heredity, 1 it is unwarrantable to make use of that explanation 
tor other protective resemblances, seeing that its inapplicability, 
in certain instances, is so manifest. 

Again, at the other end of the process it is as difficult to 
account for the last touches of perfection in the mimicry. Some 
insects which imitate leaves extend the imitation even to the 
very injuries on those leaves made by the attacks of insects or 
of fungi. Thus, speaking of one of the walking-stick insects, 
Mr. Wallace says : 2 « One of these creatures obtained by myself 
in Borneo (Ceroxylus laceratus) was covered over with foliaceous 
excrescences of a clear olive-green colour, so as exactly to resemble 
■a stick grown over by a creeping moss or jungermannia. The 
Dyak who brought it me assured me it was grown over with 



moss 



although 



alive, and it was only after a most minute 



examination that I could convince myself it was not 



so. 



>> 



We 



more extraordinary part of the imitation, for we find repre- 
sentations of leaves in every stage of decay, variously blotched 
and mildewed, and pierced with holes, and in many cases irre- 
gularly covered with powdery black dots, gathered into patches 
and spots, so closely resembling the various kinds of minute 
fungi that grow on dead leaves, that it is impossible to avoid 
thinking at first sight that the butterflies themselves have been 
attacked by real fungi." 



Here imitation has attained 



a development which seems 



utterly beyond the power of the mere " survival of the fittest " 
to produce. How this double mimicry can importantly aid in 
the struggle for life seems puzzling indeed, but much more so 

i Heredity is the term used to denote the tendency which there is in 
offspring to reproduce parental features. 



2 Loc. cit. p. 64. 



3 Loc. cit. p. 60. 






« * 



J * 



I 



^ 





s 















1 n.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 




how the first faint beginnings of the imitation of such injuries 
in the leaf can be developed in the animal into such a complete 
representation of them — a fortiori how simultaneous and similar 
first beginnings of imitations of such injuries could ever have 
been developed in several individuals, out of utterly indifferent 
and indeterminate infinitesimal variations in all conceivable 

directions. : 

Another instance which may be cited is the asymmetrical 
condition of the heads of the flat-fishes (Pleuronectidse), such 
as the sole, the flounder, the brill, the turbot, &c. In all these 





PLEURONECTID.E, WITH THE PECULIARLY PLACED EYE IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS. 

(From Dr. Traquair's paper in the ' ' Transactions of the Linnean Society, 1865.") 

fishes the two eyes, which in the young are situated as usual 
one on each side, come to he placed, in the adult, hoth on the 
same side of the head. If this condition had appeared at once, 
if in the hypothetically fortunate common ancestor of these 
fishes an eye had suddenly hecome thus transferred, then the 
perpetuation of such a transformation "by the action of " Natural 
Selection" is conceivable enough. Such sudden changes, how- 
ever, are not those favoured by the Darwinian theory, and indeed 
the accidental occurrence of such a spontaneous transformation is 



hardly conceivable. But if this is not so, if the transit was 






















t - 









38 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



gradual, then how such transit of one eye a minute fraction of 
the journey towards the other side of the head could benefit 
the individual is indeed far from clear. It seems, even, that 
such an incipient transformation must rather have been inju- 
rious, j Another point with regard to these flat-fishes is that 
they appear to be in all probability of recent origin — i.e. geolo- 
gically speaking. There is, of course, no great stress to be laid 
on the mere absence of their remains from the secondary strata 
nevertheless that absence is noteworthy, seeing that existing 
fish families, e.g. sharks (Squalidse), have been found abundantly 
even down so far as the carboniferous rocks, and traces of them 
in the Upper Silurian. 

Another difficulty seems to be the first formation of the limbs 

The lowest Vertebrata 1 are perfectly 
limbless, and if, as most Darwinians would probably assume, the 
primeval vertebrate creature was also apodal, how are the preser- 
vation and development of the first rudiments of limbs to be 
accounted for— 



of the higher animals. 



—such rudiments being, on the hypothesis in ques- 
tion, infinitesimal and functionless? 

In reply to this it has been suggested that a mere flattening 
of the end of the body has been useful, such, e.g., as we see in 
sea-snakes, 2 which may be the rudiment of a tail formed strictly 
to aid in swimming. Also that a mere roughness of the skin 
might be useful to a swimming animal by holding the water 
better, that thus minute processes might be selected and pre- 
served, and that, in the same way, these might be gradually in- 
creased into limbs. But it is, to say the least, very questionable 
whether a roughness of the skin, or minute processes, would be 

v. 

i The term " Vertebrata" denotes that large group of animals which are 
characterized by the possession of a spinal column, commonly known as 
the " backbone." Such animals are ourselves, together with all beasts, 
birds, reptiles, frogs, toads, and efts, and also fishes. 

2 It is hardly necessary to observe that these " sea-snakes " have no 
relation to the often-talked-of " sea-serpent." They are small, venomous 
reptiles, which abound in the Indian seas. 



v 
















/ 






t 



■-J 



i 



II.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



39 



useful to a swimming animal ; the motion of which they would 
as much impede as aid, unless they were at once capahle of a 
suitahle and appropriate action, which is against the hypothesis. 
Again, the change from mere indefinite and accidental processes 
to two regular pairs of symmetrical limhs, as the result of 
merely fortuitous, favouring variations, is a step the feasibility 
of which hardly commends itself to the reason, seeing the very 
different positions assumed by the ventral fins in different fishes. 
If the above suggestion made in opposition to the views here 
asserted be true, then the general constancy of position of the 
limbs of vertebrate may be considered as due to the position 
assumed by the primitive rugosities from which those limbs were 

Clearly only two pairs of rugosities were so preserved 
and developed, and all limbs (on this view) are descendants of 
the same two pairs, as all have so similar a fundamental struc- 
ture. Yet we find in many fishes the pair of fins, which cor- 
respond to the hinder limbs of other animals, placed so far 
forwards as to be either on the same level with, or actually in 
front of, the normally anterior pair of limbs j and such fishes 
are from this circumstance called "-thoracic," or "jugular" fishes 



generated. 



respectively, as 



the weaver fishes and the cod. This is a 



wonderful contrast to the fixity of position of vertebrate limbs 
generally. If then such a change can have taken place in the 
comparatively short time occupied by the evolution of these 
special fish forms, we might certainly expect other and far 
more bizarre structures would (did not some law forbid) have 
been developed, from other rugosities, in the manifold exi- 
gencies of the multitudinous organisms which must (on the 
Darwinian hypothesis) have been gradually evolved during 
the enormous period intervening between the first appearance 
of vertebrate life and the present day. Yet, with these ex- 
ceptions, the position of the limbs is constant from the lower 
fishes up to man, there being always an anterior pectoral pair 
placed in front of a posterior or pelvic pair when both are 







I 









"* + ^-» 



( 





































; ■ 



V«M »'"»f< 



















V 







40 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 






[chap. 



present, and in no single instance are there more than these 
two pairs. 

The development of whalebone (baleen) in the mouth of the 
whale is another difficulty. A whale's mouth is furnished with 
very numerous horny plates, which hang down from the palate 
along each side of the mouth. They thus form two longitudinal 
series, each plate of which is placed transversely to the Ion 



g 










x 



i 












s 



MOUTH OF A WHALE. 



* 

axis of the body, and all are very close together. On depressing 
the lower lip the free outer edges of these plates come into 
view. Their inner edo-es are furnished with numerous coarse 
hair-like processes, consisting of some of the constituent fibres 
of the horny plates — which, as it were, fray out — and the mouth 
is thus lined, except below, by a network of countless fibres 
formed by the inner edges of the two series of plates. This 



















! 




I 






>S 





\ 

/ 



Jh 



■■' 






n.] 



INCTPWNT STR UCTURZS, 



41 



network acts as a sort of sieve. When the whah 
into its mouth a great gulp of water, which it 
drives out again through the intervals of the 
horny plates of baleen, the fluid thus traversing 
the sieve of horny fibres, which retains the minute 
creatures on which these marine monsters subsist. 



feeds it takes 



fr C N 



attained such a size and development as to be 
at all useful, then its preservation and augmen- 
tation within serviceable limits, would be pro- 



<*^fa 



.~ ' 7 



alone. But how 



to obtain the beginning of such useful develop- 



u 









clusively aquatic habits (the dugong and manatee) 
which also possess more or less horn on the 
palate, and at first sight this might be taken as 
a mitigation of the difficulty ; but it is not so, 
and the fact does not help us one step further 
along the road: for, in the first place, these latter 
animals differ so importantly in structure from 
whales and porpoises that they form an altogether 
distinct order, and cannot be 
proximate to the whale's progenitors. They are 
vegetarians, the whales feed on animals ; the 
former never have the ribs articulated in the 
mode in which they are in some of the latter ; the 



thought to 



ap- 



- r 



/— •» 






</ 



C 









m 



[t i 



K 






FOUR PLATES OF 

BALEEN SEEN 

OBLTQTJELY FROM 

WITHIN. 





































. 



' 




DUGONG. 























- I 





I 


















42 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



former have pectoral mammae, and the latter are provided with 
two inguinal mammary glands, and have the nostrils enlarged 
into blowers, which the former have not. The former thus 
constitute the order Sirenia, while the latter belong to the 
Cetacea. In the second place, the horny matter on the palates 

and manatee has not, even initially, that 



of the dugong 

"strainer" action which is the characteristic function of the 
Cetacean "baleen." 

There is another very curious structure, the origin or the dis- 
appearance of w 7 hich it seems impossible to account for on the 
hypothesis of minute indefinite variations. It is that of the 
mouth of the young kangaroo. In all mammals, as in ourselves, 
the air-passage from the lungs opens in the floor of the mouth 
behind the tongue, and in front of the opening of the gullet, 
so that each particle of food as it is swallowed passes over the 
opening, but is prevented from falling into it (and thus causing 
death from choking) by the action of a small cartilaginous shield 
(the epiglottis), which at the right moment bends back and pro- 
tects the orifice. Now the kangaroo is born in such an exceed- 
ingly imperfect and undeveloped condition, that it is quite unable 
to suck. The mother therefore places the minute blind and naked 
young upon the nipple, and then injects milk into it by means 
of a special muscular envelope of the mammary gland. \ Did no 
special provision exist, the young one must infallibly be choked 
by the intrusion of the milk into the windpipe. But there is 
a special provision. The larynx is so elongated that it rises up 
into the posterior end of the nasal passage, and is thus enabled 
to give . free entrance to the air for the lungs, while the milk 
passes harmlessly on each side of this elongated larynx, and so 
safely attains the gullet behind it. 




Now, on the Darwinian hypothesis, either all mammals de- 
scended from marsupial progenitors, or else the marsupials, 



sprung from animals 
mammalian structure. 



having in 



most respects the ordinary 






























I- 



II.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



43 



5> 



remove 



\ 



On the first alternative, how did " Natural Selection 
this (at least perfectly innocent and harmless) structure in 
almost all other mammals, and, having done so, again repro- 
duce it in precisely those forms which alone require it, namely, 
the Cetacea 1 That such a harmless structure need not he re- 
moved any Darwinian must confess, since a structure exists in 
hoth the crocodiles and gavials, which enahles the former to 
hreathe themselves while drowning the prey which they hold 

— * m • 

in their mouths. On 
have heen developed where useful, therefore not in the gavials (!) 
which feed on fish, hut which yet retain, as we might expect, 
this, in them superfluous hut harmless formation. 



Mr 



On the second alternative, how did the elongated larynx 

if its development lagged hehind 



itself arise, seeing 



that 



that of the maternal structure, the young primeval kangaroo 
must be choked : while without the injecting power in the 
mother, it must "be starved? 
action of which such a 
have heen severe ! 



The struggle by the sole 
form was developed must indeed 










'" 




















































AN ECHINUS, OR SEA-URCHIN 

(The spines removed from one-half.) 



* 

The sea-urchins (Echinus) present us also with structures 
the origin of which it seems impossible to explain hy the action 










































44 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 















\ 





















• 



of "Natural Selection" only. These lowly animals belong to 
that group of the star-fish class (Echinodermata), the species 
of which possess generally spheroidal bodies, built up of multi- 
tudinous calcareous plates, and constitute the order Echinoidea. 
They are also popularly known as sea- eggs. Utterly devoid 
of limbs, the locomotion of these creatures is effected by means 
of rows of small tubular suckers (which protrude through 
pores in the calcareous plates) and by moveable spines scattered 
over the body. 

Besides these spines and suckers there are certain very 

peculiar structures, termed " Pedicellarise." Each 
of these consists of a long slender stalk, ending 
in three short limbs — or rather jaws — the whole 
supported by a delicate internal skeleton. The 
three limbs (or jaws), which start from a common 
point at the end of the stalk, are in the constant 
habit of opening and closing together again with 
a snapping action, while the stalk itself sways 
about. The utility of these appendages is, even 
now, problematical. It may be that they remove 
from the surface of the animars body foreign sub- 
stances which would be prejudicial to it. and 




which it ca 




otherwise get rid of. 



But 



granting thi\jwhat would be the utility of the 
first rudimentary beginnings of such structures 
and how could such incipient buddings have 



single 



,: 















ever preserved the life of a 

It is true that on Darwinian principles the an^ 

i 

cestral form from which the sea-urchin deve- 

■ 

loped was different, and must not be conceived 
merely as an Echinus devoid of pedicellari^e ; 
but this makes the difficulty none the less. It 
is equally hard to imagine that the first rudi- 
ments of such structures could have been useful to any animal 




a 



PEDICELLARI^:. 

(Immensely 
enlarged. ) 
























' 





















• 





II.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



45 



from which the Echinus might have heen derived. Moreover, 

'' not even the sudden development of the snapping action could 
Slave been beneficial without the freely moveable stalky nor 
could the latter have been efficient without the snapping jaws, 
yet no minute merely indefinite variations could simultaneously 
evolve these complex co-ordinations of structure ; to^deny this 
seems to do no less than to affirm a startling paradox."^ 

Mr. Darwin explains the appearance of some structures, the 
utility of which is not apparent, by the existence of certain 
" laws of correlation." By these he means that certain parts or 
organs of the body are so related to other 






organs 



parts, 

that when the first are modified by the action of "Natural 
Selection," or what not, the second are simultaneously affected, 
and increase proportionally or possibly so decrease. Examples 
of such are the hair and teeth in the naked Turkish dog, 
general deafness of white cats with blue eyes, the rela- 
tion between the presence of more or less down on young 
birds when first hatched, and the future colour of their 
plumage, 1 with many others. But the idea that the modifi- 



the 



cation of any internal or 



external part of the body of an 






Echinus carries with it the effect of producing elongated, 
flexible, triradiate, snapping processes, is, to say the very least, 
fully as obscure and mysterious as what is here contended for, 
viz. the efficient presence of an unknown internal natural law 
or laws conditioning the evolution of new specific forms 
from preceding ones, modified by the action of surrounding 
conditions, by " Natural Selection" and by other controlling 

influences. 

The same difficulty seems to present itself in other examples 

of exceptional structure and action. In the same Echinus, as 

in many allied forms, and also in some more or less remote ones, 

a very peculiar mode of development exists. The adult is not 



i « Origin of Species," 5th edit., 1869, p. 179 










» 
















I 












: 











fS 



1*^' 




C 






^ 






" 



46 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



\ 



formed from the egg directly, tut the egg gi yes rise to a creature 
which swims freely about, feeds, and is even somewhat com- 
plexly organized. Soon a small lump appears on one side of its 
stomach; this enlarges, and, having established a communication 
with the exterior, envelopes and appropriates the creature's 
stomach, with which it swims away and develops into the 
complete adult form, while the dispossessed individual perishes 
Again certain flies present a mode of development equally 
bizarre, though quite different. In these flies, the grub is as 
usual, produced from the ovum, but this grub, instead of ^rowinc 
up into the adult in the ordinary way, undergoes a sort of lique° 
faction of a great part of its body, while certain patches of 
formative tissue, which are attached to the ramifying air tubes 
or tracheal (and which patches bear the name of " imaginal 
disks » ), give rise to the legs, wings, eyes, &c, respectively • 
and these severally formed parts grow together, and build up 
the head and body by their mutual approximation. Such a 
process is unknown outside the class of insects, and inside 
that class it is only known in a few of the two- winged flies 
Now, how "Natural Selection," or any "laws of correlation," 
can account for the gradual development of such an exceptional 
process of development— so extremely divergent from that of 



other insects 



seems nothing less than inconceivable. 



Mr. 



Darwin himself i gives an account of a very peculiar and ab- 
normal mode of development of a certain beetle, the sitaris 
as described by M. Fabre. This insect, instead of at first ap- 
pearing in its grub stage, and then, after a time, putting on the 
adult form, is at first active and furnished with six legs two 
long antennae, and four eyes. Hatched in the nests of bees 
it at first attaches itself to one of the males, and then crawls' 
when the opportunity offers, upon a female bee. When „J 
female bee lays her eggs, the young sitaris springs upon them 

i " Origin of Species," 5th edit., p. 532. 




























J 









\ 










■ 



1 



II.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



4 



/ 



and devours them. Then, losing its eyes, legs, and antennae, 
and becoming rudimentary, it sinks into an ordinary grub-like 
form, and feeds on honey, ultimately undergoing another trans- 
formation, re-acquiring its legs, &c, and emerging a perfect beetle ! 
That such a process should have arisen by the accumulation of 
minute accidental variations in structure and habit, appears to 
many minds, quite competent to form an opinion on the subject, 
absolutely incredible. 

oe objected, perhaps, that these difficulties are dif- 



ficulties of 



— that we cannot explain them because we 



do not know enough of the animals. But it is here contended 
that this is not the case ; it is not that we merely fail to see 
how Natural Selection acted, but that there is a positive incom- 
patibility between the cause assigned and the results. It will 
be stated shortly what wonderful instances of co-ordination and 
of unexpected utility Mr. Darwin has discovered in orchids. The 
discoveries are not disputed or undervalued, but the explanation 
of their origin is deemed thoroughly unsatisfactory — utterly in- 
sufficient to explain the incipient, infinitesimal beginnings of 

structureswhich are of utility only when they are considerably 
developed. I 






mammary gland, or breast, £Js it con- 
ceivable that the young of any animal was ever saved from 
destruction by accidentally sucking a drop of scarcely nutri- 
tious fluid from an accidentally hypertrophied cutaneous gland 
of its mother ? And even if one was so,^vhat chance was there 
of the perpetuation of such a variation ? On the hypothesis of 
Natural Selection itself, we must assume that up to that time the 
race had been well adapted to the surrounding conditions ; the 
temporary and accidental trial and change of conditions, which 
caused the so-sucking young one to be the " fittest to survive " 
under the supposed circumstances, would soon cease to act, and 
then the progeny of the mother, with the accidentally hyper- 
trophied, sebaceous glands, would have no tendency to survive 






■ 










































/* 











































48 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[CHAP. 



the far outnumbering descendants of the normal ancestral form 
If, on the other hand, we assume the change of conditions not 
to have been temporary but permanent, and also assume that 
this permanent change of conditions was accidentally synchro- 
nous with the change of structure, we have a coincidence of very 
remote probability indeed. But if, again, we accept the pre- 
sence of some harmonizing law simultaneously determining the 
two changes, or connecting the second with the first by causa- 
tion, then, of course, we remove the accidental character of the 
coincidence. 

Again, how explain the external position of the male sexual 
glands in certain mammals ? The utility of the modification, 
when accomplished, is problematical enough, and no less so the 
incipient stages of the descent. 



As was said in 



Mr 



brilliant plumage of the peacock or the humming-bird by the 
action of sexual selection : the more and more brilliant males 



being 



selected by the females (which are thus attracted) to 

become the fathers of the next generation, to which generation 

"they tend to communicate their own bright nuptial vesture. 

But there are peculiarities of colour and of form which it is 

exceedingly difficult to account for by any such action. Thus 

amongst apes, the female is notoriously weaker, and is armed 

with much less powerful canine tusks than the male. When 

we consider what is known of the emotional nature of these 

animals, and the periodicity of its intensification, it is hardly 

credible that a female would often risk life or limb through her 

admiration of a trifling shade of colour, or an infiniteshnally 

greater though irresistibly fascinating degree of wartiness. 1 

1 Mr. A. D. Bartlett, of the Zoological Society, informs me that at these 
periods female apes admit with perfect readiness the access of any males 
of different species. To be sure this is in confinement ; but the fact is 
I think, quite conclusive against any such sexual selection in a state 
of nature as would account for the local coloration referred to. 
























II.] 



INCIPIENT STR UCTURJES. 



49 



Yet the males of some kinds of ape are adorned with quite 
exceptionally brilliant local decoration, and the male orang is 
provided with remarkable, projecting, warty lumps of skin upon 
the cheeks. As we have said, the weaker female can hardly be 
supposed. to have developed these by persevering and long- 
continued selection, nor can they be thought to tend to the 
preservation of the individual. On the contrary, the presence 
of this enlarged appendage must occasion a slight increase in 
the need of nutriment, and in so far must be a detriment, 







KATTLESNAKE. 



although its detrimental effect would not be worth speaking 
of except in relation to "Darwinism," according to which, 



E 


















"• 









50 



TEE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



" selection " has 



acted through, unimaginable ages 



and has 



ever tended to suppress any useless development by the 



struggle for life. 1 



















i 



i 















In poisonous serpents, also, we have structures which, at all 
events at first sight, seem positively hurtful to those reptiles. 
Such are the rattle of the rattlesnake, and the expanding neck 
of the cobra, the former seeming to warn the ear of the intended 









v 












■ 









1 



A 







- «% 



COBRA 



(Copied, by permission, from Sir Andrew Smith's " Reptiles of South Africa.") 

victim, as the latter warns the eye. It is true we cannot perhaps 
demonstrate that the victims are alarmed and warned, but, on 

* 
* 

1 Mr. Darwin, in the last (fifth) edition of " Natural Selection," 1869, 
p. 102, admits that all sexual differences are not to be attributed to the 
agency of sexual selection, mentioning the wattle of carrier pigeons, tuft 
of turkey-cock, &c. These characters, however, seem less inexplicable by 
sexual selection than those given in the text. 













II.] 



INCIPIENT STR UCTURHS. 



51 



Darwinian principles, they certainly ought to be so. For the 
rashest and most incautious of the animals preyed on would 
always tend to fall victims, and the existing individuals "being 

* 

the long-descended progeny of the timid and cautious, ought 
to have an inherited tendency to distrust, amongst other things, 
both " rattling" and "expanding" snakes. As to any power 
of fascination exercised by means of these actions, the most 
distinguished naturalists, certainly the most distinguished erpe- 
tologists, entirely deny it, and it is opposed to the careful 
observations of those known to us. 1 

The mode of formation of both the eye and the ear of the 
highest animals is such that, if it is (as most Darwinians assert 
processes of development to be) a record of the actual steps by 

* 

which such structures were first evolved in antecedent forms, 

* 

it almost amounts to a demonstration that those steps were 
never produced by "Natural Selection." 

The eye is formed by a simultaneous and corresponding in- 

r 

growth of one part and outgrowth of another. The skin in 
front of the future eye becomes depressed, the depression increases 
and assumes the form of a sac, which changes into the aqueous 
humour and lens. An outgrowth of brain substance, on the 
other hand, forms the retina, while a third process is a lateral 
ingrowth of connective tissue, which afterwards changes into the 
vitreous humour of the eye. 

The internal ear is formed by an involution of the integument, 
and not by an outgrowth of the brain. But tissue, in connexion 
with it, becomes in part changed, thus forming the auditory 
nerve, which places the tegumentary sac in direct communi- 
cation with the brain itself. 



1 I am again indebted to the kindness of Mr. A. D. Bartlett, amongst 
others. That gentleman informs me that, so far from any mental emotion 
being produced in rabbits by the presence and movements of snakes, that 
he has actually seen a male and female rabbit satisfy the sexual instinct 
in that presence, a rabbit being seized by a snake when in coitu. 

e 2 






















.v* 









I 






\ 
























Jt*** 






H i^; 











52 



T//# GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



Now, these complex and simultaneous co-ordinations could 
never have been produced by infinitesimal beginnings, since, 
until so far developed as to effect the requisite junctions, 
they are useless. But the eye and ear when fully developed 

i 

present conditions which are hopelessly difficult to reconcile 
with the mere action of "Natural Selection." The difficulties 
with regard to the eye have been well put by Mr. Murphy, 
especially that of the concordant result of visual development 
springing from different starting-points and continued on by 
independent roads. 

He says, 1 speaking of the beautiful structure of the perfect eye, 
"The higher the organization, whether of an entire organism 
or of a single organ, the greater is the number of the parts that 
co-operate, and the more perfect is their co-operation ; and conse- 
quently, the more necessity there is for corresponding variations 
to take place in all the co-operating parts at once, and the more 
useless will be any variation whatever unless it is accompanied 
by corresponding variations in the co-operating parts ; while it 
is obvious that the greater the number of variations which are 
needed in order to effect an improvement, the less w T ill be the 
probability of their all occurring at once. It is no reply to 
this to say, what is no doubt abstractedly true, that whatever is 
possible becomes probable, if only time enough be allowed. There 
are improbabilities so great that the common sense of mankind 
treats them as impossibilities. It is not, for instance, in the 
strictest sense of the word, impossible that a poem and a mathe- 
matical proposition should be obtained by the process of shaking 
letters out of a box ; but it is improbable to a degree that cannot 
be distinguished from impossibility; and the improbability of 
obtaining an improvement in an organ by means of several 
spontaneous variations, all occurring together, is an improbability 
of the same kind. If we suppose that any single variation occurs 









i " Habit and Intelligence," vol. i. p. 319. 



^H * 




















ii.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



53 



on the average once in m times, the probability of that vana 

tion occurring in any individual will be 

1 



m 



and suppose that x variations must concur in order to make an 
improvement, then the probability of the necessary variations 



all occurring together will be 



1 



m x . 



Now suppose, what I think a moderate proposition, that the 
value of m is 1,000, and the value of x is 10, then 



1 



1 






m 



X 



1000 10 



10 so- 






Mr 



A number about ten thousand times as great as the number of 
waves of light that have fallen on the earth since historical 
time began. And it is to be further observed, that no improve- 
ment will give its possessor a certainty of surviving and leaving 
offspring, but only an extra chance, the value of which it is 
quite impossible to estimate." This difficulty is, as " 
points out, greatly intensified by the undoubted fact that the 
wonderfully complex structure has been arrived at quite inde- 
pendently in beasts on the one hand and in cuttle-fishes on the 
other ; while creatures of the insect and crab division present 
us with a third and quite separately developed complexity.^ 

As to the ear, it would take up too much space to describe its 
internal structure; 1 it must suffice to say that in its interior there 
is an immense series of minute rod-like bodies, termed fibres] of 
Corii, having the appearance of a key-board, and each fibre being 
connected with a filament of the auditory nerve, these nerves 
being like strings to be struck by the keys, i.e. by the fibres of 
Corti. Moreover, this apparatus is supposed to be a key-board 



* The reader may consult Huxley's " Lessons in Elementary Physi- 



ology," p. 204. 



























M 


















/ 



54 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



* 

in function as well as in appearance, the vibration of each one 
fibre giving rise, it is believed, to the sensation of one particular 
tone, and combinations of such vibrations producing chords. It 
is by the action of this complex -organ then, that all the 



Mozart 



movst probably, to be perceived and appreciated. 

JSTow it can hardly be contended that the preservation of any 
race of men in the struggle for life ever depended on such an 
extreme delicacy and refinement of the internal ear 



?te 



a per- 



organ of voice in man 



— — — . 

most perfect musical performances. How, then, could either the 
minutelhcipient stages, or the final perfecting touches of this 
admirable structure, have been brought about by vague, aimless, 
and indefinite variations in all conceivable directions of an 
organ, suitable to enable the rudest savage to minister to his 
necessities, but no more ? " 

Mr. Wallace x makes an analogous remark with regard to the 

—the human larynx. He says of singing : 
"The habits of savages give no indication of how this faculty 
could have been developed by Natural Selection, because it is 
never required or used by them. The singing of savages is a more 
or less monotonous howling, and the females seldom sing at all. 
Savages certainly never choose their wives for fine voices but 
for rude health, and strength, and physical beauty. Sexual 
selection could not therefore have developed this wonderful 
power, which only comes into play among civilized people." 

Eeverting once more to beauty of form and colour, there is 
.one manifestation of it for which no one can pretend that sexual 
selection can possibly account. The instance referred to is that 
presented by bivalve shell-fish. 2 Here we meet with charming 
tints and elegant forms and markings of no direct use to their 

* " Natural Selection/' p. 350. 

2 Bivalve shell-fish are creatures belonging to the oyster, scallop, and 
cockle group, i.e. to the class Lamellibranchiata. 


























^ 


















II.l 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



55 



possessors 



Mr. Darwin 



r in the struggle for life, and of no indirect utility as 

regards sexual selection, for fertilization takes place by the mere 
action of currents of water, and the least heautiful individual 
has fully as good a chance of becoming a parent as has the one 
which is the most favoured in beauty of form and colour. 

Again, the peculiar outline and coloration of certain orchids 
—notably of our own bee, fly, and spider orchids— seem^liardly 
explicable by any action of "Natural Selection." " "^ 
says very little on this singular resemblance of flowers to insects, 
and what he does say seems hardly to be what an advocate of 
"Natural Selection" would require. Surely, for minute accidental 
indefinite variations to have built up such a striking resemblance 
to insects, we ought to find that the preservation of the plant, or 
the perpetuation of its race, depends almost constantly on rela- 
tions between bees, spiders, and flies respectively and the bee, 
spider, and fly orchids.2 This process must have continued Jx>r 
acres constantly and perseveringly, and yet what is the fact 1 
Darwin tells us, in his work on the Fertilization of Orchids, that 
neither the spider nor the fly orchids are much visited by insects, 
while, with regard to the bee orchid, he says, " I have never 
seen an insect visit these flowers." And he shows how this 

even wonderfully and specially modified to effect 



Mr. 



species is 
self-fertilization. 



Mr 



most wonderful and minute contrivances by which the visits of 
insects are utilized for the fertilization of orchids — structures 

i The attempt has been made to explain these facts as owing to 
« manner and symmetry of growth, and to colour being mcidenta 1 on 
the chemical nature of the constituents of the shell," But surely beauty 
depends on some such matters in all cases ! . 

2 It has been suggested in opposition to what is here said, that there is 
no real resemblance, but that the likeness is "fanciful!' lne denial, 
however, of the fact of a resemblance which has struck so many observers, 
reminds one of the French philosopher's estimate of facts hostile to ms 



theory 



Tant pis pour les faits ! V 






























1^^ 




^^ 




56 






THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



so wonderful that nothing could well he more so, except the 

attribution of their origin to minute, fortuitous, and indefinite 
variation. 

The instances are too numerous and too long to quote, but 
in his " Origin of Species " 1 he describes two which must not be 
passed over. In one (Coryanthes) the orchid has its lower lip en- 
larged into a bucket, above which stand two water-secreting horns. 
These latter replenish the bucket from which, when half-filled, the 
water overflows by a spout on one side. Bees visiting the flower 
fall into the bucket and crawl out at the spout. By the peculiar 
arrangement of the parts of the flower, the first bee which does 
so carries away the pollen-mass glued to his back, and then when 
he has his next involuntary bath in another flower, as he crawls 
out the pollen-mass attached to him comes in contact with the 
stigma of that second flower and fertilizes it. In the other 
example (Gatasetum), when a bee gnaws a certain part of the 
flower, he inevitably touches a long delicate projection, which 
Darwin calls the antenna, " This antenna transmits a vibra- 
tion to a certain membrane, which is instantly ruptured; this 
sets free a spring by which the pollen-mass is shot forth like 
an arrow in the right direction, and adheres by its viscid ex- 
tremity to the back of the bee !" 

Another difficulty, and one of some importance, is presented 
by those communities of ants which have not only a population 
of sterile females, or workers, but two distinct and very different 
castes of such. Mr. Darwin believes that he has got over this 
difficulty by having found individuals intermediate in form and 
structure 2 between the two working castes ; others may think 

i Fifth Edition, p. 236. 

2 Mr. Smith, of the Entomological department of the British Museum, 
has kindly informed me that the individuals intermediate in structure are 
very few in number— not more than five per cent.— compared with the 
number of distinctly differentiated individuals. Besides, in the Brazilian 
kinds these intermediate forms are wanting. 



Mi 

































II.] 



INCIPIENT STR UCTURES. 



57 



North 



that we have in this belief of Mr. Darwin, an example of the 
unconscious action of volition upon credence. A vast number 
of difficulties similar to those which have been mentioned might 
easily be cited — those given, however, may suffice. 

There remains, however, to be noticed a very important con- 

sideration, which was broi 

Review for June 1867, p. 286, namely, the necessity for the simul- 
taneous modification of many individuals. This consideration 
seems to have escaped Mr. Darwin, for at p. 104 of his last (fifth) 
edition of " Natural Selection," he admits, with great candour, 
that until reading this article he did not " appreciate how rarely 
single variations, whether slight or strongly marked, could be 

perpetuated." 

The North British Review (speaking of the supposition that a 

species is changed by the survival of a few individuals in a 
century through a similar and favourable variation) says : "It is 
very difficult to see how this can be accomplished, even when the 
variation is eminently favourable indeed ; and still more difficult 
when the advantage gained is very slight, as must generally 
be the case. The advantage, whatever it may be, is utterly out- 
balanced by numerical inferiority. A million creatures are born ; 
ten thousand survive to produce offspring. One of the million 
has twice as good a chance as any other of survivin 
chances are fifty to one against the gifted individuals being one 
of the hundred survivors. No doubt the chances are twice 
as great against any one other individual, but this does not pre- 
vent their being enormously in favour of some average individual. 
However slight the advantage may be, if it is shared by half the 
individuals produced, it will probably be present in at least 
fifty-one of the survivors, and in a larger proportion of their 
offspring ; but the chances are against the preservation of any 
one 'sport' {i.e. sudden, marked variation) in a numerous 
tribe. The vague use of an imperfectly understood doctrine o f 
chance has led Darwinian supporters, first, to confuse the two 






but the 


































































58 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap, 



cases above distinguished ; and, secondly, to imagine that a 
very slight balance in favour of some individual sport must 
lead to its perpetuation. All that can be said is that in the 
above example the favoured sport would be preserved once in 
fifty times. Let us consider what will be its influence on the 
main stock when preserved. It will breed and have a progeny 
of say 100 ; now this progeny will, on the whole, be inter- 
mediate between the average individual and the sport. The odds 
in favour of one of this generation of the new breed will be 
say one and a half to one, as compared with the average indi- 
vidual ; the odds in their favour will, therefore, be less than 
that of their parents ; but owing to their greater number, the 
chances are that about one and a half of them would survive. 
Unless these breed together, a most improbable event, their 
progeny would again approach the average individual; there 
would be 150 of them, and their superiority would be, say in 
the ratio of one and a quarter to one ; the probability would 
now be that nearly two of them would survive, and have 200 
children, with an eighth superiority. Eather more than two 
of these would survive ; but the superiority would again dwindle, 
until after a few generations it would no longer be observed 
and would count for no more in the struggle for life than any 
of the hundred trifling advantages which occur in the ordinary 
organs. An illustration w^ill bring this conception home. Sup- 
pose a white man to have been wrecked on an island inhabited 
by negroes, and to have established himself in friendly relations 
with a powerful tribe, whose customs he has learnt. Suppose 
him to possess the physical strength, energy, and ability of a 
dominant white race, and let the food and climate of the island 
suit his constitution; grant him every advantage which we can 
conceive a white to possess over the native ; concede that in 
the struggle for existence his chance of a long life will be 
much superior to that of the native chiefs; yet from all these 
admissions, there does not follow the conclusion that, after a 















k 



«. 



X ^*s< 



raPff^ 













t 



a.] 



INCIPIENT STRUCTURES. 



59 



limited or unlimited number of generations, the inhabitants of 
the island will be white. Our shipwrecked hero would probably 
become king ; he would kill a great many blacks in the struggle 
for existence j he would have a great many wives and chil- 
dren." . ..." In the first generation there will be some dozens 
of intelligent young mulattoes, much superior in average intelli- 
gence to the negroes. We might expect the throne for some 
aenerations to be occupied by a more or less yellow king ; but can 
any one believe that the whole island will gradually acquire a 
white, or even a yellow, population 1 " 

"Darwin says that in the struggle for life a grain may turn 
the balance in favour of a given structure, which will then be 
preserved. But one of the weights in the scale of nature is due 
to the number of a given tribe. Let there be 7000 As and 
7000 B's representing two varieties of a given animal, and let 
all the B's, in virtue of a slight difference of structure, have 
the better chance of life by T <jW P«*. We must allow that 
there is a slight probability that the descendants of B will sup- 
plant the descendants of A j but let there be only 7001 A's against 
7000 B's at first, and the chances are once more equal, while 
if there be 7002 A's to start, the odds would be laid on the A's. 
True, they stand a greater chance of being killed ; but then they 
can better afford to be killed. The grain will only turn the 
scales when these are very nicely balanced, and an advantage 
in numbers counts for weight, even as an advantage in struc- 
ture. As the numbers of the favoured variety diminish, so 
must its relative advantages increase, if the chance of its ex- 
istence is to surpass the chance of its extinction, until hardly 
any conceivable advantage would enable the descendants of a 
single pair to exterminate the descendants of many thousands 
' if they and their descendants are supposed to breed freely with 
the inferior variety, and so gradually lose their ascendency." _ 

Mr. Darwin himself says of the article quoted : " The justice 
of these remarks cannot, I think, be disputed. If, for instance, 















' 










































































60 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



a bird of some kind could procure its food more easily by 
having its beak curved, and if one were born *dth its beak 
strongly curved, and which consequently flourished, neverthe- 
less there would be a very poor chance of this one individual 
perpetuating its kind to the exclusion of the common form." 
This admission seems almost to amount to a change of front 
m the face of the enemy ! 

These remarks have been quoted at length because they so 
greatly intensify the difficulties brought forward in this chapter. 
It the most favourable variations have to contend with such 
difficulties, what must be thought as to the chance of preserva- 
tion of the slightly displaced eye in a sole or of the incipient 
development of baleen in a whale ? 

■ 



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. 



It has been here contended that a certain few facts, out of 
many which might have been brought forward, are incon- 
sistent with the origination of species by " Natural Selection " 
only or mainly. 

Mr. Darwin's theory requires minute, indefinite, fortuitous 
variations of all parts in all directions, and he insists that 
the sole operation of "Natural Selection" upon such is suffi- 
cient to account for the great majority of organic forms, with 
their most complicated structures, intricate mutual adaptations 
and delicate adjustments. 

To this conception has been opposed the difficulties presented 
by such a structure as the form of the giraffe, which ought not 
to have been the solitary structure it is ; also the minute be- 
ginnings and the last refinements of protective mimicry equally 
difficult or rather impossible to account for by " Natural Selec- 
tion." Again the difficulty as to the heads of flat-fishes has 
been insisted on, as also the origin, and at the same time the 
constancy, of the limbs of the highest animals. Eeference has 
also been made to the whalebone of whales, and to the im- 


















i 


















II.] 



INCIPIENT STR VCTUB ES. 



61 



possibility of understanding its origin through " Natural Selec- 



th 



singular deficiency of 
structures on 



the 



and resemblance, found in 
habits and social con- 



power compensated for by maternal 
one hand, to which its own breathing 
organs bear direct relation on the other. Again, the delicate 
and complex pedicellarise of Echinoderms, with a certain 
process of development (through a secondary larva) found in 
that class, together with certain other exceptional modes of 
development, have been brought forward. The development 
of colour in certain apes, the hood of the cobra, and the 
rattle of the rattlesnake have also been cited. Again, dif- 
ficulties as to the process of formation of the eye and ear, 
and as to the fully developed condition of those complex 
organs, as well as of the voice, have been considered. The 
beauty of certain shell-fish ; the wonderful adaptations of 
structure, and variety of form 
orchids j together with the complex 
ditions of certain ants, have been hastily passed in review. 
When all these complications are duly weighed and con- 
sidered, and when it is borne in mind how necessary it is 
for the permanence of a new variety that many individuals 
in each case should be simultaneously modified, the cumulative 
argument seems irresistible. 

The Author of this book can say that though by no means dis- 
posed originally to dissent from the theory of "Natural Selection," 
if only its difficulties could be solved, he has found each suc- 
cessive year that deeper consideration and more careful examina- 
tion have more and more brought home to him the inadequacy 
of Mr. Darwin's theory to account for the preservation and in- 
tensification of incipient, specific, and generic characters. That 
minute, fortuitous, and indefinite variations could have brought 
about such special forms and modifications as have been enume- 
rated in this chapter, seems to contradict not imagination, but 
reason. 













































Ir' 






y^ 



1 J 







)\Js h 




62 





yvf 






W 



(^ 



M 






; ■'■ 



4*r 



^-» $i~- 









THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. II. 



That either many individuals amongst a species of butterfly 
should be simultaneously preserved through a similar accidental 
and minute variation in one definite direction, when variations 
in many other directions would also preserve ; or that one or 
two so varying should succeed in supplanting the progeny of 
thousands of other individuals, and that this should by no other 
cause be carried so far as to produce the appearance (as we have 
before stated) of spots of fungi, &c— are alternatives of an im- 
probability so extreme as to be practically equal to impossibility. 
In spite of all the resources of a fertile imagination, the Dar- 
winian, pure and simple, is reduced to the assertion of a paradox 
as great as any he opposes. In the place of a mere assertion 
of our ignorance as to the way these phenomena have been pro- 
duced, he brings forward, as their explanation, a cause which it 
is contended in this work is demonstrably insufficient. 

Of course in this matter, as elsewhere t 
have to do with the operation of fixed and constant natural 
laws, and the knowledge of these may before long be obtained 
by human patience or human genius ; but there is, it is believed, 
already enough evidence to show that these as yet unknown 
natural laws or law will never be resolved into the action of 
" Natural Selection," but will constitute or exemplify a mode 
and condition of organic action of which the Darwinian theory 
takes no account whatsoever. 



roughout nature, we 















! 






\fr~ 



h/ 









I 









n 






i 



I A 



i • 












* ** * 



m 



■ * 












CHAP TEE III. 



THE CO-EXISTENCE OP CLOSELY SIMILAR STRUCTUKES OF 

DIVERSE ORIGIN. 












Chances against concordant variations. — Examples of discordant ones. 



Concordant variations not unlikely on a non-Darwinian evolutionary 
hypothesis. — Placental and implacental mammals. — Birds and reptiles. 

--Independent origins of similar sense organs. — The ear. — The eye. 

Other coincidences. — Causes besides Natural Selection produce concor- 
dant variations in certain geographical regions.— Causes besides Natural 
Selection produce concordant variations in certain zoological and bo- 
tanical groups.— There are homologous parts not genetically related. 
Harmony in respect of the organic and inorganic worlds.— Summary 
and conclusion. 












The theory of "Natural Selection" supposes that the varied 
forms and structure of animals and plants have been built up 
merely by indefinite, fortuitous, 1 minute variations in every part 
and in all directions — those variations only being preserved which 
are directly or indirectly useful to the individual possessing them, 
or necessarily correlated with such useful variations. 

On this theory the chances are almost infinitely great against 
the independent, accidental occurrence and preservation of two 
similar series of minute variations resulting in the independent 
development of two closely similar forms. In all cases, no 
doubt (on this same theory), some adaptation to habit or need 

i By accidental variations Mr. Darwin does not, of course, mean to 
imply variations really due to " chance," but to utterly indeterminate ' 
antecedents. 










1 















^^^^■H 










64 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 









S 



[chap. 



would gradually be evolved, but that adaptation would surely be 
arrived at by different roads. The organic world supplies us 
with multitudes of examples of similar functional results bein« 
attained by the most diverse means. Thus the body is sustained 
in the air by birds and by bats. In the first case it is so sus- 
tained by a limb in which the bones of the hand are excessively 
reduced, but which is provided with immense outgrowths from 
the skin— namely, the feathers of the wing. In the second case 
however, the body is sustained in the air by a limb in which the 






X 

WINGBONES OF PTERODAOTYLE, BAT, AND BIRD. 

{Copied, by permission, from Air. Andrew Murray's " Geographical Distribution 

of Mammals.") 

bones of the hand are enormously increased in length, and so 
sustain a great expanse of naked skin, which is the flying mem- 



brane of the bat's wing. 



Certain fishes and certain reptiles can 
also flit and take very prolonged jumps in the air. The flying- 
fish, however, takes these by means of a great elongation of the 
rays of the pectoral fins— parts which cannot be said to be of the 
same nature as the constituents of the wing of either the bat or 
the bird. The little lizard, which enjoys the formidable name of 
" flying- dragon," flits by means of a structure altogether peculiar 
namely, by the liberation and great elongation of some of the ribs 
which support a fold of skin. In the extinct pterodactyles— 









r 









III.] 



INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE 



65 



which were truly flying reptiles — we meet with an approximation 
to the structure of the bat, but in the pterodactyle we have only 






■ 













SKELETON OF THE FLYING-DRAGON. 

(Showing the elongated ribs which support the flitting organ.) 

9 

one finger elongated in each hand : a striking example of how 
the very same function may be provided for by a modification 
similar in principle, yet surely manifesting the independence of 
its origin. When we go* to lower animals, we find flight pro- 
duced by organs, as the wings of insects, which are not even 
modified limbs at all; or we find even the function sometimes 

■ 

subserved by quite artificial means, as in the aerial spiders, which 
use their own threads to float with in the air. In the vegetable 
kingdom the atmosphere is often made use of for the scattering 
of seeds, by their being furnished with special structures of very 
different kinds. The diverse modes by which such seeds are 
dispersed are well expressed by Mr. Darwin. He says : l " Seeds 



1 a 



Origin. of Species/' 5th edition, p. 235. 



F 





















^r 






06 



THE nENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[CFIAP 









are disseminated by their minuteness,— by their capsule beim 
converted into a light balloon-like envelope,— by being ear- 
bedded in pulp or flesh, formed of the most diverse parts, and 
rendered nutritious, as well as conspicuously coloured, so as 
to attract and be devoured by birds,— by having hooks and 
grapnels of many kinds and serrated awns, so as to adhere to 
the fur of quadrupeds,— and by being furnished with wings and 
plumes, as different in shape as elegant in structure, so as to be 
wafted by every breeze." 

Again, if we consider the poisoning apparatus possessed by 
uifferent animals, we find in serpents a perforated— or rather very 
deeply channelled— tooth. In wasps and bees the sting is formed 
of modified parts, accessory in reproduction. In the scorpion, we 
have the median terminal process of the body specially organized. 
In the spider, we have a specially constructed antenna; and 
finally in the centipede a pair of modified thoracic limbs. 

* 







W^ ' i 



tfm : mm»mm 











A CENTIPEDE. 



It would be easy to produce a multitude of such, instances of 
similar ends being attained by dissimilar means, and it is here 
contended that by " the action of Natural Selection " only it is so 
improbable as to be practically impossible for two exactly similar 
structures to have ever been independently developed. It is so 



I 










r 














s 




r 





















in.] 



INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



67 



there being conceived to be 



because the number of possible variations is indefinitely great, 
and it is therefore an indefinitely great number to one against a 
similar series of variations occurring and being similarly preserved 
in any two independent instances. 

The difficulty here asserted applies, however, only to pure 
Darwinism, which makes use only of indirect modifications through 
the survival of the fittest. 

Other theories (for example, that of Mr. Herbert Spencer) 
admit the direct action of conditions upon animals and plants— 
in ways not yet fully understood- 

at the same time a certain peculiar but limited power of response 
and adaptation in each animal and plant so acted on. Such 
theories have not to contend against the difficulty proposed, and 
it is here urged that even very complex extremely similar struc- 
tures have again and again been developed quite independently 
one of the other, and this because the process has taken place 
not by merely haphazard, indefinite variations in all directions 
but by the concurrence of some other and internal natural law 
or laws co-operating with external influences and with Natural 
Selection in the evolution of organic forms. 

It must never be forgotten that to admit any such constant 
operation of any such unknown natural cause is to deny the 
purely Darwinian theory, which relies upon the survival of the 
fittest by means of minute fortuitous indefinite variations. 

Amongst many other obligations which the Author has to 
acknowledge to Professor Huxley, are the pointing out of this 
yery difficulty, and the calling his attention to the striking resem- 

nce between certain teeth of the dog and of the thylacine as 
one instance, and certain ornithic peculiarities of pterodactyles 
as another. 

Mammals 1 are divisible into one great group, which comprises 

1 I.e. warm-blooded animals which suckle their young, such as apes 
bats hoofed beasts, lions, dogs, bears, weasels, rats,' squirrels, armadillos, 
sloths, whales, porpoises, kangaroos, opossums, &c. 



Lla 



p 



9 






I 




































T 



. 



68 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap, 



the immense majority of kinds termed, from their mode of 



Mammal 



smaller group comprising the pouched-beasts 



or marsupials 



(which are the kangaroos, bandicoots, phalangers, &c, of Aus- 
tralia), and the true opossums of America, called implacental 
Mammals. Now the placental mammals are subdivided into 
various orders, amongst which are the flesh-eaters (Carnivora, i.e. 
cats, dogs, otters, weasels, &&), and the insect-eaters (Insectivora, 
i.e. moles, hedgehogs, shrew-mice, &c). The marsupial mammals 
also present a variety of forms (some of which are carnivorous 
beasts, whilst others are insectivorous), so marked that it has 
been even proposed to divide them into orders parallel to the 
orders of placental beasts. 

The resemblance, indeed, is so striking as, on Darwinian prin- 
ciples, to suggest the probability of genetic affinity; and it even 
led Professor Huxley, in his Hunterian Lectures, in 1866, to 
promulgate the notion that a vast and widely-diffused mar- 
supial fauna may have existed anteriorly to the development of 
the ordinary placental, non-pouched beasts, and that the car- 
nivorous, insectivorous, and herbivorous placentals may have 
respectively descended from the carnivorous, insectivorous, and 
herbivorous marsupials. 

Amongst other points Professor Huxley called attention io 
the resemblance between the anterior molars of the placental 




















TEETH OF UROTRICHUS AND PERAMELKS. 



dog with, those of the marsupial thylacine. These, indeed, are 
strikingly similar, but there are better examples still of this 









s 






I 



















III.] 



INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE, 



69 



sort of coincidence. Thus it has often been remarked that the 
insectivorous marsupials, e.g. Perameles, wonderfully correspond, 
as to the form of certain of the grinding teeth, with certain 
insectivorous placentals, e.g. Urotrichus. 

Again, the saltatory insectivores of Africa (Macroscelides) not 



only resemble the kangaroo family (Macmpodidce) in 



their 



jumping habits and long hind legs, but also in the structure 
of their molar teeth, and even further, as I have elsewhere 1 
pointed out, in a certain similarity of the upper cutting teeth, 



or incisors. 



Now these correspondences are the more striking when we 
bear in mind that a similar dentition is often put to very different 
uses. The food of different kinds of apes is very different, yet 
how uniform is their dental structure ! Again, who looking 

O 7 7 o 

at the teeth of different kinds of bears, would ever suspect that 
one kind was frugivorous, and another a devourer exclusively of 
animal food ? 

The suggestion made by Professor Huxley was therefore one 
which had much to recommend it to Darwinians, though it has 
not met with any notable acceptance, and though he seems him- 
self to have returned to the older notion, namely, that the 
pouched-beasts, or marsupials, are a special ancient offshoot 
from the great mammalian class. 

But whichever view may be the correct one, we have in either 
case a number of forms similarly modified in harmony with sur- 
rounding conditions, and eloquently proclaiming some natural 
plastic power, other than mere fortuitous variation with survival 
of the fittest. If, however, the Eeader thinks that teeth are parts 
peculiarly qualified for rapid variation (in which view the Author 
cannot concur), he is requested to suspend his judgment till he 
has considered the question of the independent evolution of the 
highest organs of sense. If this seems to establish the existence 



1 " Journal. of Anatomy and Physiology" (1868), vol. ii. p. 139, 









■ 






^m^^^ m 














' 












/ 







THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



of some other law than that of " Natural Selection/' then the 
operation of that other law may surely be also traced in the 
harmonious co-ordinations of dental form. 

The other difficulty, kindly suggested to me by the learned 
Professor, refers to the structure of birds, and of extinct reptiles 
more or less related to them. 

The class of birds is one which is remarkably uniform in its 
organization. So much is this the case, that the best mode 
of subdividing the class is a problem of the greatest difficulty. 
Existing birds, however, present forms which, though closely 
resembling in the greater part of their structure, yet differ 
importantly the one from the other. One form is exemplified by 
the ostrich, rhea, emeu, cassowary, apteryx, dinornis, &c. These 
are the struthious birds. All other existing birds belong to the 
second division, and are called (from the keel on the breast-bone) 
carinate birds. 

Now birds and reptiles have such and so many points in 
common, that Darwinians must regard the former as modified 
descendants of ancient reptilian forms. But on Darwinian prin- 
ciples it is impossible that the class of birds so uniform and 
homogeneous should have had a double reptilian origin. If 

- 

set of birds sprang from one set of reptiles, and another set of 
birds from another set of reptiles, the two sets could never, 
by " Natural Selection " only, have grown into such a perfect 
similarity. To admit such a phenomenon would be equivalent 
to abandoning the theory of "Natural Selection" as the sole 
origin of species. 

Now, until recently it has generally been supposed by evolu- 
tionists that those ancient flying reptiles, the pterodactyles, or 
forms allied to them, were the progenitors of the class of birds ; 
and certain parts of their structure especially support this view. 
Allusion is here made to the bladebone (scapula), and the bone 
which passes down from the shoulder -joint to the breast-bone (viz. 
the coracoid). These bones are such remarkable anticipations 



one 


































III. J 



INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE, 



J[ 



S 



r 

of the same parts in ordinary (i.e. carinate) birds that it is hardly 
possible for a Darwinian not to regard the resemblance as due 
to community of origin. This resemblance was carefully pointed 
out by Professor Huxley in his "Hunterian Course" for 1867, 
when attention was called to the existence in Dimorphodon 



macronyx of even that small process which in birds gives attach- 
ment to the upper end of the merrythought. Also Mr. Seeley l 
has shown that in pterodactyles, as in birds, the optic lobes of 
the brain were placed low down on each side — " lateral and 
depressed." Nevertheless, the view has been put forward and 
ably maintained by the same Professor, 2 as also by Professor Cope 
in the United States, that the line of descent from reptiles to 
birds has not been from ordinary reptiles, through pterodactyle- 
Kke forms, to ordinary birds, but to the struthious ones from 

i 

certain extinct reptiles termed Dinosauria ; one of the most 
familiarly known of which is the Iguanodon of the Wealden 
formation. In these Dinosauria we find skeletal characters 
unlike those of ordinary {i.e. carinate) birds, but closely Re- 
sembling in certain points the osseous structure of the struthious 
birds. Thus a difficulty presents itself as to the explanation 

(1) That of the Ptero- 
dactyles with carinate birds; (2) that of the Dinosauria with 
struthious birds ; (3) that of the carinate and struthious birds 
with each other. 

Either birds must have had two distinct origins whence they 
grew to their present conformity, or the very same skeletal, and 
probably cerebral characters must have spontaneously and inde- 
pendently arisen. Here is a dilemma, either horn of which hears 
a threatening aspect to the exclusive supporter of "Natural 

■ 

■ ■ 

1 See "Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist." for August 1870, p. 140. 

2 See " Proceedings of the Royal Institution," vol. v. part iv. p. 278 : 
Report of a Lecture delivered February 7, 1868. Also "Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society," February 1870 : " Contributions to 
the Anatomy and Taxonomy of the Dinosauria." 



of the three folio wing relationships: 



















































































• 



I 





















\ 



i 



2 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



Selection/' and between which it seems somewhat difficult 
to choose. 

It has been suggested to me that this difficulty may be evaded 
by considering pterodactyles and carinate birds as independent 
branches from one side of an ancient common trunk while 
similarly the Dinosauria and struthious birds are taken to be 
independent branches from the other side of the same common 
trunk ; the two kinds of birds resembling each other so much on 
account of their later development from that trunk as compared 
with the development of the reptilian forms. But to this it may 
be replied that the ancient common stock could not have had 
at one and the same time a shoulder structure of both hinds. It 
must have been that of the struthious birds or that of the carinate 
birds, or something different from both. If it was that of the 
struthious birds, how did the pterodactyles and carinate birds 
independently arrive at the very same divergent structure ? If 
it was that of the carinate birds, how did the struthious birds 
and Dinosauria independently agree to differ ? Finally, if it was 
something different from either, how did the carinate birds and 
pterodactyles take on independently one special common struc- 
ture when disagreeing in so many ; while the struthious birds, 
agreeing in many points with the Dinosauria, agree yet more with 
the carinate birds? Indeed by no arrangement of branches 
from a stem can the difficulty be evaded. 

Professor Huxley seems inclined 1 to cut the Gordian knot 
by considering the shoulder structure of the pterodactyle as 
independently educed, and having relation to physiology only. 
This conception is one which harmonizes completely with the 
views here advocated, and with those of Mr. Herbert Spencer, 
who also calls in direct modification to the aid of " Natural 
Selection/' That merely minute, indefinite variations in all 
directions should unaided have independently built up the 









1 " Proceedings of Geological Society," November 1869, p. 38. 










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INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



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shoulder structure of tlie pterodactyles and carinate birds, and 
have laterally depressed their optic lobes ; at a time so far back 
as the deposition of the Oolite strata, 1 is a coincidence of the 
highest improbability ; but that an innate power and evolu- 
tionary law, aided by the corrective action of " Natural Selection," 
should have furnished like needs with like aids, is not at all 
improbable. The difficulty does not tell against the theory of 
evolution, but only against the specially Darwinian form of it. 
iSTow this form has never been expressly adopted by Professor 







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the archeopteryx (of the Oolite strata) 



Huxley ; so far from it, in his lecture on this subject at the 
Royal Institution before referred to, he observes, 2 u I can testify, 
from personal experience, it is possible to have a complete 
faith in the general doctrine of evolution, and yet to hesitate 
m accepting the Nebular, or the Uniformitarian, or the Darwinian 
hypotheses in all their integrity and fulness. 7 ' 

It is quite consistent, then, in the Professor to explain the 
















II 









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'2 



The archeopteryx of the oolite has the true carinate shoulder structure. 
" Proceedings of the Royal Institution," vol. v. p. 279. 



^^^^■^H 




































74 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



. ^.. 



difficulty as he does ; but it would not be similarly so with an 

■ 

absolute and pure Darwinian. 

Yet stronger arguments of an analogous kind are, however, 

■ 

to be derived from the highest organs of sense. In the most 
perfectly organized animals — those namely which, like ourselves, 
possess a spinal column— 



the internal organs of hearing consist 
of two more or less complex membranous sacs (containing calca- 
reous particles — otoliths), which are primitively or permanently 
lodged in two chambers, one on each side of the cartilaginous 
skull. The primitive cartilaginous cranium supports and pro- 

* 

tects the base of the brain, and the auditory nerves pass from 
that brain into the cartilaginous chambers to reach the auditory 
sacs. These complex arrangements of parts could not have 
been evolved by " Natural Selection," i.e. by minute accidental 
variations, except by the action of such through a vast period 
of time; nevertheless, it was fully evolved at the time of the 
deposition of the upper Silurian rocks. 

Cuttle-fishes (Ce^halojjoda) are animals belonging to the 
molluscous primary division of the animal kingdom, which 
division contains animals formed upon a type of structure 
utterly remote from that on which the animals of the higher 
division provided with a spinal column are constructed. And 
indeed no transitional form (tending even to bridge over the 
chasm between these two groups) has ever yet been discovered, 

* 

either living or in a fossilized condition. 1 

Nevertheless, in the two-gilled Cephalopods {D ibranchiata) we 
find the brain supported and protected by a cartilaginous cranium. 
In the base of this cranium are two cartilaginous chambers. 
In each chamber is a membranous sac containing an otolith, 
and the auditory nerves pass from the cerebral ganglia into the 
cartilaginous chambers to reach the auditory sacs. Moreover, 

i This remark is made without prejudice to possible affinities in the 
direction of the Ascidians,— an affinity which, if real, would he irrelevant 
to the question here discussed. _ : 























■;• 












vw 



ITI. 



INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 






r 

it has been suggested by Professor Owen that sinuosities between 
processes projecting from the inner wall of each chamber "seem 
to be the first rudiments of those which, in the higher classes 
(i.e. in animals with a spinal column), are extended in the form 
.of canals and spiral chambers, within the substance of the dense 
nidus of the labyrinth." l 



A 



n 





CUTTLE-FISH. 



A. Ventral aspect. 



B. Dorsal aspect 



Here, then, we have a wonderful coincidence indeed; two 
highly complex auditory organs, marvellously similar in structure, 
but which must nevertheless have been developed in entire 
and complete independence one of the other ! It would be 
difficult to calculate the odds against the independent occur- 
rence and conservation of two such complex series of merely 
accidental and minute haphazard variations. And it can never 

1 " Lectures on the Comp. Anat. of the Invertebrate Animals," 2nd edit. 
1855, p. 619 ; and Todd's " Cyclopaedia of Anatomy," vol. i. p. 554. 



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6 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[CHAF. 



be maintained that the sense of hearing could not be efficiently 
subserved otherwise than by such sacs, in cranial cartilaginous 
capsules so situated in relation to the brain, &c. 

Our wonder, moreover, may be increased when we recollect that 
the two-gilled cephalopods have not yet been found below the 
lias, where they at once abound ; whereas the four-gilled cepha- 
lopods are Silurian forms. Moreover, the absence is in this 
case significant in spite of the imperfection of the geological 
record, because when we consider how many individuals of 
various kinds of four-gilled cephalopods have been found, it is fair 
to infer that at the least a certain small percentage of dibranchs 
would also have left traces of their presence had they existed. 
Thus it is probable that some four-gilled form was the progenitor 
of the dibranch cephalopods. JSTow the four-gilled kinds (judging 
from the only existing form, the nautilus) had the auditory 
organ in a very inferior condition of development to what we 
find in the dibranch ; thus we have not only evidence of the 
independent high development of the organ in the former, but 
also evidence pointing towards a certain degree of comparative 
rapidity in its development. 

Such being the case with regard to the organ of hearing, we 
have another yet stronger argument with regard to the organ of 
sight, as has been well pointed out by Mr. J. J. Murphy. 1 He 
calls attention to the fact that the eye must have been perfected 
in at least "three distinct lines of descent/' alluding not only 
to the molluscous division of the animal kingdom, and the 
division provided with a spinal column, but also to a third 
primary division, namely, that which includes all insects, spiders, 
crabs, &c, which are spoken of as Annulosa, and the type of 
whose structure is as distinct from that of the molluscous type 
on the one hand, as it is from that of the type with a spinal 
column (i.e. the vertebrate type) on the other. 



1 See " Habit and Intelligence," vol. i. p. 321. 



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III.] 



INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



It 



In the cuttle-fishes we find an eye even more completely 
constructed on the vertebrate type than is the ear. Sclerotic, 
retina, choroid, vitreous humour, lens, aqueous humour, all 
are present. The correspondence is wonderfully complete, and 
there can hardly be any hesitation in saying that for such an 
exact, prolonged, and correlated series of similar structures to 
have been brought about in two independent instances by merely 
indefinite and minute accidental variations, is an improbability 
which amounts practically to impossibility. Moreover, we have 
here again the same imperfection of the four-gilled cephalopod, 
as compared with the two-gilled, and therefore (if the latter pro- 
eeeded from the former) a similar indication of a certain com- 
parative, rapidity of development. Finally, and this is perhaps 
one of the most curious circumstances, the process of formation 
appears to have been, at least in some respects, the same in the 
eyes of these molluscous animals as in the eyes of vertebrates. 
Tor in these latter the cornea is at first perforated, while different 
degrees of perforation of the same part are presented by dif- 
ferent adult cuttle-fishes — large in the calamaries, smaller in the 
octopods, and reduced to a minute foramen in the true cuttle- 
fish sepia. 

Some may be disposed to object that the conditions requisite for 
effecting vision are so rigid that similar results in all cases must 
be independently arrived at. But to this objection it may well 
be replied that Nature herself has demonstrated that there is no 
such necessity as to the details of the process. 
Annulosa, such as the dragon-fly, we meet with an eye of an 
unquestionably very high degree of efficiency, but formed on a 
type of structure only remotely comparable with that of the fish 
or the cephalopod. 
eye as efficient as that of a vertebrate, but formed on a distinct 
type, instead of being another edition, as it were, of the very 
same structure. 

In the beginning of this chapter examples have been given of 



For in the higher 



The last-named animal might have had an 





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78 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 






the very diverse mode in which similar results have in many 
instances been arrived at; on the other hand, we have in the 
fish and the cephalopod not only the eye, but at one and the 
same time the ear also similarly evolved, yet with complete 
independence. 

Thus it is here contended that the similar and complex struc- 
tures of both the highest organs of sense, as developed in the 
vertebrates on the one hand, and in the mollusks on the other, 
present us with residuary phenomena for which " Natural Selec- 
tion " alone is quite incompetent to account. And that these 
same phenomena must therefore be considered as conclusive 
evidence for the action of some other natural law or laws con- 
ditioning the simultaneous and independent evolution of these 
harmonious and concordant adaptations. 

Provided with this evidence, it may be now profitable to 
enumerate other correspondences, which are not perhaps in 
themselves inexplicable by Natural Selection, but which are more 
readily to be explained by the action of the unknown law or 
laws referred to— which action, as its necessity has been demon- 
strated in one case, becomes a priori probable in the others. 

Thus the great oceanic Mammalia— the whales— show striking 
resemblances to those prodigious, extinct, marine reptiles, the 

































I 








SKELETON OF AN ICHTHYOSAOROS. 



Ichthyosauria, and this not only in structures readily referable to 
similarity of habit, but in such matters as greatly elongated pre- 



maxillary bones, together with the concealment of certain bon 
of the skull by other cranial bones. 



es 



V 



1 






I 
















V 



1 



III.] 



INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



79 



Again, the aerial mammals, the bats, resemble those flying 
reptiles of the secondary epoch, the pterodactyles ; not only to 
a certain extent in the breast-bone and mode of supporting the 
flying membrane, but also in the proportions of different parts 
of the spinal column and the hinder (pelvic) limbs. 

Also bivalve shell- fish (i.e. creatures of the mussel, cockle, 
and oyster class, which receive their name from the body being 
protected by a double shell, one valve of which is placed on each 
side) have their two shells united by one or two powerful muscles, 
which pass directly across from one shell, to the other, and which 
are termed "adductor muscles " because by their contraction they 
bring together the valves and so close the shell. 

JSTow there are certain animals which belong to the crab and 
lobster class (Crustacea)— a class constructed on an utterly different 





cytheiud::a tokos a 



[An ostracod (Crustacean), externally like a bivalve shell-fish (LameJlibraneh) 






■ 

type from that on which the bivalve shell-fish are constructed — 
which present a very curious approximation to both the form 

* 

and, in a certain respect, the structure of true bivalves. Allusion 
is here made to certain small Crustacea — certain phyllopods and 
ostracods — which have the hard outer coat of their thorax so 































H 




80 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 









modified as to look wonderfully like a bivalve shell, although its 
nature and composition are quite different. But this is by no 
means all. — not only is there this external resemblance between 



*\ 



















\ 
















A POLYZOON WITH BIRD'S-HEAD PROCESSES. 









the thoracic armour of the crustacean and the bivalve shell, but 
the two sides of the ostracod and phyllopod thorax are connected 
together also bv an adductor muscle ! 











1 







■\ 









in.] INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



81 



The pedicel] ariae of the echinus have been already spoken 
of, and the difficulty as to their origin from minute, fortuitous, 
indefinite variations has been stated. But structures essen- 
tially similar (called avicularia, or " bird's-head processes ") are 
developed from the surface of the compound masses of certain 
of the highest of the polyp-like animals (viz. the Polyzoa or, 
as they are sometimes called, the Bryozoa). 

These compound animals liave scattered over the surface of their 
bodies minute processes, each of which is like the head of a bird, 
with an upper and lower beak, the whole supported on a slender 
neck. The beak opens and shuts at intervals, like the jaws 




























BIRDS-HEAD PROCESSES VERY GREATLY ENLARGED. 

of the pedicellariaB of the echinus, and there is altogether, in 



o 



[eneral principle, a remarkable similarity between the structures. 
Yet the echinus can have, at the best, none but the most distant 
genetic relationship with the Polyzoa. We have here again there- 
fore complex and similar organs of diverse and independent 
origin. 

In the highest class of animals (the Mammalia) we have 
almost always a placental mode of reproduction, i.e. the blood 
of the foetus is placed in nutritive relation with the blood of 
the mother by means of vascular prominences. No trace of 
such a structure exists in any bird or in any reptile, and yet it 
crops out again in certain sharks. There indeed it might well 
be supposed to end, but, marvellous as it seems, it reappears in 
very lowly creatures ; namely, in certain of the ascidians, some- 
times called tunicaries or sea-squirts. 

G 























82 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[ 



CHAP 










.Now, if we were to concede that the ascidians were the com- 
mon ancestors 1 of both these sharks and of the higher mammals 
we should be little, if any, nearer to an explanation of the phe- 
nomenon by means of "Natural Selection/' for in the sharks in 
question the vascular prominences are developed from one foetal 
structure (the umbilical vesicle), while in the higher mammals 
they are developed from quite another part, viz. the allantois. 




























mfii^i 



^ 



Upper Figure— Antechin us minuttssimus (implacental). 
Lower Figure— Mus delicatulus (placental). 

So great, however, is the number of similar, but apparently 
independent, structures, that we suffer from a perfect embarras de 
rtchesses. Thus, for example, we have the convoluted windpipe 

1 A view recently propounded by Kowalewsky. 










' 






I 









/ 



ni.] INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



S3 



of the sloth, reminding us of the condition of the windpipe 
m birds ; and in another mammal, allied to the sloth, namely 
the great ant-eater (Myrmecophaga), we have again an ornithic 
character in its horny gizzard-like stomach. In man and the 
highest apes the csecum has a vermiform appendix, as it has 
also in the wombat ! 

Also the similar forms presented by the crowns of the teeth 
in some seals, in certain sharks, and in some extinct Cetacea may 
be referred to ; as also the similarity of the beak in birds, soxne 
reptiles, in the tadpole, and cuttle-fishes. As to entire external 
form, may be adduced the wonderful similarity between a true 



(M 



Murray 



bution of Mammals," p. 53, and represented in the frontispiece 
by figures copied from Gould's " Mammals of Australia :" but 
instances enough for the present purpose have been already 
quoted. 

Additional reasons for believing that similarity of structure 
is produced by other causes than merely by "Natural Selection" 
are furnished by certain facts of zoological geography, and by a 
similarity in the mode of variation being sometimes extended to 
several spfecies of a genus, or even to widely different groups ; 
while the restriction and the limitation of such similarity are 






oftsn not less remarkable. 



Thus Mr. Wallace says/ as to local 



influence : " Larger or smaller districts, or even single islands, 
give a special character to the majority of their Papilionidse. For 
instance:— 1. The species of the Indian region (Sumatra, Java, 
and Borneo) are almost invariably smaller than the allied species 



inhabiting Celebes and the Moluccas. 



ft 



Guinea and Australia are also, though in a less degree, smaller 
than the Nearest species or varieties of the Moluccas. 3. In the 
Moluccas themselves the species of Amboyna are the k oww 
4. The species of Celebes equal or even surpass in size those 

1 " Natural Selection," p. 167. 

G 2 
















































84 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[CHAI*. 



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Again : l 



of Amboyna. 5. The species and varieties of Celebes possess a 

i 

striking character in the form of the anterior wings, different 
from that of the allied species and varieties of all the surround- 
ing islands. 6. Tailed species* in India or the Indian region 
become tailless as they spread eastward through the Archipelago. 
7. In Amboyna and Ceram the females of several species are dull- 
coloured, while, in the adjacent islands they are more brilliant." 

"In Amboyna and Ceram the female of the large and 
handsome Ornithoptera Helena has the large patch on the hind 
wings constantly of a pale dull ochre or buff colour; while in 
the scarcely distinguishable varieties from the adjacent islands, 
of Bouru and New Guinea, it is of a golden yellow, hardly infe- 
rior in brilliancy to its colour in the male sex. The female of 
Ornithoptera Priamus (inhabiting Amboyna and Ceram exclu- 
sively) is of a pale dusky brown tint, while in all the allied 
species the same sex is nearly black, with contracted white mark- 
As a third example, the female ofPapilio Ulysses has the 
blue colour obscured by dull and dusky tints, while in the closely 
allied species from the surrounding islands, the females are of 
almost as brilliant an azure blue as the males. A parallel case 
to this is the occurrence, in the small islands of Goram, Matabello. 
Ke, and Aru, of several distinct species of Euploea and Diadema. 
having broad bands or patches of white, which do not exist in 
any of the allied species from the larger islands. These facts 
seem to indicate some local influence in modifying colour, as 
unintelligible and almost as remarkable as that which has resulted 
in the modifications of form previously described." 

After endeavouring to explain some of the facts in a way to 
be noticed directly, Mr. Wallace adds : 2 " But even the con- 
jectural explanation now given fails us in the other cases of 
local modification. Why the species of the Western Islands 
should be smaller than those further east ; why those of Amboyna ' 



mgs. 






■ 



1 u 



Natural Selection," p. 173 



2 



Ibid. p. 1 



t i 



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in.] INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



85 



should exceed in size those of Gilolo and New Guinea ; why 
the tailed species of India should begin to lose that appendage 
in the islands, and retain no trace of it on the borders of 

7 

the Pacific ; and why, in three separate cases, the females of 
Amboyna species should be less gaily attired than the cor- 
responding females of the surrounding islands, are questions 
which we cannot at present attempt to answer. That they 
depend, however, on some general principle is certain, because 
analogous facts have been observed in other parts of the world. 
Mr. Bates informs me that, in three distinct groups, Papilios, 
which, on the Upper Amazon, and in most other parts of South 
America, have spotless upper wings, obtain pale or white spots 
at Para and on the Lower Amazon, and also that the iEneas 
group of Papilios never have tails in the equatorial regions and 
the Amazon valley, but gradually acquire tails in many cases as 
they range towards the northern or southern tropic. Even in 
Europe we have somewhat similar facts, for the species and 
varieties of butterflies peculiar to the Island of Sardinia are 
generally smaller and more deeply coloured than those of the 
mainland, and the same has been recently shown to be the case 
with the common tortoiseshell butterfly in the Isle of Man; 
while Papilio Hospiton y peculiar to the former island, has lost 
the tail, which is a prominent feature of the closely allied 

P. Machaon. 

" Facts of a similar nature to those now brought forward would 
no doubt be found to occur in other groups of insects, were 
local faunas carefully studied in relation to those of the sur- 
rounding countries ; and they seem to indicate that climate and 
other physical causes have, in some cases, a very powerful effect 
in modifying specific form and colour, and thus directly aid in 
producing the endless variety of nature." 

With regard to butterflies of Celebes belonging to different 
families, they present "a peculiarity of outline which distin- 
guishes them at a glance from those of any other part of the 










































, 



I 



^ 



- - 





"S0 



86 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



world r" 1 it is that the upper wings are generally more elongated 
and the anterior margin more curved. Moreover, there is in 







I 




2 



\ 




X 






i 

1 



OUTLINES OF WINGS OF BUTTERFLIES OF CELEBES COMPARED WITH THOSE OF 

ALLIED SPECIES ELSEWHERE. 

Outer outline Papilio gigon, of Celebes. Inner outline, P. demotion, of Sino-ar.oiv 

^,r, V o a *7; 2 V 0uter outlin e, P.miletas, of Celebes. Inner outline, P sawedon 
maia.— 6. Outer outline, Tachyris zarinda, Celebes. Inner outline, T. nero. , 

most instances, near the base an abrupt bend or elbow, 
which in some species is very conspicuous. Mr. Wallace 



1 a 



I 



Malay Archipek 



ago/' vol. i. p. 439. 






■ 







III.] 



INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



87 



endeavours to explain this phenomenon by the supposed 
presence at some time of special persecutors of the modified 
forms, supporting the opinion by the remark that small, obscure, 
very rapidly flying and mimicked kinds have not had the wing 
modified. Such an enemy occasioning increased powers of 
flight, or rapidity in turning, he adds, " one would naturally 
suppose to be an insectivorous bird ; but it is a remarkable fact 
that most of the genera of fly-catchers of Borneo and Java on 
the one side, and of the Moluccas on the other, are almost 
entirely absent from Celebes. Their place seems to be supplied 
by the caterpillar-catchers, of which six or seven species are 
known from Celebes, and are very numerous in individuals. 
We have no positive evidence that these birds pursue butterflies 
on the wing, but it is highly probable that they do so when 
other food is scarce. Mr. Bates suggested to me that the larger 
dragon-flies prey upon butterflies, but I did not notice that they 
were more abundant in Celebes than elsewhere." 1 

Now, every opinion or conjecture of Mr. Wallace is worthy 
of respectful and attentive consideration, but the explanation 
suggested and before referred to hardly seems a satisfactory one. 
What the past fauna of Celebes may have been is as yet con- 

jectural. Mr. 

Ity of fly-catchers, and that their place is supplied by birds 



Wall 



scarci 



of which it can only be said that it is " highly probable " that 
they chase butterflies " when other food is scarce/' The quick 
eye of Mr. Wallace failed to detect them in the act, as also to 
note any unusual abundance of other insectivorous forms, which 
therefore, considering Mr. Wallace's zeal and powers of obser- 
vation, we may conclude do not exist. Moreover, even if 
there ever has been an abundance of such, it is by no means 
certain that thev would have succeeded in producing the con- 
formation in question, for the effect of this peculiar curvature 
on flight is by no means clear. 



i u 



We 



Natural Selection," p. 177. 





















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■ *. 






















• 



88 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



hypothetically explained by an uncertain property induced by a 
cause the presence of which is only conjectural. 

Surely it is not unreasonable to class this instance with 
the others before given, in which a common modification of 
form or colour coexists with a certain geographical distribution 
quite independently of the destructive agencies of animals. 
If physical causes connected with locality can abbreviate or 
annihilate the tails of certain butterflies, why may not similar 
causes produce an elbow-like prominence on the wings of other 
butterflies? There are many such instances of simultaneous 

T • O i * -mm* . 



modification. 



Mr. Darwin himself 1 quotes Mr. Gould 



believing that birds of the same species are more brightly 
coloured under a clear atmosphere, than when living on islands 
or near the coast. Mr. Darwin also informs us that Wollaston is 
convinced that residence near the sea affects the colour of insects; 
and finally, that Moquin-Tandon gives a list of plants which, when 
growing near the sea-shore, have their leaves in some degree fleshy, 
though not so elsewhere. In his work on "Animals and Plants 
under Domestication," 2 Mr. Darwin refers to M. Costa as having 
(in Bull, de la Soc. Imp. d'Acclimat. tome viii. p. 351) stated 
" that young shells taken from the shores of England and 
placed in the Mediterranean at once altered their manner of 
rowth, and formed prominent diverging rays like those on the 






'/ 



Nat. Sc. of 



" that twenty-nine kinds of American trees all differ from their 
nearest European allies in a similar manner, leaves less toothed 

1 1 T i ? 



buds and seeds smaller, fewer branchlets," &o. These are striking 
examples indeed ! 

But cases of simultaneous and similar modifications abound 
on all sides. Even as regards our own species there is a very 
jenerally admitted opinion that a new type has been deve- 
loped in the United States, and this in about a couple of 



8 



" Origin of Species," 5th edition, p. 166. 



2 



Vol. ii. p. 280. 


















■ 












in.] INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



89 



centuries only, and in a vast multitude of individuals of diverse 
ancestry. The instances, here given, however, must suffice, though 
more could easily be added. 

, It may be well now to turn to groups presenting similar 
variations, not through, but independently of, geographical dis- 
tribution, and, as far as we know, independently of conditions 
other than some peculiar nature and tendency (as yet un- 
explained) common to members of such groups, which nature 
and tendency seem to induce them to vary in certain definite 
■line! 



es or directions which are different in different 



groups 




































Sss&s* 



THE GREAT SHIELDED GRASSHOPPER. 



Thus with regard to the group of insects, of which the walking 
leaf is a member, Mr. Wallace observes i 1 "The whole family 2 of 
the Phasmidse, or spectres, to which this insect belongs, is more 
or less imitative, and a great number of the species are called 


















• 







1 See " Natural Selection," p. 64. 

2 The italics are not Mr. Wallace's. 









■ 








r^ 




90 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



'walking-stick insects,' from their singular resemblance to twigs 
and branches." 

Again, Mr. Wallace 1 tells us of no less than four kinds of 
orioles, which birds mimic, more or less, four species of a genus 
of honey-suckers, the weak orioles finding their profit in beino- 
mistaken by certain birds of prey for the- strong, active, and 
gregarious honey-suckers. Now, many other birds would be 
benefited by similar mimicry, which is none the less confined, in 
this part of the world, to the oriole genus. % It is true that the 
absence of mimicry in other forms may be explained by their 
















*rvc ■ € 9 






THE SIX-SHAFTED BIRD OF PARADISE. 



possessing some other (as yet unobserved) means of preservation. 
Bat it is nevertheless remarkable, not so much that one species 
sl.ould mimic, as that no less than four should do so in different 



1 Ci 



Malay Archipelago," vol. ii. p. 150 ; and " Natural Selection,'' p. 104. 




























/ 



in.] INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



91 



ways and degrees, all these four belonging to one and the same 
genus. 

In other cases, however, there is not even the help of protec- 
tive action to account for the phenomenon. Thus we have the 
wonderful birds of Paradise, 1 which agree in developing plumage 




THE LONG-TAILED BTRD OF PARADISE. 



unequalled in beauty, but a beauty which, as to details, is of 
different kinds, and produced in different ways in different 
species. To develop " beauty and singularity of plumage" is a 
character of the group, but not of any one definite kind, to be 
explained merely by inheritance. 



1 See a Malay Archipelago/' vol. ii. chap, xxxviii. 










































92 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



i 






I 



[chap. 









til 






have 




curious 



horned flies, x which 
agree indeed in a 
common peculiarity, 



smgu- 



different 



detail, in different 
species | 

known to have any 
protecting effect. 

Amongst plants, 
also, we meet with 
the same peculiarity. 
The great grouj3 of 
Orchids presents a 



number 



species 



1 Loc. cit. p. 314. 






» 












THE BED BIRO OK PARADTSE. 






Vj 





















r 




hi.] INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



93 



which offer strange and bizarre approximations to different 



^^^^mam^^ 







HORNED FLIES. 



i 

animal forms, and which have often the appearance of cases of 
mimicrv, as it were in an incipient stage. 




THE MAGNIFICENT BIRD OF PARADISE. 



* 

The number of similar instances which could be brought 
forward from amongst animals and plants is very great, but the 









I 



i 


























^ 















I 






94 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap 



examples given are, it is hoped, amply sufficient to point towards 
the conclusion which other facts will, it is thought, establish, viz. 
that there are causes operating (in the evocation of thes< harmo- 
nious diverging resemblances) other than "Natural Selection," 
or heredity, and other even than merely geographical, climatal, 
or any simply external conditions. 

Many cases have been adduced of striking likenesses between 
different animals, not due to inheritance ; but this should be the 
less surprising, in that the very same individual presents us with 
likenesses between different parts of its body {e.g., between the 
several joints of the backbone), which are certainly not so expli- 
cable. This, however, leads to a rather large subject, which will 
be spoken of in the eighth chapter of the present work. Here 
it will be enough to affirm (leaving the proof of the assertion till 
later) that parts are often homologous which have no direct 
genetic relationship,— a fact -which harmonizes well with the 
other facts here given, but which "Natural Selection," pure 
and simple, seems unable to explain. 

But surely the independent appearance 
forms is what we might expect, apriori, from the independent 
appearance of similar inorganic ones. As Mr. G. H. Lewes well 
observes, 1 " We do not suppose the carbonates and phosphates 
found in various parts of the globe — we do not suppose that 
the families of alkaloids and salts have any nearer kinship than 
that which consists in the similarity of their elements, and 
the conditions of their combination. Hence, in organisms, as in 
salts, morphological identity may be due to a community of 
causal connexion, rather than community of descent. 

" Mr. Darwin justly holds it to be incredible that individuals 
identically the same should have been produced through Natural 
Selection from parents specifically distinct, but he will not deny 
that identical forms may issue from parents genetically distinct, 

* 

1 Fortnightly Review, New Series, vol. iii (April 1868), p. 372. 



of similar organic 



i 



■> 



>• 






- 















» 


















hi.] INDEPENDENT SIMILARITIES OF STRUCTURE. 



95 



relationship of 
relationship of 



organisms. 



existing minerals 
existing animals and 



when these parent forms and the conditions of production are 
identical. To deny this would he to deny the law of causation." 

Professor Huxley has, however, suggested 1 that such mineral 
identity may be explained by applying also to minerals a law of 
descent; that is, by considering such similar forms as the de- 
scendants of atoms which inhabited one special part of the pri- 
mitive nebular cosmos, each considerable space of which may be 
supposed to have been under the influence of somewhat different 
conditions. 

Surely, however, there can be no real parity between the 

to nebular atoms, and the 
plants to the earliest 
In the first place, the latter have produced others 
by generative multiplication, which mineral atoms never did. In 
the second, existing animals and plants spring from the living 
tissues of preceding animals and plants, while existing minerals 
spring from the chemical affinity of separate elements. Carbo- 
nate of soda is not formed, by a process of reproduction, from 
other carbonate of soda, but directly by the suitable juxtaposi- 
tion of carbon, oxygen, and sodium. 

Instead of approximating animals and minerals in the mode 
suggested, it may be that they are to be approximated in quite 
a contrary fashion ; namely, by attributing to mineral species 
an internal innate power. For, as we must attribute to each 
elementary atom an innate power and tendency to form (under 
the requisite external conditions) certain unions with other 
atoms, so we may attribute to certain mineral species — as 
crystals — an innate power and tendency to exhibit (the proper 
conditions being supplied) a definite and symmetrical external 
form. 

one hand, and minerals on the other, is that, while in the 
organic world close similarity is the result sometimes of inhe- 
ritance, sometimes of direct production independently of parental 



The distinction between animals and vegetables on the 



1 u 



Lay Sermons/' p. 339. 


















i 







,-*-" 





■ I 



? 






96 



THE GENESIS F SPECIES. 



[chap. Ill 



action, in the inorganic world the latter is the constant and 
only mode in which such similarity is produced. 

When we come to consider thp, rplfl+.irme ^ o^™;™ ±~ „~«_ 



in other words, the geographical distribution of organisms— it 
will be necessary to return somewhat to the subject of the inde- 
pendent origin of closely similar forms, in regard to which 
some additional remarks will be found towards the end of the 
seventh chapter. 

* 

In this third chapter an effort has been made to show that 
while on the Darwinian theory concordant variations are 
extremely improbable, yet Nature presents us with abundant 
examples of such ; the most striking of which are, perhaps, 
the higher organs of sense. Also that an important influence 
is exercised by conditions connected with geographical distri- 
bution, but that a deeper-seated influence is at work, which is 
hinted at by those special tendencies in definite directions, which 
are the properties of certain groups. Finally, that these facts, 
when taken together, afford 



strong evidence 



that ''Natural 



Selection" has not been the exclusive or predominant cause of 
the various organic structural peculiarities. This conclusion has 
also been re-enforced by the consideration of phenomena pre- 
sented to us by the inorganic world. 














mm ^ m ^^ 



m 



1M 



■■^■^n 






CHAPTER IV. 



MINUTE AND GRADUAL MODIFICATIONS. 

There are difficulties as to minute modifications, even if not fortuitous. 
Examples of sudden and considerable modifications of different kinds. — 
Professor Owen's view.— Mr. Wallace.— Professor Huxley.— Objections 
to sudden changes.— Labyrinthodont. — Potto.— Cetacea.— As to origin 
of bird's wing.— Tendrils of climbing plants.— Animals once supposed 
. to be connecting links.— Early specialization of structure.— Macrau- 
chenia.— Glyptodon. —Sabre-toothed tiger. —Conclusion. 

Not only are there good reasons against the acceptance of 
the exclusive operation of "Natural Selection" as the one 
means of specific origination, but there are difficulties in the 
way of accounting for such origination by the sole action of 
modifications which are infinitesimal and minute, whether 

fortuitous or not. 

Arguments may yet be advanced in favour of the view that new 
species have from time to time manifested themselves with sud- 
denness, and by modifications appearing at once (as great in 
egree as are those which 



II 



species remaining stable in the intervals of such modifications : 
by stable being meant that their variations only extend for a 
certain degree in various directions, like oscillations in a 
stable equilibrium. This is the conception of Mr. Galton, 1 
who compares the development of species with a many facetted 

" Hereditary Genius, an Inquiry into its Laws/' &c. By Francis Galton, 









F.R.S. (London: Macmillan.) 


















H 





































W $ 

** 






98 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap, 



spheroid tumbling over from one facet, or stable equilibrium, 
to another. The existence of internal conditions in animals 
corresponding with such facets is denied by pure Darwinians, 
but it is contended in this work, though not in this chapter, 
that something may also be said for their existence. 

The considerations brought forward in the last two chapters, 
namely, the difficulties with regard to incipient and closely 
similar structures respectively, together with palseontological 
considerations to be noticed later, appear to point strongly 
in the direction of sudden and considerable changes. This is 
notably the case as regards the young oysters already men- 
tioned, which were taken from the 



shores of England 



land 

placed in the Mediterranean, and at once altered their mode 
of growth and formed prominent diverging rays, like those of 
the proper Mediterranean oyster ; as also the twenty-nine kinds 
of American trees, all differing from their nearest European 
allies similarly — "leaves less toothed, buds and seeds smaller, 
fewer branchlets," &c. To these may be added other facts given 
by Mr. Darwin. Thus he says, "that climate, to a certain 
extent, directly modifies the form of dogs." 1 

The Eev. R Everett found that setters at Delhi, though most 
carefully paired, yet had young with "nostrils more contracted, 
noses more pointed, size inferior, and limbs more slender." 
Again, cats afc Mombas, on the coast of Africa, have short 
stiff hairs instead of fur, and a cat 
left only eight weeks at Mombas, "underwent a complete 
metamorphosis, having parted with its sandy-coloured fur." 2 
The conditions of life seem to produce a considerable effect 
on horses, and instances are given by Mr. Darwin of pony 
breeds 3 having independently arisen in different parts of the 
world, possessing a certain similarity in their physical condi- 



at Algoa Bay, when 



1 " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i. p. 37 



2 Ibid. p. 47. 



3 Ibid. p. 52. 









-- 






■ 






\ 



IV.] 






MINUTE MODIFICATIONS. 



99 






•I* 
li 



tions. Also changes due to climate may be "brought about a 
once in a second generation, though no appreciable modification 
is shown by the first. Thus " Sir Charles Lyell mentions that 

■ 

some Englishmen., engaged in conducting the operations of the 
-Keal del Monte Company in Mey'co, carried out with them some 
greyhounds of the best breed to hunt the hares which abound in 

• that country. It was found that the greyhounds could not sup- 
port the fatigues of a long chase in this attenuated atmosphere, 
and before they could come up with their prey they lay down 
gasping for breath ; but these same animals have produced 
whelps, which have grown up, and are not in the least degree 
incommoded by the want of density in the air, but run down the 
hares with as much ease as do the fleetest of their race in this 

■country. | 

We have here no action of "Natural Selection ;" it was not 
that certain puppies happened accidentally to be capable of 
enduring more rarefied air, and so survived, but the offspring 
were directly modified by the action of surrounding conditions. 
Neither was the change elaborated by minute modifications in 
many successive generations, but appeared at once in the second. 
With regard once more to sudden alterations of form, 



>i 



Nathu 



S1US IS 



said 



to state positively as to pigs, 2 that the 



result of common experience and of his experiments was that 
ri ch arid abundant food, given during youth, tends by some 
direct action to make the head broader and shorter. Curious 
jaw appendages often characterize Normandy pigs, according to M. 
-^udes Deslongchamps. Richardson figures these appendages on 
the old " Irish greyhound pig," and they are said by Nathusius 
to appear occasionally in all the long-eared races. Mr. Darwin 



obs 



erves, 3 



a 



As no wild pigs are known to have 



analogous 



Carpenter's "Comparative Physiology," p. 987, quoted by Mr. J. J 



Murphy, « Habit and Intelligence;' vol. i p. 171. 

" Animals and Plants under Domestication/' vol. L p. 72. 
3 Ibid. p. 76. 

h 2 









1 









9 
























J 


















100 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 















I 
































appendages, we have at present no reason to suppose that 
their appearance is due to reversion ; and if this be so, we 
are forced to admit that somewhat complex, though apparently 
useless structures may be suddenly developed without the aid 
of selection." Again, " Climate directly affects the thickness 
of the skin and hair " of cattle. 1 In the English climate an 
individual Porto Santo rabbit 2 recovered the proper colour of 
its fur in rather less than four years. The effect of the climate 
of India on the turkey is considerable. Mr. Blyth 3 describes it 

4 

as being much degenerated in size, " utterly incapable of rising 

of a black colour, and "with long pendulous 



on the wincr " 

appendages over the beak enormously developed." Mr. Darwin 
again tells us that there has suddenly appeared in a bed of 
common broccoli a peculiar variety, faithfully transmitting its 
newly acquired and remarkable characters ; 4 also that there 
have been a rapid transformation and transplantation of Ameri- 
can varieties of maize with a European variety ; 5 that certainly 
" the Ancon and Manchamp breeds of sheep/' and that (all but 
certainly) Niata cattle, turnspit and pug dogs, jumper and frizzled 
fowls, short-faced tumbler pigeons, hook-billed ducks, &c, and 
a multitude of vegetable varieties, have suddenly appeared in 
nearly the same state as we new see them. 6 Lastly, Mr. Darwin 
tells us, that there lias been an occasional development (in 
five distinct cases) in England of the " japanned " or "black- 
shouldered peacock " (Pavo nigripennis), a distinct species, ac- 
cording to Dr. Sclater, 7 yet arising in Sir J. Trevelyan's flock 
composed entirely of the common kind, and increasing, " to 
the extinction of the previously existing breed" 6 Mr. Darwin's 
only explanation of the phenomena (on the supposition, of the 



1 "Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i. p. 71. 

3 Quoted, Ibid. p. 274. 4 Ibid. p. 

6 Ibid. vol. ii. p. 
7 Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, April 24, 1860. 
s " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i. p. 291. 



2 Ibid. p. 114. 
s Ibid. p. 322. 



324. 
414. 



> 









» 






' 
















IV.] 



MIA UTE MODIFICJTIOAS. 



101 



species being distinct) is by reversion, owing to a supposed 
ancestral cross. But be candidly admits, "I have beard of 
no other such case in the animal or vegetable kingdom." On 
the supposition of its being only a variety, he observes, " The 

the most remarkable ever recorded of the abrupt 
appearance of a new form, which so closely resembles a true 
species, that it has deceived one of the most experienced of 



\ 



case is 



living ornithologists." 



As to plants, M. C. Naudin 1 has given the following instances 
of the sudden origination of apparently permanent forms. ' 



The 



first case mentioned is that of a poppy, which took on a remark- 
able variation in its fruit— a crown of secondary capsules being 
added to the normal central capsule. A field of such popph s 
was grown, and M. Gbppert, with seed from this field, obtained 
still this monstrous form in great quantity. Deformities of 
ferns are sometimes sought after by fern-growers. They ar 

IfromBthe abnormal 






by taking spores 



now always obtained 
parts of the monstrous fern; from which spores ferns present- 
ing the same peculiarities invariably grow. , . . .The most 

remarkable case is that observed by Dr. Godron, of Nancy. 

I a I sowing Bof 



Tn 1861 that botanist observed, amongst 



fifth and sixth genera- 



Datiira tabula, the fruits of which are very spinous, a single 
individual of which the capsule was perfectly smooth. The 
seeds taken from this plant all furnished plants having the 
character of this individual. The 
tions are now growing without exhibiting the least tendency 
to revert to the spinous form. More remarkable still, when 
crossed with the normal Datura tatula, hybrids were produced, 
which, in the second generation, reverted to the original types, 

as true hybrids do." 

There are, then, abundant instances to prove that considerable 



■ 

1 Extracted by J. J. Murphy vol. i. p. 197, from the Quarterly 
Journal of Science, of October 1867, p. 527. 
















I 






























h 




















v 









I 












. -. 



;■• 



* 









102 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



modifications may suddenly develop themselves, either due to 
external conditions or to obscure internal causes in the organ- 
isms which exhibit them. Moreover, these modifications, from 
whatever cause arising, are capable of reproduction — the modi- 
fied individuals " breeding true." 

The question is whether new species have been developed by 
non-fortuitous variations which are in significant and minute, or 
whether such variations have been comparatively sudden, and of 
appreciable size and importance 1 Either hypothesis will suit 
the views here maintained equally well (those views being 
opposed only to fortuitous, indefinite variations), but the latter 
is the more remote from the Darwinian conception, and yet has 
much to be said in its favour. 

Professor Owen considers, with regard to specific origination, 
that natural history " teaches that the change would be sudden 
and considerable : it opposes the idea that species are trans- 
mitted by minute and slow degrees." 1 "An innate tendency to 
deviate from parental type, operating through periods of adequate 
duration," being " the most probable nature, or way of operation 
of the secondary law, whereby species have been derived one 
from the other." 2 

Now, considering the number of instances adduced of sudden 
modifications in domestic animals, it is somewhat startling to 



meet with Mr. Darwin's dogmatic assertion that it is "a, false 
belief" that natural species have often originated in the same 
abrupt manner. The belief may be false, but it is difficult to see 
how its falsehood can be positively asserted. 

It is demonstrated by Mr. Darwin's careful weighing and 



measurements, that, though little used parts in domestic animals 



get 



reduced in weight and somewhat in size, yet that they 



show no inclination to become truly " rudimentary structures." 



/ 


















1 "Anatomy of Vertebrates/' vol. III. p. 795. 

2 Ibid. p. 807. 









** 
















IV.] 



MINUTE MODIFICATIONS. 



103 



Accordingly he asserts 1 that such rudimentary parts are formed 
"suddenly, by arrest of development" in domesticated animals, 
but in wild animals slowly. The latter assertion, however, is a 
mere assertion ; necessary, perhaps, for the theory of " Natural 
Selection," but as yet unproved by facts. 

But why should not these changes take place suddenly in a 
state of nature 1 As Mr. Murphy says, 2 " It may be true that 
we have no evidence of 'the origin of wild species in this way. 
But this is not a case in which negative evidence proves any- 



thing. 



We 



any process whatever ; and if a species were to come suddenly 

as the Ancon Sheep did under 



into being in the wild state 



domestication, how could you ascertain the fact 1 If the first of 
a newly-begotten species were found, the fact of its discovery 
would tell nothing about its origin. 



Naturalists would register 



it as a very rare species, having been only once met with, but 
they would have no means of knowing whether it were the first 

or the last of its race." 

To this Mr. Wallace has replied (in bis review of Mr. 
Murphy's work in Nature*), by objecting that sudden changes 
could very rarely be useful, because each kind of animal is a 
nicely balanced and adjusted whole, any one sudden modification 
of which would in most cases be hurtful unless accompanied 
by other simultaneous and harmonious modifications. If, how- 
ever, it is not unlikely that there is an innate tendency to 
deviate at certain times, and under certain conditions, it is no 
more unlikely that that innate tendency should be an harmo- 
nious one, calculated to simultaneously adjust the various parts 
of the organism to their new relations. The objection as to the 
sudden abortion of rudimentary organs may be similarly met. 

Professor Huxley seems now disposed to accept the, at least 

1 " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 318. 

2 " Habit and Intelligence," voL i. p. 344. 
* See Dec, 2, 1889, vol. i. p. 132. 



/ 












































\ 



' 



i Ji 






























/ 



104 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



occasional, intervention of sudden and considerable variations. 
In his review of Professor Kolliker's 1 criticisms, he himself 
says, 2 " We greatly suspect that she " {i.e. Nature) "does make 
considerable jumps in the way of variation now and then, 














MUCH ENLARGED HORIZONTAL SECTION OF TUB TOOTH OF A . LABYItJNTHODON 



and that these saltations give rise to some of the gaps which 
appear to exist in the series of known forms." 

In addition to the instances brought forward in the second 
chapter against the minute action of Natural Selection, may be 

• * 

1 "Uber die Darwin'sche Schopfungstheorie:" ein Vortrag, von Kolliker ■ 



Leipzig, 1864. 



2 See " Lay Sermons," p. 342. 



* 



















IV.] 



KIN. UTE MODIFICA TIO NS. 



105 



* 

mentioned such structures as the wonderfully folded teeth of the 
labyrinthodonts. The marvellously complex structure of these 
organs is not merely unaccountable as due to Natural "Selection, 
hut its production by insignificant increments of complexity 
is hardly less difficult to comprehend. 

Similarly the aborted index of the Potto (Perodidicus) is a 
structure not likely to have been induced by minute changes ; 
while, as to " Natural Selection," the reduction of the fore-finger 
to a mere rudiment is inexplicable indeed ! " How this muti- 







-* ^;*-i>s ^ w "* 1 









r _^^_ -»* 










i 

HAND OF THE POTTO (PERODICTICUS), FROM LIFE. 

* * 

lation can have aided in the straggle for life, we must confess, 
baffles our conjectures on the subject ; for that any very appreci- 
able gain to the individual can have resulted from the slightly 
lessened degree of required nourishment tbence resulting (i.e. 
from the suppression), seems to us to be an almost absurd pro- 

position." 1 

Again, to anticipate somewhat, the great group of whales 

(Cetacea) was fully developed at the deposition of the Eocene 

strata. On the other hand, we may pretty safely conclude that 

these animals were absent as late as the latest secondary rocks, so 

that their development could not have been so very slow, unless 

geological time is (although we shall presently see there are grounds 

to believe it is not) practically infinite. It is quite true' that it is, 

in general, very unsafe to infer the absence of any animal forms 

1 "Anatomy of the Lemuroidea." By James Murie, M.D., and St. George 
Mivart. Trans. ZooLSoc.-, March 1866, p. 91. > 





■ 


















/ •♦ 



































| 



.J * 






































106 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



during a certain geological period, because no remains of them 
have as yet been found in the strata then deposited : but in the 
case of the Cetacea it is safe to do so ; for, as Sir Charles Lyeli 
remarks, 1 they are animals, the remains of which are singularly 
likely to have been preserved had they existed, in the same way 
that the remains were preserved of the Ichthyosauri and Ple- 







mm 









J0T 






SKELETON OF A PLESIOSAURUS. 



siosauri, which appear to have represented the Cetacea during 
the secondary geological period. 

As another example, let us take the origin of wings, such as 
exist in birds. Here we find an arm, the bones of the hand of 
which are atrophied and reduced in number, as compared with 
those of most other Vertebrates. Now, if the wing arose from 
a terrestrial or subaerial organ, this abortion of the bones could 
hardly have been serviceable — hardly have preserved individuals 
in the struggle for life. If it arose from an aquatic organ, like 
the wing of the penguin, we have then a singular divergence 
from the ordinary vertebrate fin-limb. In the ichthyosaurus, in 
the plesiosaurus, in the whales, in the porpoises, in the seals, and 
in others, we have shortening of the bones, but no reduction in 
the number either of the fingers or of their joints, which are, on 
the contrary, multiplied in Cetacea and the ichthyosaurus. And 
even in the turtles we have eight carpal bones and five dibits, 



1 « 



Principles of Geology," last edition, vol. i. p. 163. 






















,* 



IV.] 



MINTJTL MOmFICATIONS. 



10 



/ 



"while no finger has less than two phalanges. It is difficult, 
then, to believe that the Avian limb was developed in any other 
way than by a comparatively sudden modification of a marked 

and important kind. 

How, once more, can we conceive the peculiar actions of the 

tendrils of some climbing plants to have been produced by 
minute modifications? These, according to Mr. Darwin, 1 oscil- 
late till they touch an object, and then embrace it. It is stated 
by that observer, " that a thread weighing no more than the 
thirty -second of a grain, if placed on the tendril of the Passiflora 
gracilis, will cause it to bend ; and merely to toucb the tendril 
with a twig causes it to bend; but if the twig is at once 










/ 



SKELITON OF AN ICHTHYOSAURUS 






removed, the tendril soon straightens itself. But the contact of 
other tendrils of the plant, or of the falling of drops of rain, 

i 

do not produce these effects. 2 But some of the zoological and 
anatomical discoveries of late years tend rather to diminish than 
to augment the evidence in favour of minute and gradual modifica- 
tion. Thus all naturalists now admit that certain animals, which 
"were at one time supposed to be connecting links between 
groups, belong altogether to one group, and not at all to the 
other. For example, the aye- aye 3 (Chiromys Madagascar iensis) 

■ 

1 Quarterly Journal of Science, April 1866, pp. 257-8. 

2 ''Habit and Intelligence/' vol. i. p. 178. 

3 This animal belongs to the order Primates, which includes man, the 
apes, and the lemurs. The lemurs are the lower kinds of the order, and 



1 




: 

4 








^ 





























































108 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



■was till lately considered to be allied to the squirrels, and was 
often classed with them in the rodent order, principally on 
account of its dentition; at the same time that its affinities to 
the lemurs and apes were admitted. The thorough investi nation 
into its anatomy that has now been made, demonstrates that it 
has no more essential affinity to rodents than any other lemurine 
creature has. 



■^k^rf. 




THE A YE- AY K. 



Bats were, by the earliest observers, naturally supposed to have 
a close relationship to birds, and cetaceans to fishes. It is almost 
superfluous to observe that all now agree that these mammals 
make not even an approach to either one or other of the two 
inferior classes. 



differ much from the apes. They have their head-quarters in the Island 
of Madagascar. The aye-aye is a lemur, but it differs singularly from all 
its congeners, and still more from all apes. In its dentition it strongly 
approximates to the rodent (rat, squirrel, and guinea-pig) order, as it has 
two cutting teeth above, and two below, growing from permanent pulps, 
and in the adult condition has no canines. 



( 










- 






\ 










I 







IV.] 



MIN UTE MOMFICA TIONS. 



109 



In the same way it lias been recently supposed that those 
extinct flying saurians, the pterodactyles, had an affinity with 
birds more marked than any other known animals. Now, how- 
ever, as has been said earlier, it is contended that not only had 
they no such close affinity, but that other extinct reptiles had a 



far closer one. 



v 



The amphibia {i.e. frogs, toads, and efts) were long considered 
(and are so still by some) to be reptiles, showing an affinity to 
fishes It now appears that they form with the latter one great 
group— the ichthyopsida of Professor Huxley— which differs 
widely from reptiles ; while its two component classes (fishes 
and amphibians) are difficult to separate from each other m a 

thoroughly satisfactory manner. 

If we admit the hypothesis of gradual and minute modihca- 
tion, the succession of organisms on this planet must have been 
a progress from the more general to the more special, and no 
doubt this has been the case in the maj ority of instances. - - 
cannot be denied that some of the most recently formed fossils 
show a structure singularly more generalized than any exhibited 
by older forms; while others are more specialized than are any 
allied creatures of the existing creation. 

A notable example of the former circumstance is offered by 
macrauchenia-a hoofed animal, which was at first supposed to 

be a kind of great llama (whence its name)— the llama being a 

1 " ' "Now 



Yet it 



or even, 
obvious one. 



ruminant, which, like all the rest, has two toes to each foot, 
hoofed animals are divisible into two very distinct series, accord- 
ing as the number of functional toes on each hind foot is odd 

And many other characters are found to go with this 
Even the very earliest Ungulata show this distinc- 
tion, which is completely developed and marked even in the 
Eocene pakeotherium and anoplotherium found in Pans by 
Cuvier. The former of these has the toes odd (perissodactyle), 
the other has them even (artiodactyle). 

Now, the macrauchenia, from the first relics of it which were 

7 



\ 












\ 



A 









i i 







i 
































































■ t 















110 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



























■ 






found, was thought to belong, as has been said, to the even-toed 
division. Subsequent discoveries, however, seemed to give it 
an equal claim to rank amongst the perissodactyle forms. Others 
again inclined the balance of probability towards the artiodactyle. 
Finally, it appears that this very recently extinct beast presents 
a highly generalized type of structure, uniting in one organic 
form both artiodactyle and perissodactyle characters, and that in 
a manner not similarly found in any other known creature living, 
or fossil. At the same time the differentiation of artiodactyle 
and perissodactyle forms existed as long ago as in the period of 
the Eocene ungulata, and that in a marked degree, as has been 
before observed. 

Again, no armadillo now living presents nearly so remarkable 
a speciality of structure as was possessed by the extinct glyptodon. 
In that singular animal the spinal column had most of its 
joints fused together, forming a rigid cylindrical rod, a modi- 
fication, as far as yet known, absolutely peculiar to it. 

In a similar way the extinct machairodus, or sabre-toothed 



X 



1 



v 



> 






w 



( 




DENTITION OF THE SABFvE-TOOTHED TIGER (MACHAIRODUS). 



tiger, is characterized by a more highly differentiated and specially 
carnivorous dentition than is shown by any predacious beast of 


























' 









\ 



IV.] 



MINUTE MODIFICATIONS. 



Ill 



canme. 



the present day. The specialization is of this kind. The 
grinding teeth (or molars) of beasts are divided into premolars 
and true molars. The premolars are molars which have 
deciduous vertical predecessors (or milk teeth), and any which 
are in front of such, i.e. between such and the Canine tooth. 
The true molars are those placed behind the molars having 
deciduous vertical predecessors. Now, as a dentition becomes 
more distinctly carnivorous, so the hindmost molars and the fore- 
most premolars disappear. In the existing cats this process is 
carried so far that in the upper jaw only one true molar 
is left on each side. In the machairodus there is no upper 
true molar at all, while the premolars are reduced to two, 

there being only these two teeth above, on each side, behind 
the 

Now, with regard to these instances of early specialization, 
as also with regard to the changed estimate of the degrees of 
affinity between forms, it is not pretended for a moment that 
such facts are irreconcilable with " Natural Selection." Never- 
theless, they point in an opposite direction. Of course not only 
^ it conceivable that certain antique types arrived at a high 
degree of specialization and then disappeared ; but it is manifest 
they did do so. Still the fact of this early degree of excessive 
specialization tells to a certain, however small, extent against a 
progress through excessively minute steps, whether fortuitous 
or not ; as also does the distinctness of forms formerly supposed 
to constitute connecting links. For, it must not be forgotten, 
that if species have manifested themselves generally by gradual 
ajQ d minute modifications, then the absence, not in one but in 
Q u cases, of such connecting links, is a phenomenon which 
remains to be accounted for. 

It appears then that, apart from, fortuitous changes, there 
ar e certain difficulties in the way of accepting extremely 
minute modifications of any kind, although these difficulties 
xnay not be insuperable. Something, at all events, is to be 



















































l 
















^^ 

















112 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. iv. 



said in favour of the opinion that sudden and appreciable changes 
have from time to time occurred, however they may have been 
induced. Marked races have undoubtedly so arisen (some 
striking instances having been here recorded), and it is at least 
conceivable that such may be the mode of s^oecific manifestation 
generally, the possible conditions as to which will be considered 
in a later chapter. 

































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CHAPTER V. 



1 



AS TO SPECIFIC STABILITY. 

What is meant by the phrase " specific stability ; " such stability to be 
expected a priori, or else considerable changes at once.— Rapidly 
increasing difficulty of intensifying race characters ; alleged causes of 
this phenomenon ; probably an internal cause co-operates. —A certain 
definiteness in variations.— Mr. Darwin admits the principle of specific 
stability in certain cases of unequal variability.— The goose.— The 
peacock— The guinea fowl.— Exceptional causes of variation under 
domestication.— Alleged tendency to reversion.— Instances.— Sterility 
°* hybrids.— Prepotency of pollen of same species, but of different 
race. - Mortality in young gallinaceous hybrids.— A bar to intermix- 
ture exists somewhere.— Guinea-pigs.— Summary and conclusion. 

J" s was observed in the preceding chapters, arguments may yet 



u e advanced in favour of the opinion that species are stable 
(a least in the intervals of their comparatively sudden successive 
^infestations) ; that the organic world consists, according to 

Gal ton's before-mentioned conception, of many facetted 

P ceroids, each of which can repose upon any one facet, but, 

e "tk 00 mU ° h disturbed ' rolls over tin ifc fin <* s repose in stable 
he" 1 Up0n another and distinct facet. Something, it is 

faTt C ° ntended ' ma y be ur g ed > in favour of the existence of such 
ace s __ of guch i ntermitting C01J ditions of stable equilibrium. 

chai J 1 ^ ^ t0 the Stabilit y of PPecies, in the intervals of 
ange, has been well expressed in an able article, before quoted 



fr °m, as follows • 



" A given animal or plant appears to be con- 



north British Review, New Series, vol. vii., March 1867, p. 282, 

































* * 


















r! 


















114 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



tained, as it were, within a sphere of variation : one individual 
lies near one portion of the surface ; another individual, of the 



the average 



same species, near another part of the surface ; 
animal at the centre. Any individual may produce descendants 
varying in any direction, but is more likely to produce de- 
scendants varying towards the centre of the sphere, and the 
variations in that direction will be grater in amount than tie 
variations towards the surface." This might be taken as the 
representation of the normal condition of species (i.e. during 
the periods of repose of the several facets of the spheroids), 
on that view which, as before said, may yet be defended. 



inorganic, we might 



Judging the organic world from the 
expect, a priori, that each species of the former, like crystallized 
species, would have an approximate limit of form, and even of 
size, and at the same time that the organic, like the inorganic 
forms, would present modifications in correspondence with sur- 
rounding conditions ; but that these modifications would be, not 
minute and insignificant, but definite and appreciable, equivalent 
to the shifting of the spheroid on to another facet for support. 

Crystalline formation is also dependent 
in a very remarkable way on the medium in which it takes 



Mu 



1 « 



place. 



>> 



" Beudant has found that common salt crystallizing from 



pure water forms cubes, but if the water contains a little boracic 
acid, the angles of the cubes are truncated. And the Eev. E. 
Craig has found that carbonate of copper, crystallizing from 
a solution containing sulphuric acid, forms hexagonal tubular 
prisms ; but if a little ammonia is added, the form changes to 
that of a long rectangular prism, with secondary planes in the 

If a little more ammonia is added, several varieties of 
rhombic octahedra appear ; if a little nitric acid is added, the 
rectangular prism appears again. The changes take place not 
by the addition of new crystals, but by changing the growth of 



angles. 



1 "Habit and Intelligence/' vol. i. p. 75. 




•. 



< 
























1 



*] 



SPECIFIC STABILITY. 



115 



the original ones." These, however, may be said to be the same 
species, after all; but recent researches by Dr. H. Charlton- 
-Bastian seem to show that modifications in the conditions may 
result in the evolution of forms so diverse as to constitute 
different organic species. 

Mr. Murphy observes 1 that "it is scarcely possible to doubt 
that the various forms of fungi which are characteristic of par- 
ticular situations are not really distinct species, but that the same 

* 

germ will develop into different forms, according to the soil on which 
it falls ; V but it is possible to interpret the facts differently, and 
it may be that these are the manifestations of really different and 
distinct species, developed according to the different and distinct 
circumstances in which each is placed. Mr. Murphy quotes Dr. 
Carpenter 2 to the effect that " No Puccinia but the Puccinia rosce 
*s found upon rose bushes, and this is seen nowhere else ; Omy- 
gena exigua is said to be never seen but on the hoof of a dead 



ho 



rse 



felin 



°f cats, deposited in humid and obscure situations." He adds, 
" We can scarcely believe that the air is full of the germs of 
distinct species of fungi, of which one never vegetates until 
^ falls on the hoof of a dead horse, and another till it falls on 
cat's dung in a damp and dark place." This is true, but it does 
T1 °t quite follow that they are necessarily the same species if, 
as Dr. Bastian seems to show, thoroughly different and distinct 
or gamc forms 3 can be evolved one from another by modifying 
be conditions- This observer has brought forward arguments 
an d facts from which it would appear that such definite, sudden, 
an d considerable transformations may take place in the lowest 

i*\ \\ /"^* * 

©arusms. If such is really the case, we might expect, a priori, 
II( * ln the highest organisms a tendency (much more impeded 



1 tc 

2 a 



Habit and Intelligence," vol. i. p. 202. 



b Comparative Physiology," p. 214, note. 

See Nature, June and July 1870, Nos. 35, 36, and 37, pp. HO, 193, 
and 219. 



■ 

9. 







































*■ • J 









116 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 












| I 


















[chap, 



* 

and rare in its manifestations) to similarly appreciable and sudden 
changes, under certain stimuli ; but a tendency to continued sta- 
bility, under normal and ordinary conditions. The proposition 
that species have, under ordinary circumstances, a definite limit 
to their variability, is largely supported by facts brought forward 
by the zealous industry of Mr. Darwin himself. It is unques- 
tionable that the degrees of variation which have been arrived 
at in domestic animals have been obtained more or less readily 
in a moderate amount of time, but that further development 
in certain desired directions is in some a matter of extreme 
difficulty, and in others appears to be all but, if not quite, 
an impossibility. It is also unquestionable that the degree of 
divergence which has been attained in one domestic species is 
no criterion of the amount of divergence which, has been attained 
in another. It is contended on the other side that we* have no 
evidence of any limits to variation other than those imposed by 
physical conditions, such, e.g., as those which determine the 
greatest degree of speed possible to any animal (of a given size) 
moving over the earth's surface; also it is said that the differences 
in degree of change shown by different domestic animals depend 
in great measure upon the abundance or scarcity of individuals 
subjected to man's selection, together with the varying direction 
and amount of his attention in different cases ; finally, it is 
said that the changes found in nature are within the limits to 
which the variation of domestic animals extends, — it beino- the 
case that when changes of a certain amount have occurred to 
a species under nature, it becomes another species, or sometimes 
two or more other species by divergent variations, each of these 
species being able again to vary and diverge in any useful 
direction. 

But the fact of the rapidly increasing difficulty found in pro- 
ducing by ever such careful selection, any further extreme in 
some charge already carried very far (such as the tail* of the 
" fan-tailed pigeon" or the crop of the " pouter"), is certainly, so 











*3 



SPECIFIC STABILITY. 



117 



far as it goes, on the side of the existence of definite limits to 
variability. It is asserted in reply, that physiological conditions 
of health and life may bar any such further development. Thus, 
Mr. Wallace says * of these developments : " Variation s ems to 
have reached its limits in these birds. But so it has in nature. 
I he fan tail has not only more tail-feathers than any of the three 
hundred and forty existing species of pigeons, but more than 
a ny of the eight thousand known species of birds. There is, of 
course, some limit to the number of feathers of which a tail 
useful for flight can consist, and in the fantail we have probably 
reached that limit. Many birds have the oesophagus or the 
skin of the neck more or less dilatable, but in no known bird is 
!t so dilatable as in the pouter pigeon. Here again the pos- 
sible limit, compatible with a healthy existence, has probably 
been reached. In like manner, the differences in the size and 
form of the beak in the various breeds of the domestic pigeon, 
!s greater than that between the extreme forms of beak in the 
various genera and sub-families of the whole pigeon tribe. From 
these facts, and many others of the same nature, we may fairly 
infer, that if rigid selection were applied to any organ, we could 
1 ^ a comparatively short time produce a much greater amount of 
change than that which occurs between species and species in a 
state of nature, since the differences which we do produce are 
often comparable with those which exist between distinct genera 
or distinct families." ' 

-But in a domestic bird like the fantail where Natural Selec- 
tion does not come into play, the tail-feathers could hardly be 
limited by " utility for flight," yet two more tail-feathers could 
certainly exist in a fancy breed if " utility for flight" were the 
°nly obstacle. It seems probable that the real barrier is an 
internal one in the nature of the organism, and the existence of 
such is just what is contended for in this chapter. As to the 



1 "Natural Selection," p. 293. 

















































•1 






118 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



differences between domestic races being greater than those 
between species or even genera, that is not enough for the 
argument. For upon the theory of "Natural Selection" all 
birds have a common origin, from which they diverged by in- 
finitesimal changes, so that we ought to meet with sufficient 
changes to warrant the belief that a hornbill could be produced 
from a humming-bird, proportionate time being allowed. 

But not only does it appear that there are barriers which 

* 

oppose change in certain directions, but that there are positive 
tendencies to development along certain special lines. In a bird 
which has been kept and studied like the pigeon, it is difficult to 
believe that any remarkable spontaneous variations would pass 
unnoticed by breeders, or that they would fail to be attended to 
and developed by some one fancier or other. On the hypothesis 
of indefinite variability, it is then hard to say why pigeons with 
bills like toucans, or with certain feathers lengthened like those of 
trogans, or those of birds of paradise, have never been produced. 
This, however, is a question which may be settled by experiment. 
Let a pigeon be bred with a bill like a toucan's, and with the two 
middle tail-feathers lengthened like those of the king bird of 
paradise, or even let individuals be produced which exhibit any 
marked tendency of the kind, and indefinite variability shall be 
at once conceded. 

As yet all the changes which have taken place in pigeons are 
of a few definite kinds only, such as may be well conceived to 
be compatible with a species possessed of a certain inherent 
capacity for considerable yet definite variation, a capacity for 
the ready production of certain degrees of abnormality, which 
then cannot be further increased. 

Mr. Darwin himself has already acquiesced in the proposition 
here maintained, inasmuch as he distinctly affirms the existence 
of a marked internal barrier to change in certain cases. And if 

» * 

this is admitted in one case, the principle is conceded, and it 
immediately becomes probable that such internal barriers exist 







\ 






v.] 



SPECIFIC STABILITY. 



119 



in all, although enclosing a much larger field for variation in 
some cases than in others. Mr. Darwin abundantly demon- 
strates the variability of dogs, horses, fowls, and pigeons, but he 
none the less shows clearly the very small extent to which the 
goose, the peacock, and the guinea-fowl have varied. 1 Mr. 
Darwin attempts to explain this fact as regards the goose by the 
animal being valued only for food and feathers, and from no 
pleasure having been felt in it on other accounts. He adds, 
however, at the end the striking remark, 2 which concedes the 
whole position, " but the goose seems to have a singularly in- 
flexible organization." This is not the only place in which such 
expressions are used. He elsewhere makes use of phrases which 
quite harmonize with the conception of a normal specific con- 
stancy, but varying greatly and suddenly at intervals. Thus he 
speaks 3 of a whole organization seeming to have become plastic, 



fi 



That different 



organisms should have different degrees of variability, is only 
what might have been expected a priori from the existence of 
parallel differences in inorganic species, some of these having but 
a single form, and others being polymorphic. 

To return to the goose, however, it may be remarked that it 
is at least as probable that its fixity of character is the cause of 
the neglect, as the reverse. It is by no means unfair to assume 
that had the goose shown a tendency to vary similar in degree 
to the tendency to variation of the fowl or pigeon, it would 
have received attention at once on that account. 

As to the peacock it is excused on the pleas (1), that the indi- 
viduals maintained are so few in number, and (2) that its beauty 
is so great it can hardly be improved. But the individuals 
maintained have not been too few for the independent origin of 
the black-shouldered form, or for the supplanting of the 

- 

1 " Animals and Plants under Domestication, " vol. i. pp. 289—295. 

2 "Origin of Species," 5th edition, 1869, p. 45. 
. 3 Ibid. p. 13. 



















































7 













120 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[CHAI\ 











































































































n 














* 



































commoner one by it As to any neglect in selection, it can 
hardly be imagined that with regard to this bird (kept as it is 
all but exclusively for its beauty), any spontaneous beautiful 
variation in colour or form would have been neglected. On the 

O 

contrary, it would have been seized upon with avidity and 
preserved with anxious care. Yet apart from the black - 
shouldered and white varieties, no tendency to change has been 
known to show itself. As to its being too beautiful for im- 
provement, that is a proposition which can hardly be main- 
tained. Many consider the Javan bird as much handsomer 
than the common peacock, and it would be easy to suggest a 
score of improvements as regards either species. 

The guinea-fowl is excused, as being " no general favourite, 
and scarcely more common than the peacock j" but Mr. Darwin 
himself shows and admits that it is a noteworthy instance of 
constancy under very varied conditions. 

These instances alone (and there are yet others) seem sufficient 
to establish the assertion, that degree of change is different in 
different domestic animals. It is, then, somewhat unwarrantable 
in any Darwinian to assume that all wild animals have a capacity 
for change similar to that existing in some of the domestic ones. tyup r 
It seems more reasonable to assert the opposite, namely, that 
if, as Mr. Darwin says, the capacity for change is different in 
different domestic animals, it must surely be limited in those 
which have it least, and a fortiori limited in wild animals. 

Indeed, it cannot be reasonably maintained that wild species 
certainly vary as much as do domestic races ; it is possible that 
they may do so, but at least this has not been yet shown. Indeed, 
the much greater degree of variation amongst domestic animals 
than amongst wild ones is asserted over and over again by Mr. 
Darwin, and his assertions are supported by an overwhelming 
mass of facts and instances. 

Of course, it may be asserted that a tendency to indefinite 

4 

change exists in all cases, and that it is only the circum- 














r -» m 





















v.] 



SPECIFIC ST J BILITT. 



121 



stances and conditions of life which modify the effects of this 
tendency to change so as to produce such different results m 
different cases. But assertion is not proof, and this assertion 
has not been proved. Indeed, it may be equally asserted (and 
the statement is more consonant with some of the facts given), 
that domestication in certain animals induces and occasions a 
capacity for change which is wanting in wild animals — the intro- 
duction of new causes occasioning new effects. Tor, though a 
certain degree of variability (normally, in all probability, only 
oscillation) exists in all organisms, yet domestic ones are ex- 
posed to new and different causes of variability, resulting in such 
striking divergencies as have been observed. Not even in this 
latter case, however, is it necessary to believe that the variability 
is indefinite, but only that the small oscillations become in certain 
instances intensified into large and conspicuous ones. Moreover, 
it is possible that some of our domestic animals have been in 
part chosen and domesticated through possessing variability in 

an eminent degree. 

That each species exhibits certain oscillations of structure is 
admitted on all hands. Mr. Darwin asserts that this is the 
exhibition of a tendency to vary which is absolutely indefinite. 







If this indefinite variability does exist, of course no more need '/i 



he said. But we have seen that there are arguments a priori 
and a posteriori against it, while the occurrence of variations in 
certain domestic animals greater in degree than the differences 
between many wild species, is no argument in favour of its 
existence, until it can be shown that the causes of variability in 
the one case are the same as in the other. An argument against 
it, however, may be drawn from the fact, that certain animals, 
though placed under the influence of those exceptional causes of 
variation to which domestic animals are subject, have yet never 
heen known to vary, even in a degree equal to that in which 
certain wild kinds have been ascertained to vary. 

In addition to this immutability of character in some animals, 







I 






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122 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap 



it is undeniable, that domestic varieties have little stability, and 
much, tendency to reversion, whatever be the true explanation 
of such, phenomena. 

In controverting the generally received opinion as to " rever- 
sion," Mr. Darwin has shown that it is not all breeds which in 
a few years revert to the original form ; but he has shown no 
more. Thus, the feral rabbits of Porto Santo, Jamaica, and the 
Falkland Islands, have not yet so reverted in those several 
localities. 1 Nevertheless, a Porto Santo rabbit brought to Eno-- 
land reverted in a manner the most striking, recovering the 
proper colour of its fur "in rather less than four years." 2 Again, 
the white silk fowl, in our climate, "reverts to the ordinary 
colour of the common fowl in its skin and bones, due care 
having been taken to prevent any cross." 3 This reversion 
taking place in spite of careful selection, is very remarkable. 

Numerous other instances of reversion are given by Mr. 
Darwin, both as regards plants and animals ; amongst others, 

The curiously recurring 
development of black sheep, in spite of the most careful breed- 
ing, may also be mentioned, though, perhaps, reversion has no 
part in the phenomenon. 

These facts seem certainly to tell in favour of limited varia- 
bility, while the cases of non-reversion do not contradict it, as 
it is not contended that all species have the same tendency to 
revert, but rather that their capacities in this respect, as well as 
for change, are different in different kinds, so that often reversion 
may only show itself at the end of very long periods indeed. 

Yet some of the instances given as probable or possible causes 
of reversion by Mr. Darwin, can hardly be such. He cites, 
for example, the occasional presence of supernumerary digit 
in man. 6 For this notion, however, he is not responsible, 



the singular fact of bud reversion. 4 



i << 



Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i. p. 115. 

3 Ibid. vol. i. p. 243. 

4 Ibid. vol. ii. p. 361. 5 Ibid. vol. ii. p. 16. 



2 Ibid. vol. i. p. 114. 




p*~ 






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A t 







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-.; 



SPECIFIC STABILITY. 



123 



as he rests his remark on the authority of a passage published 
by Professor Owen. Again, he refers 1 to " the greater frequency 
of a monster proboscis in the pig than in any other animal." 
But with the exception of the peculiar muzzle of the Saiga (or 
European antelope), the only known proboscidian Ungulates are 
the elephants and tapirs, and to neither of these has the pig 
any close affinity. It is rather in the horse than in the pig that 
■we might look for the appearance of a reversionary proboscis, 
as both the elephants and the tapirs have the toes of the hind 
foot of an odd number. It is true that the elephants are 
generally considered to form a group apart from both the odd 
and the even-toed Ungulata. But of the two, their affinities 
with the odd-toed division are more marked. 2 

Another argument in favour of the, at least intermitting, con- 
stancy of specific forms and of sudden modification, may be 
drawn from the absence of minute transitional forms, but this 
will be considered in the next chapter. 

It remains now to notice in favour of specific stability, 
that the objection drawn from physiological difference between 
" species " and *f races " still exists unrefuted. 

Mr. Darwin freely admits difficulties regarding the sterility 
of different species when crossed, and shows satisfactorily 
that it could never have arisen from the action of " Natural 




I 






Selection." 



With 



the case of plants, domesticated varieties, such as those of the 
dog, fowl, pigeon, several fruit trees, and culinary vegetables, 
which differ from each other in external characters more than 
many species, are perfectly fertile when crossed, or even fertile 



i " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 57. 

2 This has been shown by my late friend, Mr. II. N. Turner, jun., in an 
excellent paper by him in the " Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 
18*9," p. 147. . The untimely death, through a dissecting wound, of this 
most promising young naturalist, was a very great loss to zoological science. 

3 "Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 189. 





































I m 









































■ 

I 















124 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



in excess, whilst closely allied species are almost invariably in 



some degree sterile." 



Again, after speaking of "the general law of good being 
derived from the intercrossing of distinct individuals of the 
same species/' and the evidence that the pollen of a distinct 
variety or race is prepotent over a flower's own pollen, adds the 
very significant remark, 1 " When distinct species are crossed, the 
case is directly the reverse, for a plant's own pollen is almost 
always prepotent over foreign pollen." 

Again he adds: 2 "I believe from observations communicated 
to me by Mr. Hewitt, who has had great experience in hybri- 
dizing pheasants and fowls, that the early death of the embryo 
is a very frequent cause of sterility in first crosses. Mr. Salter 
has recently given the results of an examination of about 500 
eggs produced from various crosses between three species of 
Gallus and their hybrids. The majority of these eggs had been 
fertilized, and in the majority of the fertilized eggs the embryos 
either had been partially developed and had then aborted, or 
had become nearly mature, but the young chickens had been 
unable to break through the shell. Of the chickens which were 
born, more than four-fifths died within the first few days, or at 
latest weeks, c without any obvious cause, apparently from mere 
inability to live,' so that from 500 eggs only twelve chickens 
were reared. The early death, of hybrid embryos probably 
occurs in like manner with plants, at least it is known that 
hybrids raised from very distinct species are sometimes weak 
and dwarfed, and perish at an early age, of which fact Max 

Wichura has recently given some striking cases with hybrid 
willows." 

Mr. Darwin objects to the notion that there is any special 
sterility imposed to check specific intermixture and change, 
saying, 3 "To grant to species the special power of producing 

1 "Origin of Species," 5th edition, 1859, p. 115. 



2 Ibid. p. 322. 



3 Ibid. p. 314 












I 



r 
















v.] 



SPECIFIC STABIIITY. 



125 



hybrids, and then to stop their further propagation by different 
degrees of sterility, not strictly related to the facility of the first 
union between their parents, seems a strange arrangement. 

But this only amounts to saying that the author himself 
would not have so acted had he been the Creator. A " strange 
arrangement " must be admitted anyhow, and all who acknow- 
ledge teleology at all, must admit that the strange arrangement 
was designed. Mr. Darwin says, as to the sterility of species, 
that the cause lies exclusively in their sexual constitution; 

4 

but all that need be affirmed is that sterility is brought about 
somehow, and it is undeniable that " crossing " is checked. All 
that is contended for is that there is a bar to the intermixture 
of species, but not of breeds; and if the conditions of the gene- 
rative products are that bar, it is enough for the argument, no 
special kind of barring action being contended for. 

He, however, attempts to account for the modification of the 
sexual products of species as compared with those of varieties, by 
the exposure of the former to more uniform conditions during 
longer periods of time than those to which varieties are exposed, 
and that as wild animals, when captured, are often rendered 
sterile by captivity, so the influence of union with another 
species may produce a similar effect. It seems to the author 
an unwarrantable assumption that a cross with what, on the 
Darwinian theory, can only be a slightly diverging descendant 
of a common parent, should produce an effect equal to that of 
captivity, and consequent change of habit, as well as consider- 
able modification of food. 

No clear case has been given by Air. Darwin in which 
mongrel animals, descended from the same undoubted species, 
have been persistently infertile inter se ; nor any clear case in 
which hybrids between animals, generally admitted to be distinct 
species, have been continuously fertile inter se. 

It is true that facts are brought forward tending to establish 
the probability of the doctrine of Pallas, that species may some- 















1 



ll 































I 























i L 






I 



'. 












' 


















126 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap, 



times "be rendered fertile by domestication. But even if this 
were true, it would be no approximation towards proving 
the converse, i.e. that races and varieties may become sterile 



when wild. 



And whatever may be the preference 
sionally shown by certain breeds to mate with their 
variety, no sterility is recorded as resulting from unions with 



occa- 

own 



other varieties. Indeed, Mr. Darwin remarks, 



1 <c 



With respect 



to sterility from the crossing of domestic races, I know of no 
well-ascertained case with animals. This fact (seeing the great 
difference in structure between some breeds of pigeons, fowls 
pigs, dogs, &c.) is extraordinary when contrasted with the 
sterility of many closely-allied natural species when crossed." 

It has been alleged that the domestic and wild guinea-pig do 
not breed together, but the specific identity of these forms is 
very problematical. Mr. A. D. Bartlett, superintendent of the 
Zoological Gardens, whose experience is so great, and observa- 
tion so quick, believes them to be decidedly distinct species. 

Thus, then, it seems that a certain normal specific stability 
in species, accompanied by occasional sudden and considerable 

be expected a priori from what we 
know of crystalline inorganic forms and from what we may 
anticipate with regard to the lowest organic ones. This pre- 
sumption is strengthened by the knowledge of the increasin 
difficulties which beset any attempt to indefinitely intensify any 
race characteristics. The obstacles to this indefinite intensi- 
fication, as well as to certain lines of variation in certain cases 
appear to be not only external, but to depend on internal causes 
or an internal cause. We have seen that Mr. Darwin himself 
implicitly admits the principle of specific stability in asserting 
the singular inflexibility of the organization of the goose, 
have also seen that it is not fair to conclude that all wild races 
can vary as much as the most variable domestic ones. It h 



modifications, might 






t5 

We 



as 









1 "Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 104. 



^m 












■ 




. 



■ 






V. 



SPECIFIC STABILITY. 



127 



also been shown that there are grounds for believing in a 
tendency to reversion generally, as it is distinctly present in 
certain instances. Also that specific stability is confirmed by 
the physiological obstacles which oppose themselves to any con- 
siderable or continued intermixture of species, while no such 
barriers oppose themselves to the blending of varieties. All 
these considerations taken together may fairly be considered as 
strengthening the belief that specific manifestations are relatively 
stable. At the same time the view advocated in this book does 
not depend upon, and is not identified with, any such stability. 
AH that the Author contends for is that specific manifesta- 
tion takes place along certain lines, and according to law, and 
not in an exceedingly minute, indefinite, and fortuitous manner. 
Finally, he cannot but feel justified, from all that has been 
brought forward, in reiterating the opening assertion of this 
chapter that something is still to be said for the view which 
maintains that species are stable, at least in the intervals of 
their comparatively rapid successive manifestations. 




i 


























































I I 















I 



: 



I 


















CHAPTER VI. 



SPECIES AND TIME. 

■ 

Two relations of species to time.— No evidence of past existence of minutely 
intermediate forms when such might be expected a priori.— -Bats, 
Pterodactyles, Dinosauria, and Birds.— Ichthyosauri*, Chelonia, and 
Anoura.— Horse ancestry.— Labyrinthodonts and Trilobites. —Two sub- 
divisions of the second relation of species to time.— Sir William Thom- 
son's views.— -Probable period required for ultimate specific evolution 
from primitive ancestral forms.— Geometrical increase of time required 
for rapidly multiplying increase of structural differences.— Proboscis 
monkey. -Time required for deposition of strata necessary for Dar- 
winian evolution.— High organization of Silurian forms of life. 
Absence of fossils in oldest rocks.— Summary and conclusion. 

Two considerations present themselves with regard to tli 



e neces- 



sary relation of species to time if the theory of "Natural Selec- 
tion ?? is valid and sufficient. 

The first is with regard to the evidences of the past existence 
of intermediate forms, their duration and succession. 

The second is with regard to the total amount of time 
required for the evolution of all organic forms from a few 
original ones, and the bearing of other sciences on this question 
of tune. 

As to the first consideration, evidence is as yet against the 
modification of species by "Natural Selection" alone, because 
not only are minutely transitional forms generally absent, but 
they are absent in cases where we might certainly a priori 
have expected them to be present. 












i\ 

















I 













' / 
























CHAP. VI.] 



SPECIES AND TIME. 



129 



Mr 



the number of varieties differing one from another a very little 
must have been indefinitely great, so great indeed as probably far 
to exceed the number of individuals which have existed of any 
one variety. If this be true, it would be more probable that no 
two specimens preserved as fossils should be of one variety than 
that we should find a great many specimens collected from a 
very few varieties, provided, of course, the chances of preserva- 
tion are equal for all individuals." " It is really strange that 
vast, numbers of perfectly similar specimens should be found, 
the chances against their perpetuation as fossils are so great ; 
but it is also very strange that the specimens should be so 
exactly alike as they are, if, in fact, they came and vanished 
by a gradual change." 



Mr 



a priori that intermediate varieties would exist in lesser num- 
bers than the more extreme forms ; but though they would 
doubtless do so sometimes, it seems too much to assert that 
they would do so generally, still less universally. 



]S T ow little 



1 



than universal and very marked inferiority in numbers 
would account for the absence of certain series of minutely 
intermediate fossil specimens. The mass of palaeontological 
evidence is indeed overwhelmingly against minute and gradual 
modification. It is true that when once an animal has obtained 
powers of flight its means of diffusion are indefinitely increased, 
and we might expect to find many relics of an aerial form and 



few of its antecedent state 

uspensory power 



with nascent wings 



just 



com- 



mencing their suspensory power. Yet had such' a slow mode of 
origin, as Darwinians contend for, operated exclusively in all 
eases, it is absolutely incredible that birds, bats, and pterodac- 
tvles should have left the remains they have, and yet not a 



1 North British 1 Review, New Series, \ol. vii., March 1867, P 
' 2 "Origin of Species," 5th edition, 1869, p. 21'2. 

K 



317. 
























. 



130 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



• 



I 



c 



single relic be preserved in any one instance of any of these 
different forms of wing in their incipient and relatively im- 







perfect functional condition ! 



! 






















V* 

















WING-BONES OF PTERODACTYLE, BAT, AND BIRD. 



Whenever the remains of bats have been found thev have 
presented the exact type of existing forms, and there is as yet 
no indication of the conditions of an incipient elevation from 
the ground. 

The pterodactyles, again, though a numerous group, are all 
true and perfect pterodactyles, though surely some of the many 
incipient forms, which on the Darwinian theory have existed, 
must have had a good chance of preservation. 

As to birds, the only notable instance in which discoveries 
recently made appear to fill up an important hiatus, is the 
interpretation given by Professor Huxley 1 to the remains of 
Dinosaurian reptiles, and which w^re noticed in the third 
chapter of this work. The learned Professor has (as also has 
Professor Cope in America) shown that in very important and 

1 See also the Popular Science Review for July 185*8. 












* * 













J 1 















VI.] 



SPECIES AND TIME. 



131 






significant points the skeletons of the Iguanodon and of its 
allies approach very closely to that existing in the ostrich, 
emeu, rhea, &c. He has given weighty reasons for thinking 
that the line of affinity between birds and reptiles passes 
to the birds last named from the Dinosauria rather than from 
the Pterodactyles, through Archeopteryx-like forms to the ordi- 
nary birds. Finally, he has thrown out the suggestion that the 
celebrated footsteps left by some extinct three-toed creatures on 
the very ancient sandstone of Connecticut were made, not, as 
hitherto supposed, by true birds, but by more or less ornithic 
reptiles. But even supposing all that is asserted or inferred on 
this subject to be fully proved, it would not approach to a 
demonstration of specific origin by minute modification. And 

it harmonizes well with " Natural Selection," it is 
equally consistent with the rapid and sudden development of 
new specific forms of life. Indeed, Professor Huxley, with 

JL 

a laudable caution and moderation too little observed by 
some Teutonic Darwinians, guarded himself carefully from 



though 



any imputation of 



asserting 



dogmatically the theory of 



"Natural Selection," while upholding fully the doctrine of 
evolution. 

» 

But, after all, it is by no means certain, though very probable, 
that the Connecticut footsteps were made by very ornithic 
reptiles, or extremely sauroid birds. And it must not be 
forgotten that a completely carinate 1 bird (the Archeopteryx) 
existed at a time, when, as yet, we have no evidence of some 

Moreover, if the re- 
niarkable and minute similarity of the coracoid of a pterodactyle 
to that of a bird be merely the result of function and no sign 
of genetic affinity, it is not inconceivable that pelvic and leg 
resemblances of Dinosauria to birds may be functional likewise, 



of the Dinosauria having come into being. 



1 A bird with a keeled breast-bone, such as almost all existing birds 



possess. 



k2 


















■ 






















** 








132 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



though such an explanation is, of course, by no means necessary 
to support the view maintained in this book. 







THE ARCEIEOPTERlbX (OF THE OOLITE STRATA' 



But the number of forms represented by many individuals, 
yet by no transitional ones, is so great that only two or three 
can be selected as examples. Thus those remarkable fossil 
reptiles,, the Ichthyosauria and Plesiosauria, extended, through the 






SKK&ETON OF AN T ICHTHYOSAURUS. 



secondary period, probably over the greater part of the globe. 
Yet no single transitional form has yet been met with in spite 
of the multitudinous individuals preserved. Again, with their 
modern representatives the Cetacea, one or two aberrant forms 























VI. j 



SPECIES AND TIME. 



133 



alone have been found, but no series of transitional ones indi- 
cating minutely the line of descent. This group, the shales, 
is a very marked one, and it is curious, on Darwinian principles, 











SKELETON OF A PLF.SIOSAURUS 



that so few instances tending to indicate its mode of ongm 
should have presented themselves. Here, as in the bats, we 
might surely expect that some relics of unquestionably incipient 
stages of its development would have been left. 

The singular order Chelonia, including the tortoises, turtles, 
and terrapins (or fresh-water tortoises), is another instance of 
an extreme form without any, as yet known, transitional stages. 
Another group may be finally mentioned, viz. the frogs and 
toads, anourous Eatrachians, of which we have at present no 
relic of any kind linking them on to the Eft group on the one 
hand, or to reptiles on the other. 

The only instance in which an approach towards a series of 
nearly related forms has been obtained is the existing horse, its 
predecessor Hipparion and other extinct forms. But even here 



:e is no 



infinitesimal steps ; a f< 



proof whatever of modification "by minute 



no approach to a proof of 

_ a 



modification by "Natural Selection," acting upon indefinite 
fortuitous variations. On the contrary, the series is an ad- 
mirable example of successive modification in one special 
direction along one beneficial line, and the teleologist must 















































- t+ 








* " 



* 












134 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



here be allowed to consider that one motive of this modification 
(among probably an indefinite number of motives inconceivable 
to us) was the relationship in which the horse was to stand to 
the human inhabitants of this planet. These extinct forms, as 
Professor Owen remarks, 1 "differ from each other in a greater 
degree than do the horse, zebra, and ass," which are not only 
good zoological species as to form, but are species physiologically, 
i.e. they cannot produce a race of hybrids fertile inter se. 

As to the mere action of surrounding conditions, the same 
Professor remarks: 2 "Any modification affecting the density of 
the soil might so far relate to the changes of limb-structure, as 
that a foot with a pair of small hoofs dangling by the sides of 
the large one, like those behind the cloven hoof of the ox, would 
cause the foot of Hipparion, e.g., and a fortiori the broader based 
three-hoofed foot of the Palseothere, to sink less deeply into 
swampy soil, and be more easily withdrawn than the more con- 
centratively simplified and specialized foot of the horse. Phi- 
noceroses and zebras, however, tread together the arid plains of 
Africa in the present day ; and the horse has multiplied in that 
half of America where two or more kinds of tapir still exist. 
That the continents of the Eocene or Miocene periods were less 
diversified in respect of swamp and sward, pampas or desert, 
than those of the Pliocene period, has no support from obser- 
vat ion or analogy." 

JSTot only, however, do we fail to find any traces of the 
incipient stages of numerous very peculiar groups of animals, 
but it is undeniable that there are instances which appeared 
at first to indicate a gradual transition, yet which instances 
have been shown by farther investigation and discovery not to 
indicate truly anything of the kind. Thus at one time the remains 
of Labyrinthodonts, which up till then had been discovered, 
seemed to justify the opinion that as time went on, forms had 


















"'Anatomy of Vertebrates," vol. iii. p. 792. 



Ibid. p. 793. 
















VI.] 



SPECIES AND TIME. 



135 



successively appeared with more and more complete segmenta- 
tion and ossification of the backbone, which in the earliest forms 
was (as it is in the lowest fishes now) a soft continuous rod or 




TRILOBITE 



notochord. Now, however, it is considered probable that the 
soft back-boned Labyrinthodon Archegosaurus, 



was an mi- 



mature or larval form,* while Labyrinthodonts with completely 
developed vertebra have been found to exist amongst the 

earliest forms yet discovered. The same may be said 



very 



reoardin- the eyes of the trilobites, some of the oldest forms 
having been found as well furnished in that respect as the 
very last of the group which has left its remains accessible 

to observation. m . , , 

Such instances, however, as well as the way in which marked 
and special forms (as the Pterodactyles, &c, before referred to 
appear at once in and similarly disappear from the geological 
record, are of course explicable on the Darwinian theory, pro- 
vided a sufficiently enormous amount of past time be allowed 
The alleged extreme, and probably great, imperfection of that 
record may indeed be pleaded in excuse. But it *s an excuse. 

1 As a tadpole is the larval form of a frog. 01 wtpd in 

As Professor Huxley, with his characteristic candour, fully admitted in 

his lecture on the Dinosauria before referred to. 


























■ 
I 
I 






























136 



TEE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



Nor is it possible to deny the a priori probability of the preser- 
vation of at least a few minutely transitional forms in some 
instances if every species without exception has arisen exclu- 
sively by such minute and gradual transitions. 

It remains, then, to turn to the other considerations with re- 
gard to the relation of species to time : namely (1) as to the total 
amount of time allowable by other sciences for organic evolu- 
tion ; and (2) the proportion existing, on Darwinian principles, 
between the time anterior to the earlier fossils, and the time 
since; as evidenced by the proportion between the amount of 
evolutionary change during the latter epoch and that 'which 
must have occurred anteriorly. 

Sir William Thomson has lately 1 advanced arguments from 
three distinct lines of inquiry, and agreeing in one approximate 
result. The three lines of inquiry were — 1. The action of the 



tides upon the earth's rotation. 



9. 



The probable length of time 



during which the sun has illuminated this planet ; and 3. The 
temperature of the interior of the earth. The result arrived at 
by these investigations is a conclusion that the existing state 
of things on the earth, life on the earth, all geological history 
showing continuity of life, must be limited within some such 
period of past time as one hundred million years. The first 



question which 
views to be correct 



suggests 



itself, 



supposing 



Sir W. Thomson's 



is, Is this period anything like enough 
for the evolution of all organic forms by " Natural Selection " ? 

■ 

The second is, Is this period anything like enough for the 
deposition of the strata which must have been deposited if all 
organic forms have been evolved by minute steps, according 
to the Darwinian theory ? 

In the first place, as to Sir William Thomson's views, the 
Author of this book cannot presume to advance any opinion ; 
but the fact that they have not been refuted, pleads strongly in 

1 "Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow," vol. iii. 











^MMtfM 




















VI.] 



SPECIES A ND TIME. 



137 



other 



their favour when we consider how much they tell against the 
theory of Mr. Darwin. The last-named author only remarks 
that "many of the elements in the calculation are more or less 
doubtful " i and Professor Huxley * does not attempt to refute 
Sir W Thomson's arguments, but only to show cause for suspense 
of judgment, inasmuch as the facts may be capable of - " 

explanations. - , 

Mr. Wallace, on the other hand,* seems more disposed to 
accept them, and, after considering Sir William's objections ami 
those of Mr. Croll, puts the probable date of the beginmng of 
the Cambrian deposits* at only twenty-four million years ago 
On the other hand, he seems to consider that specific change has 
been more rapid than generally supposed, and exceptionally 
stable during the last score or so of thousand years 

Now, first, with regard to the time required for the evolu .on 
of all organic forms by merely accidental, minute, and fortuitous 
variations, the useful ones of which have been preserved : 

Mr. Murphy* is distinctly of opinion that there has not be n 
time enough. He says, "I am inclined to think that geolo. 
gical time is too short for the evolution of the higher form »t 
life out of the lower by that accumulation of imperceptibly slow 
variations, to which alone Darwin ascribes the whole process 
"Darwin justly mentions the greyhound as being equal to 



any natural species in the perfect co-ordination of its parts, ? ^ 
adapted for extreme tleetness and for running down weak prey. 
"Yet it is an artificial species (and not physiologically a species at 
all), formed by long- continued selection under domestication ; and 
there is no reason to suppose that any of the variations which 
have been selected to form it have been other than gradual and 



l a 



Origin of Species," 5th edition, p. 354. 
^ See his address to the Geological Society, on February 

3 See Nature, vol. L p. 399, February 17, 1870. 

4 Ibid. vol. i. p. 454. 

" Habit and Intelligence," vol. i. p. 314. 



19, 1869. 












































































































138 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



almost imperceptible. Suppose that it has taken five hundred 
years to form the greyhound out of his wolf-like ancestor. This 
is a mere guess, but it gives the order of the magnitude." JSTow, if 
so, " how long would it take to obtain an elephant from a pro- 
tozoon, or even from a tadpole-like fish 1 Ought it not to take 
much more than a million times as long 1 " 1 

Mr. Darwin 2 would compare with the natural origin of a 
species " unconscious selection, that is, the preservation of the 
most useful or beautiful animals, with no intention of modifying 
the breed." He adds : " But by this process of unconscious 
selection, various breeds have been sensibly changed in the 
course of two or- three centuries." 

" Sensibly changed !" but not formed into " new species/' Mr. 
Darwin, of course, could not mean that species generally change 
so rapidly, which would be strangely at variance with the abun- 
dant evidence we have of the stability of animal forms as repre- 
sented on Egyptian monuments and as shown by recent deposits. 
Indeed, he goes on to say, — " Species, however, probably change 
much more slowly, and within the same country only a few 
change at the same time. This slowness follows from all the 
inhabitants of the same country being already so well adapted 
to each other, that places in the polity of nature do not occur 
until after long intervals, when changes of some kind in the 
physical conditions, or through immigration, have occurred, and 
individual differences and variations of the right nature, by 
which some of the inhabitants might be better fitted to their 
new places under altered circumstances, might not at 



once 



occur. 



This is true, and not only will these changes occur at 
distant intervals, but it must he borne in mind that in tracing 
back an animal to a remote ancestry, we pass through modifica- 
tions of such rapidly increasing number and impoitance that a 
jeometrical progression can alone indicate the increase of periods 



( 

o 



1 u 



Habit and Intelligence," vol. i. p. 345. 
2 " Origin of Species," oth edition ? p. 353. 

















. 






VI.] 



SPECIES AND TIME. 



139 



Mr 



conditions 
brought about. 



during which 



t 










8l oups. A similarly increasing ratio should be granted for the 
successive developments of the difference between the Lemuroid 



for those 



whole vertebrate sub-kingdom. 



Supposing this primitive stock 




which such profound alterations would require for their evolu- 
tion through "Natural Selection" only. 

Thus let us take for an example the proboscis *^eyot 
Borneo (Semnopithecus nasalis). According to " ------'- — 

opinion, this form might have been « sensibly changed in the 
course of two or three centuries. According to this, to evolve 
it as a true and perfect species one thousand years would be 
a very moderate period. Let ten thousand years be taken to 
represent approximately the period of substantially constant 

...111 no considerable change would be 
uluu „ ul auuuu . &ow, if one thousand years may represent the 
period required for the evolution of the species S. nasahs, and 
of the other species of the genus Semnopithecus ; ten times ha 
period should, I think, be allowed for the differentiation of that 
genus, the African Cercopithecus and the other genera of the 
family Simiidae-the differences between the genera being cer- 
tainly more than tenfold greater than those between the species 
of the same genus. Again we may perhaps interpose a period 
of ten thousand years' comparative repose. 

For the differentiation of the families Simiidae and Gebidae- 
so very much more distinct and different than any two genera of 
either family-a period ten times greater should, I believe, be _ ^ 
allowed than that required for the evolution of the subordinate 



•v? 



■ ■ . 



c* 



. 1 










i 









<t 







: 




primate and other root-forms of placental mammals ; for those > be- 
tween primary placental and implacental mammals, and perhaps 
also for the divergence of the most ancient stock of these and 
of the monotremes, for in all these cases modifications of ^ struc- 
ture appear to increase in complexity in at least that ratio 
Finally, a vast period must be granted for the development of 
the lowest mammalian type from the primitive stock of the 

































1 

ll 



• 












* , » 



1 



X * 






f r. 



L 













































140 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



to have arisen directly from a very lowly organized animal indeed 
(such as a nematoid worm, or an ascidian, or a jelly-fish), yet it is 
not easy to believe that less than two thousand million years 
would be required for the totality of animal development by no 
other means than minute, fortuitous, occasional, and intermitting 
variations in all conceivable directions. If this be even an ap- 
proximation to the truth, then there seem to be strong reasons for 
believing that geological time is not sufficient for such a process. 
The second question is, whether there has been time enough 
for the deposition of the strata which must have been deposited, 
if all organic forms have been evolved according to the Dar- 
winian theory ? 

Now this may at first seem a question for geologists only, but, 
in fact, in this matter geology must in some respects rather take 
its time from zoology than the reverse; for if Mr. Darwin's theory 
be true, past time down to the deposition of the Upper Silurian 
strata can have been but a very small fraction of that during 
which strata have been deposited. For when those Upper 
Silurian strata were formed, organic evolution had already run a 
great part of its course, perhaps the longest, slowest, and most 
difficult part of that course. 

At that ancient epoch not only were the vertebrate, mollus- 
cous, and arthropod types distinctly and clearly differentiated, 
but highly developed forms had been produced in each of these 
sub-kingdoms. Thus in the Vertebrata there were fishes not 
belonging to the lowest but to the very highest groups which 
are known to have ever been developed, namely, the Elasmo- 
branchs (the highly organized sharks and rays) and the Ganoids, 
a group now poorly represented, but for which the sturgeon may 
stand as a type, and which in many important respects more 
nearly resemble higher Vertebrata than do the ordinary or osseous 
fishes. Fishes in which the ventral fins are placed in front 
of the pectoral ones (i.e. jugular fishes) have been generally 
considered to be comparatively modern forms. But Professor 
























VI. 



SPECIES AND TIME. 



141 



Huxley has kindly informed me that he has discovered a jugular 

fish in the Permian deposits. 

Amongst the molluscous animals we have memhers of the 
very highest known class, namely, the Cephalopods or cuttle- 
fish class ; and amongst articulated animals we find miobite. 



B 





A. Ventral aspect. 



CUTTLE-FISH. 

B, Dorsal aspect. 



and Eurypterida, which do not belong to any incipient worm- 
lie group, but are distinctly differentiated Crustacea ot no 

low form. ' , a\w»v 

We have in all these animal types nervous systems differ- 

eutiated on distinctly different patterns, fully formed organs of 

circulation, digestion, excretion, and generahon, complexly «* 

structed eyes and other sense organs; in fact, all th meat 
elaborate and complete animal structures built up, -d not only 

once for in the fishes and mollusca we have (as described m the 

Zd chapter of this worh) the coincidence of the .ndependen ly 

developed organs of sense attaining a nearly similar, complexity 


























\ 













































142 



THE GENES rS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



ct 

o 



in two quite distinct forms. If, then, so small an advance Las 
been made in fishes, molluscs, and arthropods since the Upper 
Silurian deposits, it will probably be within the mark to consider 
that the period before those deposits (during which ail these 
organs would, on the Darwinian theory, have slowly built up 
their different perfections and complexities) occupied time at 
least a hundredfold greater. 

Now it will be a moderate computation to allow 25,000,000 
years for the deposition of the strata down to and including the 
Upper Silurian. If, then, the evolutionary work done durin 
this deposition, only represents a hundredth part of the sum 
total, we shall require 2,500,000,000 (two thousand five hundred 
million) years for the complete development of the whole 
animal kingdom to its present state. Even one quarter of this, 
however, would far exceed the time which physics and astronomy 
seem able to allow for the completion of the process. 

Finally, a difficulty exists as to the reason of the absence of 
rich fossiliferous deposits in the oldest strata— if life was then as 
abundant and varied as, on the Darwinian theory, it must have 
been. Mr. Darwin himself admits 1 "the case at present must 
remain inexplicable ; and may be truly urged as a valid argu- 
ment against the views " entertained in his book. 

Thus, then, we find a wonderful (and on Darwinian principles 
an all but inexplicable) absence of minutely transitional forms. 
All the most marked groups, bats, pterodactyles, chelonians, ich- 
thyosauna, anoura, &c, appear at once upon the scene. Even the 
horse, the animal whose pedigree has been probably best preserved 
affords no conclusive evidence of specific origin by infinitesimal' 
fortuitous variations ; while some forms, as the labyrinthodonts 
and trilobites, which seemed to exhibit gradual change, are 
shown by further investigation to do nothing of the sort.' As 
regards the time required for evolution (whether estimated by 

i " Origin of Species," 5th edition, p. 381. 





VI.] 



SPECIES AND TIME. 



143 



the probably minimum period required for organic change or 
for the deposition of strata which accompanied that change) 
reasons have been suggested why it is likely that ^thej>ast 
history of the earth does not supply us with enough, 
because of the prodigious increase in the importance and num- 
ber of differences and modifications which we meet with as we 
traverse successively greater and more primary zoological groups ; 



First, 



traverse suctcooivmj ^ — * - ., 

and, secondly, because of the vast series of strata necessanly 

deposited if the period since the Low Sdunan marks but a 
small fraction of the period of organic evolut.on. Finally the 
absence or rarity of fossils in the oldest rooks is a point at 
uresent inexplicable, and not to be forgotten or neglected. 
Tow Tl these difficulties are avoided if we admit that new 
forms of animal life of all degrees of complexrty appear from 

rime to time with comparative suddenness being evo ved aee - 

in- to laws in part depending on surrounding ondurons, in part 
1 nal-similar to the way in which crystals (and, perhaps from 
"cert r es ales, the lowest forms of life) build themselves up 
Tcorfing to the internal laws of their component substance, 
and in harmony and correspondence with all environing rnflu- 
ences and conditions. 






































CHAPTER VII. 



SPECIES AND SPACE. 

The geographical distribution of animals presents difficulties. —These not 
insurmountable in themselves ; harmonize with other difficulties.— 
Fresh-water fishes.— Forms common to Africa and India ; to Africa and 
South America ; to China and Australia ; to North America and China ; 
to New Zealand and South "America ; to South America and Tas- 
mania ; to South America and Australia.— Pleurodont lizards. —Insec- 
tivorous mammals.— Similarity of European and South American frogs 
—Analogy between European salmon and fishes of New Zealand, &c. 
An ancient Antarctic continent probable.— Other modes of accounting 
for facts of distribution.— Independent origin of closely similar forms.— 



Conclusion. 












The study of the distribution of animals over the earth's surface 
presents us with many facts having certain not unimportant 
bearings on the question of specific origin. Amongst these are 
instances which, at least at first sight, appear to conflict with 
the Darwinian theory of "Natural Selection." It 
however, here contended that such facts 



is not, 



do by any means 
constitute by themselves obstacles which cannot be got over. 

obstacles 

the kind which 



Indeed it would be difficult to 



imagine 



any 



of 



could not be surmounted by an indefinite 



number of terrestrial modifications of 



s 



urface 



gences 



and 



submer- 



emergences— junctions and separations of conti- 
nents in all directions and combinations of any desired degree 

supplemented by the inter- 



All this being 



of frequency. 

calation of armies of enemies, multitudes of ancestors of all 

kinds, and myriads of connecting forms, whose raison d'etre 









t 








CHAP. VII.] 



SPECIES AND SPA CE. 



145 



may be simply their utility or necessity for the support of the 
theory of " Natural Selection." 

Nevertheless, when brought in merely to supplement and 
accentuate considerations and arguments derived from other 
sources, in that case difficulties connected with the geographical 
distribution of animals are not without significance, and are 
worthy of mention even though, by themselves, they constitu e 
but feeble and more or less easily explicable puzzles winch could 
not alone suffice either to sustain or to defeat any theory ot 

specific origination. . „ 

Many facts as to the present distribution of annual life ove 
the world are very readily explicable by the hypothesis o Igl t 
elevations and depressions of larger and smaller parts of its su - 
face, but there are others the existence of winch it is much more 

difficult so to explain. . 

The distribution either of animals possessing the power of 
flight, or of inhabitants of the ocean, is, of course, easily to be 
accounted for ; the difficulty, if there is really any, must mainly 
be with strictly terrestrial animals of moderate or small po.er 
of locomotion and with inhabitants of fresh water. Mr. Darwm 
himself observes/ « In regard to fish, I believe that the same 
species never occur in the fresh waters of *^««* 
No w, the Author is enabled, by the labours and through the kind- 
ness of Dr. Giinther, to show that this belief cannot be main- 
tained ; he having been so obliging as to call attention to the 
following facts with regard to fish-distribution. These facts 
. show that though only one species which is absolutely and ex- 
clusively an inhabitant of fresh water is as yet known to be 
found in distant continents, yet that in several other instances 
the same species is found in the fresh water of distant conti- 
nents, and that very often the same genus is so distributed. 



Mas 



i " 



Origin of Species/' 5th edition, 1869, p. 463. 

















i I 



L 




























































146 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



J 



* 

Indian fishes. Eight species of this genus are described by Dr. 
Giinther in his catalogue. 1 These farms extend from Java and 
Borneo on the one hand, to Aleppo on the other. Nevertheless, 
a new species (M. cryptacantkus) has been described by the 
same author, 2 which is an inhabitant of the Camaroon country of 
Western Africa. He observes, " The occurrence of Indian forms 
on the West Coast of Africa, such as Periophthalmus, Psettus, 
Mastacembelm, is of the highest interest, and an almost new fact 
in our knowledge of the geographical distribution of fishes." 

Ophiocephalus, again, is a truly Indian genus, there being no 
less than twenty-five species, 3 all from the fresh waters of the 
East Indies. Yet Dr. Giinther informs me that there is a species 
in the Upper Nile and in West Africa. 

The acanthopterygian family (Labyrinthici) contains nine fresh- 
water genera, and these are distributed between the East Indies 
and South and Central Africa. 

The Carp fishes (Cyprinoids) are found in India, Africa, and 
Madagascar, but there are none in South America. 

Thus existing fresh- water fishes point to an immediate con- 
nexion between Africa and India, harmonizing with what we 
learn from Miocene mammalian remains. 

On the other hand, the Characinidse (a family of the physo- 
stomous fishes) are found in Africa and South America, and 
not in India, and even its component groups are so distributed, 

'namely, the Tetragonopterina 4 and the Hydrocyonina. b 

Again, we have similar phenomena in that almost exclusively 
fresh-water group the Siluroids. 

Thus the genera Clarias 6 and Heterobranchus 7 are found both 



1 See his Catalogue of Acanthopterygian Fishes in the British Museum, 
vol. iii. p. 540. 

2 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 102, and Ann. Mag. of ffat. Hist. vol. xx. p. 110. 



2 See Catalogue, vol. iii. p.' 469. 
s Ibid. vol. v. p. 311. 
Ibid. p. 13. 



■ 

5 Ibid. p. 345. 
7 Ibid. p. 21. 





























VII.] 



SPECIES AND SPACE. 



147 



r 

in Africa and the East Indies. Plotosus is found in Africa, India, 
and Australia, and the species PjtnguaUaris 1 has been brought 
from both China and Moreton Bay. Here, therefore, we have 



the same species in two distinct geographical regions. 

_ ft « J 



It 



is | 



ho 
the 



wever a coast fish, which, though entering rivers, yet lives in 

e sea. 

Eutropius 2 is an African genus, but E. obtusiroslris comes 
from India. On the other hand, Amiurus is a North American 
form j but one species, A. ccmtonensis , 3 comes from China. 

The genus Galaxios i has at least one species common to New 
Zealand aud South America, and one common to South America 
and Tasmania. In this genus we thus have an absolutely and 
completely fresh-water form of the very same species distributed 
between different and distinct geographical regions. 

Of the lower fishes, a lamprey, Mordacia mordax* is common 
to South Australia and Chile ; while another form of the same 
family, namely, Geotria chilensis* is found not only in South 
America and Australia, but in New Zealand also. These fishes, 
however, probably pass part of their lives in the sea. 

We thus certainly have several species which are common 
to the fresh waters of distant continents, although it cannot be 
certainly affirmed that they are exclusively and entirely fresh- 
water fishes throughout all their lives except in the case of 



Gal 



axias. 



Existing forms point to a close union between South America 
and Africa on the one hand, and between South America, Aus- 
tralia, Tasmania, and New Zealand on the other; but these 
unions were not synchronous any more than the unions indi- 
cated between India and Australia, China and Australia, China 
and North America, and India and Africa. 

Pleurodont lizards are such as have the teeth attached by 

L 



^ 



1 See Catalogue, vol. v. p. 24. 2 Bid. p. 52. 

6 Ibid. vol. viii. p. 507. 



4 Ibid. vol. vi. 208. 



3 Ibid. p. 100. 
6 Ibid. p. 509. 



l2 










^Hl 











: . --' 













I 





















h * Li 












'■- 
































I 











' 



148 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



their sides to the inner surface of the jaw, in contradistinction 
to acrodont lizards, which have the bases of their teeth anchy- 
losed to the summit of the margin of the jaw. Now pleurodont 




INNER SIDE OF l.OWEH JAW OF P1.EUHODONT LIZABD. 

(Showing the teeth attached to the inner surface of its side. ) 

iguanian lizards abound in the South American region; but 
nowhere else, and are not as yet known to inhabit any part of 
the present continent of Africa. Yet pleurodont lizards, strange 
to say, are found in Madagascar. This is the more remarkable, 
inasmuch as we have no evidence yet of the existence in 
Madagascar of fresh-water fishes common to Africa and South 

America. 

Again, that remarkable island Madagascar is the home of 

very singular and special insectivorous beasts of the genera 

Centetes, Ericulus, and Echinops ; while the only other member 

of the group to which they belong is Solenodon. which is a 

resident in the "West Indian Islands, Cuba and Hayti. The 

connexion, however, between the West Indies and Madagascar 

must surely have been at a time when the great lemurine group 

was absent ; for it is difficult to understand the spread of such 

a form as Solenodon, and at the same time the non-extension of 

the active lemurs, or their utter extirpation, in such a congenial 

locality as the West Indian Archipelago. 

The close connexion of South America and Australia is 

demonstrated (on the Darwinian theory), not only from the 

marsupial fauna of both, But also from the frogs and toads 

which respectively inhabit those regions. A truly remarkable 

similarity and parallelism exist, however, between certain of the 






\ 












r; 





MM 









\ 









Vll.] 



SPECIES AND SPJCR. 



145) 



same animals inhabiting South Western America and Europe. 
Thus Dr. Giinther has described 1 a frog from Chile by the name 
of cacotus, which singularly resembles the European bom. 
Tunator. 







m^s 



^^ 



SOLENODON 






Again of the salmons, two genera from South America, New 
Zealand, and Australia, are analogous to European salmons. 

In addition to this may be mentioned a quotation from 
Professor Dana, given by Mr. Darwin, 2 to the effect that " it is 
certainly a wonderful fact that New Zealand should have a 
closer resemblance in its Crustacea to Great Britain, its antipode, 
than to any other part of the world :" and Mr. Darwin adds 
"Sir J. Eichardson also speaks of the reappearance on 
shores of New Zealand, Tasmania, &c. of northern forms of fish. 
Dr. Hooker informs me that twenty-live species of algoe are 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 482 

* " Origin of Species," oth edition, 1869, r- 454. 



the 






; II 















I 











































150 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



common to New Zealand and to Europe, but have not been 
found in the intermediate tropical seas." 

Many more examples of the kind could easily be brought, 
but these must suffice. As to the last-mentioned cases Mr. 
Darwin explains them by the influence of the glacial epoch, 
which he would extend actually across the equator, and thus 
account, amongst other things, for the appearance in Chile of 
frogs having close genetic relations with European forms. But 
it is difficult to understand the persistence and preservation of 
such exceptional forms with the extirpation of all the others 
which probably accompanied them, if so great a migration of 
northern kinds had been occasioned by the glacial epoch. 

Mr. Darwin candidly says, 1 " I am far from supposing that all 
difficulties in regard to the distribution and affinities of the 
identical and allied species, which now live so widely separated 
in the north and south, and sometimes on the intermediate 
mountain-ranges, are removed." . . . " We cannot say why certain 
species and not others have migrated ; why certain species have 
been modified and have given rise to new forms, whilst others 
have remained unaltered." Again he adds, "Various difficulties 
also remain to be solved ; for instance, the occurrence, as shown 
by Dr. Hooker, of the same plants at points so enormously 
remote as Kerguelen Land, New Zealand, and Fuegia ; but ice- 
bergs, as suggested by Lyell, may have been concerned in their 
dispersal. The existence, at these and other distant points of 
the southern hemisphere, of species which, though distinct, 
belong to genera exclusively confined to the south, is a more 
remarkable case. Some of these species are so distinct that we 
cannot suppose that there has been time since the commence- 
ment of the last glacial period for their migration and subsequent 
modification to the necessary degree." Mr. Darwin goes on to 
account for these facts by the probable existence of a rich antarctic 






r 



i « 



Origin of Species/' 5th edition, p. 459. 




r 



VII.] 



SPECIES AND SPACE 



151 



flora in a warm period anterior to the last glacial epoch. There 



indeed 



rich in living forms, once existed. One such reason is the way 
in which struthious birds are, or have been, distributed around 
the antarctic region : as the ostrich in Africa, the rhea in South 
America, the emeu in Australia, the apteryx, dinornis, &c. in 



Mada 



Still the existence 



of such a land would not alone explain the various geographical 
cross relations which have been given above- It would not, for 



example, account for the resemblance between the Crustacea or 
fishes of New Zealand and of England. It would, however, go 
far to explain the identity (specific or generic) between fresh 
water and other forms now simultaneously existing in Australia 
and South America, or in either or both of these, and New 

Zealand. 

Again, mutations of elevation small and gradual (but frequent 

and intermitting), through enormous periods of time— waves, as 
it were, of land rolling many times in many directions — might 
be made to explain many difficulties as to geographical distri- 
bution, and any cases that remained would probably be capable 
of explanation, as being isolated but allied animal forms, now 
separated indeed, but being merely remnants of extensive groups 
which, at an earlier period, were spread over the surface of the 
earth. Thus none of the facts here 
difficulty to the doctrine of "evolution, 
tended in this book that if other considerations render it 
improbable that the^ manifestation of the successive forms of 

Lt about by minute, indefinite, and for- 
tuitous variations, then these facts as to geographical distribu- 
tion intensify that improbability, and are so far worthy of 

attention. 

All geographical difficulties of the kind would be evaded if 

we could concede the probability of the independent origin, in 
different localities, of the same organic forms in animals high in 



given are any 
11 



serious 



but it is con- 



been broug 



' 









































152 



THE GENESIS OF SPECTES. 





[chap. 



' 



the scale of nature. Similar causes must produce similar results, 
and new reasons have been lately adduced for believing, as 
regards the loivest organisms, that the same forms can arise and 
manifest themselves independently. The difficulty as to higher 
animals is, however, much greater, as (on the theory of evolution) 
one acting force must always be the ancestral history in each 
case, and this force must always tend to go on acting in the same 
groove and direction in the future as it has in the past. So that it 
is difficult to conceive that individuals, the ancestral history of 
which is very different, can be acted upon by all influences, 
external and internal, in such diverse ways and proportions that 
the results (unequals being added to unequals) shall be equal and 
similar. Still, though highly improbable, this cannot be said 
to be impossible; and if there is an innate law of any kind 
helping to determine specific evolution, this may more- or less, 
or entirely, neutralize or even reverse the effect of ancestral 
habit. Thus, it is quite conceivable that a pleurodont lizard 
might have arisen in Madagascar in perfect independence of the 
similarly-formed American lacertilia : just as certain teeth of 
carnivorous and insectivorous marsupial animals have been seen 
most closely to resemble those of carnivorous and insectivorous 
placental beasts ; just as, 
resemble, in the fact of a multiplication in the number of the 
phalanges, the many-jointed feet of extinct marine reptiles, and 
as the beak of the cuttle-fish or of the tadpole resembles that 
of birds. We have already seen (in Chapter III.) that it is 
impossible, upon any hypothesis, to escape admitting the 
independent origins of closely similar forms. It may be that 
they are- both more frequent and more important than is 
generally thought. 

That closely similar structures may arise without a genetie 
relationship has been lately well urged by Mr. Hay Lankester. 1 



again, the paddles of the Cetacea 

















i See Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., July 1870, p. 37 




i---::V;. 



■ 



























VII.] 



SPECIES AND SPACE. 



153 






investigator 



homologies 




He has brought this notion forward even as regards the hones 
of the skull in osseous fishes and in mammals. He has done 
so on the ground that the probable common ancestor of mammals 
and of osseous fishes was a vertebrate animal of so low a type 
that it could not be supposed to have possessed a skull differen- 
tiated into distinct bony elements— even if it was bony at all. 
If this was so, then the cranial bones must have had an inde- 
pendent origin in each class, and in this case we have the most 
strikingly harmonious and parallel results from independent 
actions? For the bones of the skull in an osseous fish are so 
closely conformed to those of a mammal, that « both types of 
skull exhibit many bones in common," though " in each type 
some of these bones acquire special arrangements^ and^ very 
different magnitudes." 1 And no 

doubts that a considerable number of the bones which form he 
skull of any osseous fish are distinctly homologous with the 
cranial bones of man. The occipital, the parietal, and frontal, 
the bones which surround the internal ear, the vomer, the pre- 
maxilla, and the quadrate bones, may be given as examples 
Now, if such close relations of homology can be brought about 
independently of any but the most remote genetic affinity, it would 
be rash to affirm dogmatically that there is any impossibility in 
the independent origin of such forms as centetes and solenodon, 
or of genetically distinct batrachians, as similar to each other 
as are some of the frogs of South America and of Europe. * *■ 
the same time such phenomena must at present be considered 
as very improbable, from the action of ancestral habit, as 

before stated. . 

We have seen, then, that the geographical distribution of animals 
presents difficulties, though not insuperable ones, for theDarwiman 
hypothesis. If, however,' other reasons against it appear of any 
weight— if, especially, there is reason to believe that geological 

1 Professor Huxley's Lectures on the Elements of Comp. Anat. p. 184. 



At 












■ 
































































154 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap. VII. 



time has not been sufficient for it, then it will be well to bear in 
mind the facts here enumerated. These facts, however, are not 
opposed to the doctrine of evolution ; and if it could be esta- 
blished that closely similar forms had really arisen in complete 
independence one of the other, they would rather tend to 
strengthen and to support that theory. 


























CHAPTER VIII. 






HOMOLOGIES. 






Animals made-up of parts mutually related in various ways. -What homo- 
logy is —Its various kinds.— Serial homology. —Lateral homology.— 
Vertical homology.— Mr. Herbert Spencer's explanations.— An internal 
power necessary, as shown by facts of comparative anatomy. -Of ter- 
atology — M St. Hilaire.— Professor Burt Wilder.— Foot-wings. -Facts 
of pathology— Mr. James Paget.-Dr. William Bndd.-The existence 
of such an internal power of individual development diminishes the 
improbability of an analogous law of specific origination. 

That concrete whole which is spoken of as "an individual" 
(such, e.g., as a bird or a lobster) is formed of a more or less 
complex aggregation of parts which are actually (from whatever 
cause or causes) grouped together in a harmonious interdepen- 
dence and which have a multitude of complex relations amongst 

■ 

themselves. 

The mind detects a certain number of these relations as it 

contemplates the various component parts of an individual in one 

or other direction— as it follows up different lines of thought. 

These perceived relations, though subjective, as relations, have 

nevertheless an objective foundation as real parts, or conditions 

of parts, of real wholes ; they are, therefore, true relations, such, 

e.g., as those between the right and left hand, between the hand 

and the foot, &c. 

The component parts of each concrete whole have also a rela- 
tion of resemblance to the parts of other concrete wholes, whether 

































I 









■ 



; ; 









^■^ 





-. ' 1 










156 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 






of the same or of different kinds, as the resemblance between 
the hands of two men, or that between the hand of a man and 
the fore-paw of a cat. 

Now, it is here contended that the relationships borne one to 
another by various component parts, imply the existence of some 
innate, internal condition, conveniently spoken of as a power 
or tendency, which is quite as mysterious as is any innate con- 
dition, power, or tendency, resulting in the orderly evolution of 
successive specific manifestations. These relationships, as also this 
developmental power, will doubtless, in a certain sense, be some- 
what further explained as science advances. But the result will 
be merely a shifting of the inexplicability a point backwards, 
by the intercalation of another step between the action of the 
internal condition or power and its external result. In the 
meantime, even if by " Natural Selection " we could eliminate 
the puzzles of the " origin of species," yet other phenomena, not 
less remarkable (namely, those noticed in this chapter), would 
still remain unexplained and as yet inexplicable. It is not 
improbable that, could we arrive at the causes conditioning all 
the complex inter-relations between the several parts of one 
animal, we should at the same time obtain the key to unlock 
the secrets of specific origination. 

It is desirable, then, to see what facts there are in animal 
organization which point to innate conditions (powers and ten- 
dencies), as yet unexplained, and upon which the theory of 

" Natural Selection " is unable to throw any explanatory 
light. 

The facts to be considered are the phenomena of "homology," 
and especially of serial, bilateral, and vertical homology. 

The word "homology" indicates such a relation between 
two parts that they may be said in some sense to be " thj 

i 

same," or at least " of similar nature." This similarity, how- 
ever, does not relate to the use to which parts are put, but only 
to their relative position with regard to other parts, or to their 




















» 









Yin.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



157 



mode of origin. There are many kinds of homology, but it 
only necessary to consider the three kinds above enumerated. 

The term "homologous" may be applied to ^ parts m two 
individual animals of different kinds, or to different parte 



the same 



individual. Thus « the right and left hands," or 

ell 6 



tut; tocimo lnuiviuu^. — ~ . ,, 

« joints of the backbone," or " the teeth of the two jaws^ 

homologous parts of the same individual. But the arm o a 
man the fore leg of the horse, the paddle of the whale, and the 
Z: o the ha and the bird ate all also homologous parts, yet 






















'WINGBONES OF FTERODAOTYLE, BAT, AND BIRD. 



of another kind, i.e. they are the same parts existing in animals 
of different species. ' _ 

On the other hand, the wing of the humming-bird and the 
,vin, of the humming-bird moth are not homologous at all or 
in any ser.se ; for the resemblance between them consists solely 
in the use to which they are put, and is therefore only a re ation 



„t «« There is no relation of homology between them < 
beeause they have no common resemblance as tocher, £ *«* 



of analogy. 



Similarly, 



to surrounding parts, or as to their mode of origin. 

i For an enumeration of the more obvious homological relationships 
see Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist, for August 1870, p. lib. 



, 












1 ( 



i 


















f» 




158 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



there is no homology between the wing of the hat and that of 
the flying-dragon, for the latter is formed of certain ribs, and 
not of limb bones. 





























SKELETON OE THE l'LYTNG DRAGON. 

(Sliowing the elongated ribs which support the flitting organ.) 

Homology may be further distinguished into (1) a relationship 
which, on evolutionary principles, would be due to descent from 
a common ancestor, as the homological relation between the arm- 
bone of the horse and that of the ox, or between the singular 
ankle bones of the two lem urine genera, cheirogaleus and gala^o, 
and which relation has been termed by Mr. Ray Lankester 
' ; homogeny; " 1 and (2) a relationship induced, not derived— such 
as exists between parts closely similar in relative position, 
but with no genetic affinity, or only a remote one, as the 
homological relation between the chambers of the heart of a 



i See Ann. and Mag, of Nat. Hist,, July 18T0. 

















VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



159 









bat and those of a bird, or the similar teeth of the thylacine 
and the dog before spoken of. For this relationship Mr. Kay 
Lankester has proposed the term " homoplasy." 































-: 







TARSAL BONES OF DIFKEKEKT LEMPBOIDS. 

(Right tarsus of Galago ; left tarsus of Cheirogaleus, ) 

« Serial homology " is a relation of resemblance existing be- 
tween two or more parts placed in series one behind the other m 
the same individual. Examples of such homologies are the ribs, 







A CENTIPEDE. 




I 



a 
















. 











f 



160 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



or joints of the backbone of a horse, or the limbs of a centipede. 
The latter animal is a striking example of serial homology. 
The body (except at its two ends) consists of a longitudinal 



series of similar segments. 



Each 



segment supports a 



pair 



of limbs, and the appendages of all the segments (except as 

i 

before) are completely alike. 

A less complete case of serial homology is presented by Crus- 
tacea (animals of the crab class), notably by the squilla and 
by the common lobster. In the latter animal we have a six- 











SQUILLA 





■ — . I 








VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



161 



jointed abdomen (the so-called tail), in front of which is a 
We solid mass (the cephalo-thorax), terminated anteriorly by 
a jointed process (the rostrum). On the nnder surface of the 
body we find a quantity of moveable appendages. Such are, e.g., 







., , „ n rtt r anmm.j gfjgy 



/ 



X 




9 



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ff 1 



< fWE 




5S^ 




-4W»i* 









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Ex 



"^^^ 













PART OF THE SKELETON OF THE LOBSTER. 

feelers (Fig. 9), jaws (Figs. 6, 7, and 8), foot-jaws (Fig. 5), claws 
and legs (Figs. 3 and 4), beneath the cephalo-thorax; and wa 
processes (Fig. 2), called " swimmerets," beneath the so-called 

tail or abdomen. .„ 

distinct and different 



vl 












Now, these various appendages are 










-■■- . ■ 



- '. 






162 



THE G EN E SIS F SP ECIJSS. 



[ciiAr. 























II 



enough 



P^rv^_„ 



. — n .^ 



art 



as we see them in the adult, but they all appear 
in the embryo as buds of similar form and size, and the 

thoracic limbs at first consist each of two mem- 
bers, as the swimmerets always do. 

This shows what great differences may exist in 
size, in form, and in function, between parts which 
are development-ally the same, for all these appen- 
dages are modifications of one common kind of 
structure, which becomes differently modified in 
different situations ; in other words, they are 
serial homologues. 

The segments of the body, as they follow one 
behind the other, are also serially alike, as is 
plainly seen in the abdomen or tail. In the 
cephalo-thorax of the lobster, however, this is 

It is therefore very interesting to 
find that in the other crustacean before men- 
tioned, the squilla, the segmentation of the body 
is more completely preserved, and even the firs 
three segments, which go to compose the head, 
remain permanently distinct. 

Such an obvious and unmistakeable serial re- 



ifci 



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iff 



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disguised. 



t 



petition of parts does not obtain in the highest, 
or backboned animals, the Vertebrata. Thus in 
man and other mammals, nothing of the kind is 
externally visible, and we have to penetrate to his 
skeleton to find such a series of homologous parts. 
There, indeed, we discover a number of pairs 
of bones, each pair so obviously resembling the 
others, that they all receive a common name— the 

There also (i.e. in the skeleton) we find a 
still more remarkable series of similar parts, the 
joints of the spine or backbone (vertebra)), which are admitted 
by all to possess a certain community of structure. " 



SPINE OF CiALAGO 
ALLENII. 



ribs. 



4 













« i 



' ' * 




















4 



vin.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



163 






It is in their limbs, however, that the Vertebrate present the 
most obvious and striking serial homology-almost the only 
serial homology noticeable externally. ^ 

The facts of serial homology seem hardly to have excited the 
amount of interest they certainly merit. 

Very many writers, indeed, have occupied themselves with in- 
vestigations and speculations as to what portions of the leg and 
foot answer to what parts of the arm and hand, a question which 
has only recently received a more or less satisfactory solution 
through the successive concordant efforts of Professor Humphry, 
Profeior Huxley,* the Author of this work,* and Professor 
Flower 4 Very few writers, however, have devoted much time 
or thought to the question of serial homology in general Mr. 
Herbert Spencer, indeed, in his very interest** "First Prin- 
ciples of Biology," has given forth ideas on thxs subject which 
are well worthy careful perusal and consideration, and some of 
which apply also to the other hinds of homology mentioned 

He W ould explain the serial homologies of such 
creatures as the lobster and centipede thus : 
very low grade propagate themselves by spontaneous 
If certain creatures found benefit from this process of division 
remaining incomplete, such creatures (on the theory of Natural 
Selection") would transmit their selected tendency to. such in- 
complete division to their posterity. In this way, it is con- 
ceivable, that animals might arise in the form of long chains 

each of which chains would consist ot a 
number oflmperfectly separated individuals, and be equi- 
valent to a series of separate individuals belonging to hinds 
in which the fission was complete. In other words, Mr. 



above. 



■ 

Animals 



fission. 



of similar segments 



1 Treatise on the Human Skeleton, 1858. 

2 Hunterian Lectures for 1864. 

3 Linnsean Transactions, vol. xxv. p. 395, 1866. 

< Hunterian Lectures for 1870, and Journal of Anat. 

m 2 



for May 1870 








































< : 






164 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[CHAP. 



Spencer would explain it as the coalescence of organisms of a 
lower degree of aggregation in one longitudinal series, through 
survival of the fittest aggregations. This may he so. It is 
certainly an ingenious speculation, hut facts have not yet heen 
brought forward which demonstrate it. Had they been so, this 
kind of serial homology might be termed " homogenetic/' 

The other kind of serial repetitions, namely, those of the ver- 
tebral column, are explained by Mr. Spencer as the results of 



alternate strains and compressions 



acting 



on a primitively 



homogeneous cylinder. The serial homology of the fore and 
hind limbs is explained by the same writer as the result of a 
similarity in the influences and conditions to which they are 
exposed. Serial homologues so formed might be called, as Mr. 
Bay Lankester has proposed, "homoplastic." But there are, it 
is here contended, abundant reasons for thinking that the pre- 
dominant agent in the production of the homologies of the 
limbs is an internal force or tendency. And if such a power 



can be"showh to be necessary in this instance, it may also be 
legitimately used to explain such serial homologies as those of 
the centipede's segments and of the joints of the backbone. 
At the same time it is not, of course, pretended that external 
conditions do not contribute their own effects in addition. The 
presence of this internal power will be rendered more probable 
if valid arguments can be brought forward against the explana- 
tions which Mr. Herbert Spencer has offered. 

Lateral homology (or bilateral symmetry) is the resemblance 
between the right and left sides of an animal, or of part of an 
animal ; as, e.g., between our right hand and our left. L It exists 
more or less at one or other time of life in all animals, except 
some very lowly organized creatures. In the highest animals 
this symmetry is laid down at the very dawn of life, the first 
trace of the future creature being a longitudinal streak — the 



embryonic " primitive 



groove. 



?? 



This kind of 



komologv 



is explained by Mr. Spencer as the result of the similar 



* 



r* 






. 






i. 











I 












r- 






\ 






i 



VI 1 1 .] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



lGi) 



■way 



m 



■which conditions 



affect the right and left sides 



respectively. 



CWWW <« vertical symmetry) i. the rese.bla.ee 

exists between parts which are placed one above the other 

8 It is mnch less general and marked than serial or 



heneath. 



beneatn. i\> & muv^u. x«» & ~~ , 

lateral homology. Nevertheless, it is plainly to be en n^he 
tail region of most fishes, and in the far-extendmg « < ta £ 

and ventral (bell,) fi ns of such kinds as. the sole and the 



flounder. 



/ 



I* i 



bV 



It iealso strikingly shown in the bones of the tad of certain 
eft. - t «c, fo », where the complexity of the npper (nenral) 
aroh is eloselv repeated by the inferior one. Again, n 
Zelerm rubra, where almost vertically ascending ari- 

fda process above are repeated by almost verify 

descending artienlar processes below. Also m the 

"where there are douple pits, placed side by side, 
not only snperiorly bnt at the same tare ">« 
This kind of homology is also explained by Mr. 

Spencer as the resnlt of the similarity of conditions 

affecting the two parts. Thus he explains the very 

General absence of symmetry between the dorsal and 

ventral surfaces of animals by the different conditions ™« . 

to which these two surfaces are respectively exposed 

and in the same way he explains the asymmetry of the flat 
fishes (Pleuronectida), of snails, &c. _ - ■ 

Now, first, as regards Mr. Spencers explanation of amma 
forms oy means of the influence of external conditions, the 

flowing observations may be made. Abundant mstanees are 
broughttaward by him of admirable adaptation of sti-n ^ 

to circumstances, but as to the ~e majority of the. 
it is very difficult, if not impossible, to see Uw external 

See a Paper on the « Axial Skeleton of the Urodela," in Proc. Zooh 



1 



Soc. 1870, p. 266. 







i 1 































166 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[ c n a r 



conditions can have produced, or even tended to have produced 
them. For example, we may take the migration of one eye of 
the sole to the other side of its head. What is there here either 
in the darkness, or the friction, or in any other conceivable 





PLEURONECTID/E, WITH THE PECULIARLY PLACED EYE IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS. 



external cause, to have produced the first beginning of such an 
unprecedented displacement of the eye? Mr. Spencer has beau- 
tifully illustrated that correlation which all must admit to exist 
between the forms of organisms and their surrounding external 
conditions, but by no means proved that the latter are the cause 
of the former. 

Some internal conditions (or in ordinary language some 
internal power and force) must be conceded to living organisms, 
otherwise incident forces must act upon them and upon non- 
living aggregations of matter in the same way and with similar 
effect 



s. 



If the mere presence of these incident forces produces so ready 
a response in animals and plants, it must be that there are, in 
their case, conditions disposing and enabling them so to respond, 
according to the old maxim, Quicquid recipitur, recipitur ad 
modum recipientis, as the same rays of light which bleach 
a piece of silk, blacken nitrate of silver. If, therefore, we 



/ 
















I 



VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



167 




attribute the forms ef organism* to the acta no ^ a - 
ditions, U of ineideot forces on their moduiab U .tea me, 
give tat a partial account of the matter, ™™^ZoX™ 
a, it were, the action of the internal condition, p (raw, ot tore. 

IhL 1 t he conceived as occasioning snch ready »******■ 

Pu indeed it is not at all easy to see how the influence of the 
"the ground or any coneeivah.e condition or oree can 

prod uee the difference ^<%£%, 1 ~ 

dorsal sMelds lof the carapaceof a tortoise y ^ 

of merely external causes the ovan« , ^ ^ 

b 1C 1 ^ 1 6 o - ^n ^ ^reason why we should 

Z 17 that the symmetrical forms of all animals are due 
expeet to fand that «^ ^ that the symmetr ical 

J£7S. a« — tedfy due to such cause, ft J. 




AN ECHINUS, OB SEA-URCHIN. 

(The spines removed from one-half.) 



v Viptp to do more than allude to the beautiful and 
unnecessary here to do mo ^ ^ mhfnTafl w ith re2 ard to 



uniieue&oaij «~*~ -- ... „ nfnraa With reoara io 

complex forms presented by inorganic structures. With xe a 
complex loi i wonder f u l Acanthonietree and the Polj- 

organisms, however, the wondeiiui a „ nmnlpxitie s of form 

cystina may be mentioned as V^f^J^^ \ ntermd 
which can hardly be thought to be due to oth r than 

The same may be said of the gieat group 



causes. 
































■ 






i 




































168 



THE genesis of species. 



[chap 



power of building up and evolving 



derms, with, their amazing variety of component parts. If then 
internal forces can so build up the most varied structures, they 
are surely capable of producing the serial, lateral, and vertical 
symmetries which higher animal forms exhibit. Mr. Spencer 
is the more bound to admit this, inasmuch as in his doctrine 
of " physiological units" he maintains that these organic atoms 
of his have an innate 
the whole and perfect animal from which they were in each 
case derived. To build up and evolve the various symmetries 
here spoken of is not one whit more mysterious. Directly 
to refute Mr. Spencer's assertion, however, would require the 
bringing forward of examples of organisms which are ill-adapted 
to their positions, and out of harmony with their surroundings 
— a difficult task indeed. 1 

Secondly, as regards the last-mentioned author's explanation 
of such serial homology as exists in the centipede and its allies, 
the very groundwork is open to objection. Multiplication by 
spontaneous fission seems from some recent researches to be 
much less frequent than has been supposed, and more evidence 

■ 

is required as to the fact of the habitual propagation of any 
planarise in this fashion. 2 But even if this were as asserted, 

■ 

1 Just as Button's superfluous lament over the unfortunate organization 
of the sloth has been shown, by the increase of our knowledge, to have 
been uncalled for and absurd, so other supposed instances of non- 
adaptation will, no doubt, similarly disappear. Mr. Darwin, in his " Origin 
of Species," 5th edition, p. 220, speaks of a woodpecker {Colaptes 
campestris) as having an organization quite at variance with its habits, 
and as never climbing a tree, though possessed of the special arboreal 
structure of other woodpeckers. It now appears, however, from the 
observations of Mr. W. H. Hudson, C.M.Z.S., that its habits are in har- 
mony with its structure. See Mr. Hudson's third letter to the Zoological 

Society, published in the Proceedings of that Society for March 24, 1870, 
p. 159. 

2 Dr. Cobbold has informed the Author that he has never observed a 
planaria divide spontaneously, and he is sceptical as to that process taking 
place at all. Dr. H. Charlton Bastian has also stated that, in spite of 
much observation, he has never seen the process in vortkella. 















j 



v 



■ 




















; 



VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



169 



nevertheless it fails to explain the peculiar condition presented 
hy Syllis and some other annelids, where a new head is formed 
at intervals in certain segments of the hody. Here there is 
evidently an innate tendency to the development at intervals of 
a complex whole. It is not the hudding out or spontaneous 









1 



B ■ 






AN ANNELID DIVIDING SPONTANEOUSLY. 

(A new head having been formed towards the hinder end of the hody of the parent.) 

fission of certain segments, hut the transformation in a definite 
and very peculiar manner of parts which already exist into other 
and more complex parts. Again, the processes of developmen 
presented hy some of these creatures do not hy any means point 




















. 





















170 



77/V7 GEN EST S OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



* 

to an origin through the linear coalescence of primitively distinct 
animals by means of imperfect segmentation. Thus in certain 
Diptera (two winged flies) the legs, wings, eyes, &c, are derived 
from masses of formative tissue (termed imaginal disks), which "by 
their mutual approximation together build up parts of the head 
and body, 1 recalling to mind the development of Echinoderms. 

Again, Nicholas Wagner found in certain other Diptera, the 
Hessian flies, that the larva gives rise to secondary larvae within 
it, which develop and burst the body of the primary larva. The 
secondary larvae give rise, similarly, to another set within them, 
and these again to another 2 set. 

Again, the fact that in Tcenia echinococcus one egg produces 
numerous individuals, tends to invalidate the argument that 
the increase of segments during development is a relic of specific 



genesis. 



Mr. II. Spencer seems to deny serial homology to the mollusca, 
but it is difficult to see why the shell segments of chiton are not 
such homologues because the segmentation is superficial. 1 Simi- 
larly the external processes of eolis, doris, &c, are good examples 
of serial homology, as also are plainly the successive chambers 
of the orthoceratidas. Nor are parts of a series less serial, be- 
cause arranged spirally, as in most gasteropods. Mr. Spencer 
observes of ; the molluscous as of the vertebrate animal, "You 
cannot cut it into transverse slices, each of which contains 
a digestive organ, a respiratory organ, a reproductive organ, 



&c." 3 But the same may be said of every single arthropod and 
annelid if it be meant that all these organs are not contained in 
every possible slice. While if it be meant that parts of all 
such organs are contained in certain slices, then some of the 
mollusca may also be included. 

Another objection to Mr. Spencer's speculation is derived 
from considerations which have already been stated, as to past 



i 



Professor Huxley's Hunterian Lecture, March 16, 1868. 



* Ibid. March 18. 



3 "Principles of Biology," vol. ii. p. 105. 















k 



\ 



J 















i 



VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



171 



time For if the annulose animals have been formed by aggre- 
gation, we ought to find this process much less perfect m the 
oldest form. But a complete development, such as already ob- 
tains in the lobster, &c, was reached by the Euryptenda and 
Trilobites of the paleozoic strata ; and annelids, probably formed 




TRILOBITE. 



mainly like those of the present day, abounded during the 
deposition of the oldest fossil if erous rocks. 

Thirdly, and lastly, as regards such serial homology as is 
exemplified by the backbone of man, there are also several 
objections to Mr. Spencer's mechanical explanation. 

On the theory of evolution most in favour, the first Vertebrata 
were aquatic. Now, as natation is generally effected by re- 
peated and vigorous lateral flexions of the body, we ought to 
find the segmentation much more complete laterally than on the 
dorsal and ventral aspects of the spinal column. Nevertheless 
in those species which, taken together, constitute a series ot 
more and more distinctly segmented forms, the segmentation 
Gradually increases all round the central part of the spinal 



column. 



U 11111. . . • 1 

Mr Spencer * thinks it probable that the sturgeon has retained 
the notochordal (that is, the primitive, unsegmented) structure 



1 " 



Principles of Biology;' vol. ii. p. 203. 

























ii 







T^m 




» 


































I ; I 






172 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



because it is sluggish. But Dr. Giinther informs me that the 
sluggishness of the common tope (Galeus vulgaris) is much 
like that of the sturgeon, and yet the bodies of its vertebrae 
are distinct and well-ossified. Moreover, the great salamander 
of Japan is much more inert and sluggish than either, and yet 
it has a well-developed, bony spine. 



Hi 



Heptanchus, and Echinorhimts, but Miiller describes them as 
possessing a persistent chorda dorsalis)} It may be they have 
the habits of the tope, but other sharks are amongst the very 
swiftest and most active of fishes. 

■ 

In the bony pike (lepidosteus) , the rigidity of the bony scales 
by which it is completely enclosed must prevent any excessive 
flexion of the body, and yet its vertebral column presents a 
degree of ossification and vertebral completeness greater than 
that found in any other fish whatever. 

Mr. Spencer supports his argument by the non-segmentation 
of the anterior end of the skeletal axis, i.e. by the non-segmen- 
tation of the skull But in fact the skull is segmented, and, 
according to the quasi- vertebral theory of the skull put for- 
ward by Professor Huxley, 2 is probably formed of a number of 
coalesced segments, of some of which the trabecule cranii and 
the mandibular and hyoidean arches are indications. What is, 
perhaps, most remarkable however is, that the segmentation of 
the skull — its separation into the three occipital, parietal, and 
frontal elements — is most complete and distinct in the highest 
class, and this can have nothing, however remotely, to do with 
the cause suggested by Mr. Spencer. 

Thus, then, there is something to be said in opposition to 
both the aggregational and the mechanical explanations of serial 
homology. The explanations suggested are very ingenious, yet 

1 Quoted by H. Stannius in his "Handbuch der Anatoraie der Wirbel- 
thiere," Zweite Auflage, Erstes Buch, § 7, p. 17. 

2 In his last Hunterian Course of Lectures, 1869. 












* 

























VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



1 t kJ 



. 



repose upon a very small basis of fact. Not but that the process 
of vertebral segmentation may have been sometimes assisted by 

the mechanical action suggested. _ 

It remains now to consider what are the evidences in support 
of the existence of an internal power, by the action of which 
these homological manifestations are evolved. It is here con- 
tended that there is good evidence of the existence of some 
such special internal power, and that not only from facts of 
comparative anatomy, but also from those of teratology and 
pathology. These facts appear to show, not only that there are 
homolooioal internal relations, but that they are so strong and 



energetic as to reassert and re-exhibit themselves in crea ures 
which, on the Darwinian theory, are the descendants of others 

' - ' -■»-- J They are, m fact, 

the 



in which they were much less marked. 



sometimes even more 



highest 



types 



than m 



deep-seated tendency acts even 
conditions. 

iMr 



plain and distinct in animals of 
inferior forms, and, moreover, this 

in diseased and abnormal 



Mr. uarwiu iw^w — ^ 

« not doubt that they may be mastered more or less completely 
, w .__.i o„i~, + ;™» TTp. does not, however, give any 



by Natural Selection." 



explanation of these phenomena other than the imposition on 
them of the name "laws of correlation;" and indeed he says, 
« The nature of the bond of correlation is frequently quite 
obscure " Now, it is surely more desirable to make use, if 
possible, of one conception than to imagine a number of, to all 

separate and independent "laws of correlation 

between different parts of each animal. 

of these alleged laws hardly appear well 



appearance 



But even some 
founded. 



founded Thus Mr. Darwin, m support ot sucn a law oi con- 
comitant variation as regards hair and teeth, brings forward the 

» « The Science of Abnormal Forms." ■ _ 

2 " Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol. n. p- 3^ , ana 
" Origin of Species," 5th edition, 1869, p. 178. 























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174= 



TEE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



("chap. 



\ 



I 







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case of Julia Pastrana, 1 and a man of the Burmese Court, and 
adds,' 2 " These cases and those of the hairless dogs forcibly call 
to mind the fact that the two orders of mammals, namely, the 
Edentata and Cetacea, which are the most abnormal in their 
dermal covering, are likewise the most abnormal either by 
dehciency or redundancy of teeth." The assertion with regard 
to these orders is certainly true, but it should be borne in mind 
at the same time that the armadillos, which are much more ab- 
normal than are the American anteaters as regards their dermal 
covering, in their dentition are less so. The Cape ant-eater, on 
the other hand, the Aard-vark (Orycteropus), has teeth formed 



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THE AARD-VARK (OJRYCTEKOPXJS). 

on a type quite different from that existing in any other mammal ; 
yet its hairy coat is not known to exhibit any such strange 
peculiarity. Again, those remarkable scaly ant-eaters of the Old 
World— the pangolins (Manis)— stand alone amongst mammals as 

1 A remarkable woman exhibited in London a few years ago. 

2 " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 328. 




























( 



viu.l 



HOMOLOGIES. 



175 



regards their dermal covering ; having been classed jf^ 
by° early naturalists on account of the. clothing of scales yd 
their mouth is like that of the hairy ant-eaters of the Ke* 
World On the other hand, the duck-bnled platypus of Arts- 



- -v ..- vl 
















1beZZtZ*i>. 



-toN 



THE PANGOLIN (MANIS, 



tralia (Ornithorhyncus) is the only mammal Whbh has teeth 
formed of ho™, yet its furry coat - -r ffi al and ord .nary 



Again, the 
extremely 



thei 



r 



Bucroii" and Manatee are dermally alike, yet 
WIY different as regards the structure and number of 
teeth The porcupine also, in spite of its enormous 










I 



*fe. 



J 



DUGONG 



armature of quills, is furnished with as 



good 



a supply of 



armature or quui*, « *«*-«-— ~ 

teeth as are the hairy members of the same faunly - 

with a better one ; and in spite of the defic.ency of _ tee h 

redundancy of teeth nas, it 













the hairless dogs, no converse 



tne nairiess uw^o, "^ T 

is believed, been remarked in Angora cats and rabbis. 









^m 


































-,. 









£ 





17G 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



say the least, then, this law of correlation presents numerous 
and remarkable exceptions. 

To return, however, to the subject of homological relations: 



sur- 



it is surely inconceivable that indefinite variation with 
vival of the fittest can ever have built up these serial, bilateral, 
and vertical homologies, without the action of some special innate 
power or tendency so to build up, possessed by the organism 
itself in each case. By "special tendency" is meant one the 
laws and conditions of which are as yet unknown, but which is 
analogous to the innate power and tendency possessed by crystals 
similarly, to build up certain peculiar and very definite forms. 



First, with regard to comparative anatomy. 



The 



corre- 



spondence between the thoracic and pelvic limbs is notorious. 
Professor Gegenbaur has lately endeavoured 1 to explain this 
resemblance by the derivation of each limb from a primitive 
form of fin. This fin is supposed to have had a marginal 
external (radial) series of cartilages, each of which supported a 
series of secondary cartilages, starting from the inner (ulnar) 
side of the distal part of the supporting marginal ' piece. The 
root marginal piece would become the humerus or femur, as 
the case might be : the second marginal piece, with the piece 
attached to the inner side of the distal end of the root marginal 
piece, would together form either the radius and ulna or the 
tibia and fibula, and so on. 

JS r ow there is little doubt (from a priori considerations) but 
that the special differentiation of the limb bones of the higher 
Vertebrates has been evolved from anterior conditions existing 
in some fish-like form or other. But the particular view ad* 
vocated by the learned Professor is open to criticism. Thus, 
it may be objected against this view, first, that it takes no' 
account of the radial ossicle which becomes so enormous in the 
mole; secondly, that it does not explain the extra series of 

1 " Ueber das Gliedmaassenskelet der Enaliosaurier, Jenaischen Zeit- 
schnft, " Bd. v. Heft 3, Taf. xiii. 












I 



























VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



177 



ossicles which are formed on the outer (radial or marginal) side of 
the paddle in the Ichthyosaurus ; and thirdly, and most im- 
portantly, that even if this had been the way in which the limbs 
had been differentiated, it would not be at all inconsistent 
with the possession of an innate power of producing, and an 
innate tendency to produce similar and symmetrical homological 
resemblances. It would not be so because resemblances of the 
kind are found to exist, which, on the Darwinian theory, 
must be subsequent and secondary, not primitive and ancestral. 
Thus we find in animals of the eft kind (certain amphibians), 




SKELETON OF AN ICIlTHVOSAtTRUS 



which the tarsus is cartilaginous, that the carpus is carti- 



laginous likewise. 



And 



e~"sh 



Isease arid 



\ 



of malformation what a tendency there is to a similar affec- 



tion of homologous parts. 



In efts, as Professor Gegenbaur 



himself has pointed out, 1 there is a striking correspondence 
between the bones or cartilages supporting the arm, wrist, 
and fingers, and those sustaining the leg, ankle, and toes, 
with the exception that the toes exceed the fingers in number 

by one. 

Yet these animals are far from being the root-forms from which 
all the Vertebrata have diverged, as is evidenced from the degree 
of specialization which their structure presents. If they have 



1 In his work on the Carpus and Tarsus 



N 



















































■ 






V* 









s 



■ 









•-. 








THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[CH A P 



> 






descended from such primitive form 



s as Professor Gegenbaur 






£ imagines, then they have built up a secondary serial h 



oraoloerv 











\ 












' 






< 










a repetition of similar modifications— fully as remarkable as if it 




I 



I 



1> 






€ 



A. SKELETON OF ANTERIOR EXTREMITY OF AN EFT. 

B. SKELETON OF POSTERIOR EXTREMITY OF THE SAME 



were primary. The Plesiosauria— those extinct marine reptiles 
of the Secondary period, with long necks, small heads, and paddle- 
like limbs— are of yet higher organization than are the efts and 









I 
























■ 








M 



d0 



-^mt/iim 







^ 

u 



■<& 



Qh 



SKELETON OF A PLES10SAURUS. 



other Amphibia. Nevertheless they present us with a similarity 
of structure between the fore and hind limb, which is so oreat 






■ 



^H 



O 

^ 







VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



179 



as almost to be identity. But the Amphibia and Plesiosauro, 
though not themselves primitive vertebrate types, may be 
thought by some to have derived their limb-structure by direct 
descent from such. Tortoises, however, must be admitted 
to be not only highly differentiated organisms, but to be far 
indeed removed from primeval vertebrate structure. Yet certain 
tortoises 1 (notably Chelydra Temminckii) exhibit such a remark - 



i 



■2 



In 



able uniformity in fore and hind limb structure (extending evei 

up to the proximal ends of the humerus and femur) that it is 

impossible to doubt its independent development in these forms. 

Again in the Potto (Perodicticus) there is an extra bone in the 
foot,° situated in the transverse ligament enclosing the flexor 
tendons. It is noteworthy that in the hand of the same animal 
a serially homologous structure should also be developed. 1 " 
the allied form called the slow lemur (Nycticebus) we have 
certain arrangements of the muscles and tendons of the hand 
which reproduce in great measure those of the foot and vice 

And in the Hyrax another myological resemblance 
i It is, however, needless to multiply instances which 
can easily be produced in large numbers if required. 

Secondly, with regard to teratology, it is notorious that similar 
abnormalities are often found to co-exist in both the pelvic and 

thoracic limbs. 

M. Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire remarks, 5 " L'anomalie se 
repete d'un membre tlioracique au membre abdominal da 
meme cote." And lie afterwards quotes from Weitbrecht, 6 who 
had " observe dans un cas l'absence simultanee aux deux mams 



A 3 

versa. 



appears 



I 



i An excellent specimen displaying this resemblance is preserved 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

2 Phil. Trans. 1867, p. 353. 

3 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 255. 

4 Ibid. p. 351. 

* " Hist. Generate des Anomalies," t. i. p. 228. Bruxelles, 1837, 

6 Nov. Comment. Petrop. t. ix. p. 269. 

n2 



in the 
















































180 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



et aux deux pieds, de quelques doigts, de quelques nietacarpiens 
et metatarsiens, enfin de quelques os du carpe et du tarse." 























































LONG FLEXOR MUSCLES AND TENDONS OF THE HAND. 

P.t. Pronator teres. F.s. Flexor sublimis digitorum. F.p. Flexor profundus 

. digitorum. F l.p. Flexor longus pollicis. 



Professor Burt G. Wilder, in his paper on extra digits, 1 has 

■ 

1 Read on June 2, 1868, before the Massachusetts Medical Society. 
See vol. ii. No. 3. 







VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 




He 



recorded no less than twenty-four cases where such excess^ co- 
existed in both little fingers ; also one case in which the right 
little finger and little toe were so affected ; six in which it was 
both the little fingers and both the little toes; and twenty-two 
other cases more or less the same, but in which the details were 

not accurately to be obtained. 

Mr. Darwin cites 1 a remarkable instance of what he is in- 
clined to regard as the development in the foot of birds of ^a 
sort of representation of the wing-feathers of the hand 
says: "In several distinct breeds of the pigeon and fowl the 
legs and the two outer toes are heavily feathered, so that, in the 
trumpeter pigeon, they appear like little wings. In the feather- 
legged bantam, the 'boots,' or feathers, which grow from the 
outside of the leg, and generally from the two outer toes, have, 
according to the excellent authority of Mr. Hewitt, been seen 
to exceed the wing-feathers in length, and in one case were 
actually nine and a half inches in length! As Mr. Blyth has 
remarked to me, these leg-feathers resemble the primary wing- 
feathers, and are totally unlike the tine down which naturally 
grows on the legs of some birds, such as grouse and owls. 
Hence it may be suspected that excess of food has first given 
redundancy to the plumage, and then that the law of homolo- 
gous variation has led to the development of feathers on the 
legs, in a position corresponding with those on the wing, namely, 
on the outside of the tarsi and toes. 

this belief by the following curious case of correlation, which 
for a long time seemed to me utterly inexplicable,— namely, 
that in pigeons of any breed, if the legs are feathered, the two 
outer toes are partially connected by skin, 
toes correspond with our third and fourth toes, 
wing of the pigeon, or any other bird, the first and fifth digits 
"wholly aborted; the second is rudimentary, and carries 
so-called 'bastard wing;' whilst the third and fourth 



I am strengthened in 



These two outer 
Now, in the 



are 
the 



i "Animals and Plants under Domestication/' vol. ii. p. 322. 


































I 









































182 



THE G WES/S F SP ECIES. 



[c:iap 




s 



are completely united and enclosed hy skin, together 
forming the extremity of the wing. So that in feather-footed 
pigeons not only does the exterior surface support a row of long 
feathers like wing-feathers, but the very same digits which in the 
wing are completely united by skin become partially united by 
skin in the feet; and thus, by the law of the correlated variation 
of homologous parts, we can understand the curious connexion 
of feathered legs and membrane between the outer toes." 

Irregularities in the circulating system are far from uncom- 
mon, and sometimes illustrate this homological tendency. My 
friend and colleague Mr. George G. Gascoyen, assistant surgeon 
at St. Mary's Hospital, has supplied mT^wdth two instances of 
symmetrical affections which have come under his observation. 

In the first of these the brachial artery bifurcated almost at its 
origin, the two halves re-uniting at the elbow-joint, and then 
dividing into the radial and ulnar arteries in the usual manner., 
In the second- case an aberrant artery was given off from the 
radial side of the brachial artery, again almost at its origin. 
This aberrant artery anastomosed below the elbow-joint with the 
radial side of the radial artery. In each of these cases the right 
and left sides varied in precisely the same manner. 



Thirdly, as to pathology. Mr. James Paget, 1 speaking of 



symmetrical diseases, says: "A certain morbid change of struc- 
ture on one side of the body is repeated in the exactly corre- 
sponding part of the other side." He then quotes and figures a 
diseased lion's pelvis from the College of Surgeons Museum 
and says of it: "Multiform as the pattern is in which the 
new bone, the product of some disease comparable with a 
human rheumatism, is deposited — a pattern more complex and 
irregular than the spots upon a map — there is not one spot or 
line on one side which is not represented, as exactly as it would 
be in a mirror, on the other. The likeness has more than 



- 












1 " Lectures on Surgical Pathology," I8Q, vol. i. p. 18. 



p 







V11T.] 



HOMO LOG I US. 



183 



daguerreotype exactness." He goes oil to observe : "I need not 
. describe many examples of sucb diseases. Any out-patients' 
room will furnish abundant instances of exact symmetry in 
the eruptions of eczema, lepra, and psoriasis ; in the deformities 
of chronic rheumatism, the paralyses from lead; in the erup- 
tions excited by iodide of potassium or copaiba. And auy large 
museum will contain examples of equal symmetry in syphilitic 
ulcerations of the skull; in rheumatic and syphilitic deposits on 
the tibise and other bones; in all the effects of chronic rheumatic 
arthritis, whether in the bones, the ligaments, or the cartilages; 
in the fatty and earthy deposits in the coats of arteries." 1 

He also considered it to be proved that, " Next to the parts 
which are symmetrically placed, none are so nearly identical in 
composition as those which are homologous. For example, the 
backs of the hands and of the feet, or the palms and soles, 
are often not only symmetrically, but similarly, affected with 

So are the elbows and the knees; and similar portions 
of Th7thighs and the arms may be found affected with ichthyosis. 
Sometimes also specimens of fatty and earthy deposits in the 
arteries occur, in which exact similarity is shown in the plan, 
though not in the degree, with which the disease affects severally 
the humeral and femoral, the radial and peroneal, the ulnar and 

posterior tibial arteries." 

Dr William Budd 2 gives numerous instances of symmetry in 
disease, both lateral and serial. Thus, amongst others, we have 
one case (William Godfrey), in which the hands and feet were 
distorted. "The distortion of the right hand is greater than 
that of the left, of the right foot greater than that of the left 
foot." In another (Elizabeth Alford) lepra affected the extensor 
surfaces of the thoracic and pelvic limbs. Again, in the case 
of skin disease illustrated in Plate III., "The analogy between' 

i •< Lectures on Surgical Pathology," 1853, vol. i. p. 22. 

» Bee " Medico-Chirurgical Transactions," vol. xxv. (or vn. of 2ndseiie 8 ;, 

1842, p. 100, PI. HI. 



psoriasis 




























■- 



















' 















184 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



the elbows and knees is clearly expressed in the fact that these 
were the only parts affected with the disease." 1 

Professor Burt Wilder, 2 in his paper on "Pathological Polari- 
ties," strongly supports the philosophical importance of these 
peculiar relations, adding arguments in favour of antero-posterior 
homologies, which it is here unnecessary to discuss, enough 
having been said, it is believed, to thoroughly demonstrate 
the existence of these deep internal relations which are named 
lateral and serial homologies. 

o 

What explanation can be offered of these phenomena 1 To 
,say that they exhibit a " nutritional relation " brought about by 
a " balancing of forces " is merely to give a new denomination to 
the unexplained fact. The changes are, of cotir, 
by a " nutritional " process, and the symmetry is undoubtedly the 
result of a "balance of forces," but to say so is a truism. The 
question is, what is the cause of this ''nutritional balancing" 1 
It is here contended that it must be due to an internal cause 
which at present science is utterly incompetent to explain. It 
is an internal property possessed by each living organic whole 
as well as by each non-living crystalline mass, and that there 
is such internal power or tendency, which may be spoken of as 
a " polarity, " seems to be demonstrated by the instances above 
given, which can easily be multiplied indefinitely. Mr. Herbert 
Spencer 3 (speaking of the reproduction, by budding, of a Begonia - 
leaf) recognizes a power of the kind. He says, " 
fore, no alternative but to say that the living particles composing 
one of these fragments have an innate tendency to arrange 
themselves into the shape of the organism to which they belong. 
We must infer that a plant or animal of any species is made up 
of special units, in all of which there dwells the intrinsic apti- 



We 



Med.-Chirurg. Trans, vol. xxv. (or vii. of 2nd series), 1842, p. 122. 

2 See Boston Medical and Surgical Journal for April 5, 1866, vol. lxxiv. 



l>. 189. 






" Principles of Biology," vol. i. p. 180. 


































VIII.] 



II MO L GIES. 



185 



tude to aggregate into the form of that species ; just as in the 
atoms of a salt, there dwells the intrinsic aptitude to crystallize 
in a particular way. It seems difficult to conceive that this can 
be so : hut we see that it is so." .... "For this property 
there is no fit term. If we accept the word polarity as a name 
for the force by which inorganic units are aggregated into a 
form peculiar to them, we may apply this word to the analogous 
force displayed by organic limits." 

Dr. Jeffries Wyman, 1 in his paper on the " Symmetry and 
Homology of Limbs," has a distinct chapter on the " Analogy 
between Symmetry and Polarity," illustrating it by the effects 
of magnets on "particles in a polar condition." 

Mr. J. J. Murphy, after noticing 2 the power which crystals 
have to repair injuries inflicted on them and the modifications 
they undergo through the influence of the medium in which 
they maybe formed, goes on to say : 3 "It needs no proof that 
in the case of spheres and crystals the forms and the structures 
are the effect, and not the cause, of the formative principles. 
Attraction, whether gravitative or capillary, produces the 
spherical form ; the spherical form does not produce attraction. 
And crystalline polarities produce crystalline structure and 
form ; crystalline structure and form do not produce crystalline 
polarities. The same is not quite so evident of organic forms, 
but it is equally true of them also." " It is not con- 
ceivable that the microscope should reveal peculiarities of 
structure corresponding to peculiarities of habitual tendency in 
the embryo, which at its first formation has no structure what- 
ever;" 4 and he adds that "there .is something quite inscru- 
table and mysterious" in the formation of a new individual 



■ 

i See the " Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 

vol. xi. June 5, 1867. . 

2 " Habit and Intelligence," vol. i. p. 75. 



)9 



3 Ibid. p. 112. 



4 Ibid. p. 170. 





• 






















































I 



I 































186 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



from the germinal matter of the embryo. In another place l he 
says : " We know that in crystals, notwithstanding the varia- 
bility of form within the limits of the same species, there are 
definite and very peculiar formative laws, which cannot possibly 
depend on anything like 



organic functions, because crystals 



have no such functions ; and it ought not to surprise us if there 
are similar formative or morphological laws among organisms 
which, like the formative laws of crystallization, cannot be re- 
ferred to any relation of form or structure to function. Espe- 
cially, I think, is this true of the lowest organisms, many of 
which show great beauty of form, of a kind that appears to be 
altogether due to symmetry of growth j as the beautiful star- 
like rayed forms of the acanthometrce, which are low animal 
organisms not very different from the Foraminifera." Their 
" definiteness of form does not appear to be accompanied by 
any corresponding differentiation of function between different 
parts ; and, so far as I can see, the beautiful regularity and sym- 
metry of their radiated forms are altogether due to unknown 
laws of symmetry of growth, just like the equally beautiful and 
somewhat similar forms of the compound six-rayed, star-shaped 
crystals of snow/' 

Altogether, then, it appears that each organism has an innate 
tendency to develop in a symmetrical manner, and that this 
tendency is controlled and subordinated by the action of external 
conditions, and not that this symmetry is superinduced only ab 
externo. In fact, that each organism has its own internal and 
special laws of growth and development. 

If, then, it is still necessary to conceive an internal law or 
" substantial form," moulding each organic being, 2 and directing 

1 " Habit and Intelligence," vol. i. p. 229. 

2 It is hardly necessary to say that the Author does not mean that there 
is, in addition to a real objective crystal, another real, objective separate 
thing beside it, namely the "force " directing it. All that is meant is that 
the action of the crystal in crystallizing must be ideally separated from 
the crystal itself, not that it is really separate. 






























VIII.] 



HOMOLOGIES. 



187 



its development as a crystal is built up, only in an indefinitely 
more complex manner, it is congruous to imagine the existence 
of some internal law accounting at the same time for specific 
divergence as well as for specific identity. 

A principle regulating the successive evolution of different 
organic forms is not one whit more mysterious than is the 
mysterious power by which a particle of structureless sarcode 
develops successively into an egg, a grub, a chrysalis, a butterfly, 
when all the conditions, cosmical, physical, chemical, and vital, 
are supplied, which are the requisite accompaniments to deter- 
mine such evolution. 













































1 

















. 































1 












CHAPTER -IX. 



EVOLUTION AND ETHICS. 



The -origin of morals an inquiry not foreign to the subject of this book.— 
Modern utilitarian view as to that origin.— Mr. Darwin's speculation 
as to the origin of the abhorrence of incest.— Cause assigned by him 
insufficient.— Care of the aged and infirm opposed by " Natural Selec- 
tion ;" also self-abnegation and asceticism.— Distinctness of. the ideas 
" right " and " useful."— Mr. John Stuart Mill.— Insufficiency of 
"Natural Selection" to account for the origin of the distinction 
between duty and profit.— Distinction of moral acts into "material" 
and "formal."— No ground for believing that formal morality exists 
in brutes.— Evidence that it does exist in savages.— Facility with 
which savages may be misunderstood.— Objections as to diversity of 
customs.— Mr. Hutton's review of Mr. Herbert Spencer.— Anticipatory 
character of morals.— Sir John Lubbock's explanation. —Summary 
and conclusion. 



Any inquiry into the origin of the notion of "morality" — the 
conception of " right " — may, perhaps, be considered as somewhat 

* 

remote from the question of the Genesis of Species ; the more 
so, since Mr. Darwin, at one time, disclaimed any pretension tc 
explain the origin of the higher psychical phenomena of man, 
His disciples, however, were never equally reticent, and indeed 
he himself is now not only about to produce a work on 
man (in which this question must be considered), but he has 
distinctly announced the extension of the application of his 
theory to the very phenomena in question. He says i 1 "In the 



i " 



Origin of Species," 5th edition, 18G9, p. 577- 



• 



















, 












CHAP. IX.] 



■EVOLUTION AND ETHICS. 



189 






distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. 
Psychology will he hased on a new foundation, that of the 
necessary° acquirement of each mental power and capacity by 
gradation. Light will he thrown on the origin of man and his 
history." It may not he amiss then to glance slightly at the 
question, so much disputed, concerning the origin of ethical con- 
ceptions and its hearing on the theory of « Natural Selection." 



The followers 



s 



Mr 



John Stuart Mill, of Mr. Herbert 



Spencer, and apparently, also, of Mr. Darwin, assert that m 
spite of the great present difference between the ideas < useful 
and "ri"ht," yet that they are, nevertheless, one m origin, and 
that tha°t origin consisted ultimately of pleasurable and painful 

They sa'v that "Natural Selection" has evolved moral con- 
ceptions from perceptions of what was useful, i.e. pleasurable, 
by having through long ages preserved a predominating number 
of those individuals who have had a natural and spontaneous 
liking for practices and habits of mind useful to the race, and 
that the same power has destroyed a predominating number of 
those individuals who possessed a marked tendency to contrary 
practices. The descendants of individuals so preserved have 
they say, come to inherit such a liking and such useful habits ot 
mind, and that at last (finding this inherited tendency thus exist- 
ing in themselves, distinct from their tendency to conscious self- 
gratification) they have become apt to regard it as fundamen- 
tally distinct, innate, and independent of all experience, 
fact, according to this school, the idea of "right" is only the 



In 



gradual 



In 



time to time, arose in a series of ancestors naturally selected, 
this way, "morality" is, as it were, the congealed past experience 
of the race, and " virtue " becomes no more than a sort of 
" retrieving," which the thus improved human animal practises 
by a perfected and inherited habit, regardless of self-gratification, 
just as the brute animal has acquired the habit of seeking 




























































































' 






























190 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



prey and 
himself. 



bringing it to 



his master, instead of devouring it 



Though. Mr. Darwin has not as yet expressly advocated this 
view, yet some remarks made by him appear to show his dis- 
position to sympathise with it. Thus, in his work on " Animals 
and Plants under Domestication," x he asserts that " the savages 
of Australia and South America hold the crime of incest in 
abhorrence ;" but he considers that this abhorrence has probably 
arisen by "Natural Selection," the ill effects of close inter- 
breeding causing the less numerous and less healthy offspring 

of incestuous unions to disappear by degrees, in favour of the 
descendants (greater both in number and strength) of individuals 
who naturally, from some cause or other, as he suggests, pre- 
ferred to mate with strangers rather than with close blood- 
relations ; this preference being transmitted and becoming thus 
instinctive, or habitual, in remote descendants. 

But on Mr. Darwin's own ground, it maybe objected that this 
notion fails to account for "abhorrence," and "moral reproba- 
tion;" for, as no stream can rise higher than its source, the 
original " slight feeling" which was useful would have been per- 
petuated, but would never have been augmented beyond the 
degree requisite to ensure this beneficial preference, and therefore 
would not certainly have become magnified into " abhorrence." 
It will not do to assume that the union of males and females, 
each possessing the required " slight feeling," must give rise to 
offspring with an intensified feeling of the same kind ; for, apart 
from reversion, Mr. Darwin has called attention to the unex- 
pected modifications which sometimes result from the union of 
similarly constituted parents. Thus, for example, he tells us : 2 
" If two top-knotted canaries are matched, the young, instead of 
having very fine top-knots, are generally bald." From examples 
of this kind, it is fair, on Darwinian principles, to infer that the 

1 Vol. ii. p. 122. 

2 " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i. p. 295. 



I 



















■ 



















IT.] 



EVOL UTION AND ETU ICS. 



191 



Avher 



e iii a rr 



union of parents who possessed a similar inherited aversion might 
result in phenomena quite other than the augmentation of such 
aversion, even if the two aversions should be altogether similar; 
while, very probably, they might be so different in their nature 
as to tend to neutralize each other. Besides, the union of parents 
so similarly emotional would be rare indeed amongst savages, 

ia<*es would be owing to almost anything rather than to 
congeniality of mind between the spouses. Mr. Wallace tells us, 1 
that they choose their wives for "rude health and physical beauty," 
and this is just what might be naturally supposed. Again, we 
must bear in mind the necessity there is that many individuals 
should be similarly and simultaneously affected with this aver- 
sion from consanguineous unions ; as we have seen in the second 
chapter, how infallibly variations presented by only a few in- 
dividuals, tend to be eliminated by mere force of numbers. Mr. 
Darwin indeed would throw back this aversion, if possible, to a 
pre-human period ; since he speculates as to whether the gorillas 
or orang-utans, in effecting their matrimonial relations, show any 
tendency to respect the prohibited degrees of affinity. 2 No tittle 
of evidence, however, has yet been adduced pointing in any such 
direction, though surely if it were of such importance and effi- 
ciency as to result (through the aid of "Natural Selection" 
alone) in that " abhorrence " before spoken of, we might expect 
to be able to detect unmistakeable evidence of its incipient stages. 

* 

On the contrary, as regards the ordinary apes (for with regard to 
the highest there is no evidence of the kind) as we see them 
in confinement, it would be difficult to name any animals less 
restricted, by even a generic bar, in the gratification of the 
sexual instinct. And although the conditions under which they 
have been observed are abnormal, yet these are hardly the 
animals to present us in a state of nature, with an extra- 
ordinary and exceptional sensitiveness in such matters. 

1 " Natural Selection," p. 350. 



o U 



Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. 




































» 










































192 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap. 






s 



To take an altogether different case. Care of, and tenderness 
towards, the aged and infirm are actions on all hands admitted to 
be "right;" but it is difficult to see how such actions could ever 
have been so useful to a community as to have been seized on 
and developed by the exclusive action of the law of the "sur- 
vival of the fittest." On the contrary, it seems probable that on 
strict utilitarian principles the rigid political economy of Tierra 
del Tuego would have been eminently favoured and diffused by 
the impartial action of " Natural Selection " alone. By the rigid 
political economy referred to, is meant that destruction and utili- 
zation of " useless mouths " which Mr. Darwin himself describes 
in his highly interesting " Journal of Eesearches." 1 He says : " It 
is certainly true, that when pressed in winter by hunger, they 
kill and devour their old women before they kill their dogs.' The 
boy being asked why they did this, answered, < Doggie's catch 
utters, old women no.' They often run away into the mountains, 
but they are pursued by the men and brought back to the 

Mr. Edward Bartlett, 
who has recently returned from the Amazons, reports that at one 
Indian village where the cholera made its appearance, the whole 
population immediately dispersed into the woods, leaving the sick 
to perish uncared for and alone. Now, had the Indians remained, 
undoubtedly far more would have died ; as doubtless, in Tierra del 
Tuego, the destruction of the comparatively useless old women 
has often been the means of preserving the healthy and repro- 
ductive young. Such acts surely must be greatly favoured by the 
stern and unrelenting action of exclusive " Natural Selection." 

In the same way that admiration which all feel for acts of 
self-denial done for the good of others, and tending even towards 
the destruction of the actor, could hardly be accounted for on 
Darwinian principles alone; for selfimmolators must but rarely 
leave direct descendants, while the community they benefit must 

1 See 2nd edition, vol i, p. 214. 



slaughter-house at their own firesides." 



.,' 






4 
















EVOL UTION AND ETHICS. 



193 



by their destruction tend, so far, to morally deteriorate. But 
devotion to others of the same community is by no means 
all that has to be accounted for. Devotion to the whole 
human race, and devotion to God— in the form of asceticism 
have been and are very generally recognized as " good ; " and 
1he Author contends that it is simply impossible to conceive 
that such ideas and sanctions should have been developed 
by "Natural Selection" alone, from only that degree of un- 
selfishness necessary for the preservation of brutally barbarous 



communities in the struggle for life, 



That degree of unselfish - 



have been the origin of those ideas. 



ness once attained, further improvement would be checked by 
the mutual opposition of diverging moral tendencies and spon- 
taneous variations in all directions. Added to which, we have the 
principle of reversion and atavism, tending powerfully to restore 
and reproduce that more degraded anterior condition whence the 
later and better state painfully emerged.. 

Yery few, however, dispute the complete distinctness, here 
and now, of the ideas of "duty" and "interest" whatever may 

No one pretends that 

ingratitude may, in any past abyss of time, have been a virtue, 
or that it may be such now in Arcturus or the Pleiades. Indeed, 
a certain eminent writer of the utilitarian school of ethics has 
amusingly and very instructively shown how radically distinct 

his own mind are the two ideas which he nevertheless 
endeavours to identify. Mr. John Stuart Mill, in his examina- 
tion of " Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy," says, 1 if " I am 
informed that the world is ruled by a being whose attributes are 
infinite, but what they are we cannot learn, nor what the principles 
of his government, except that ' the highest human morality 
which we are capable of conceiving ' does not sanction them ; 
convince me of it, and I will bear my fate as I may. But when 
I am told that I must believe this, and at the same time call this 



even m 
























1 , 
























1 



i 4 



Page 103. 



o 
















































194 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap: 



being by the names which express and affirm the highest human 
morality, I say in plain terms that I will not. Whatever power 
such a being may have over me, there is one thing which he shall 
not do : he shall not compel me to worship him. I will call no 
being good, who is not what I mean when I apply that epithet 
to my fellow-creatures ; and if such a being can sentence me to 
hell for not so calling him, to hell I will go." 

This is unquestionably an admirable sentiment on the part of 
Mr. Mill (with which every absolute moralist will agree), but it 
contains a complete refutation of his own position, and is a 
capital instance 1 of the vigorous life of moral intuition in one 
who professes to have eliminated any fundamental distinction 
between the "right" and the "expedient." For if an action is 
morally good, and to be done, merely in proportion to the amount 
of pleasure it secures, and morally bad and to be avoided as 
tending to misery, and if it could be proved that by calling God 
good — whether He is so or not, in our sense of the term, — we 
could secure a maximum of pleasure, and by refusing to do so we 
should incur endless torment, clearly, on utilitarian principles, 
the flattery would be good. 

Mr. Mill, of course, must also mean that, in the matter in 
question, all men would do well to act with him. Therefore, 
he must mean that it would be well for all to accept (on the 
hypothesis above given) infinite and final misery for all as the 
result of the pursuit of happiness as the only end. 

It must be recollected that in consenting to worship this 
unholy God, Mr. Mill is not asked to do harm to his neighbour, 
so that his refusal reposes simply on his perception of the 
immorality of the requisition. It is also noteworthy that an 
omnipotent Deity is supposed incapable of altering Mr. Mill's 
mind and moral perceptions. 

Mr. Mill's decision is right, btit it is difficult indeed to see 

1 I have not the merit of having noticed thig inconsistency; it was 
pointed out to me by my friend the Rev, W, W. Roberts. 


















HI 







IX. J 



EVOL UTION AND ETHICS. 



195 



how, without the recognition of an "absolute morality," he can 
justify so utter and final an abandonment of all utility in favour 
of a clear and distinct moral perception. 

These two ideas, the "right" and the "useful," being so 
distinct here and now, a greater difficulty meets us with regard 
to their origin from some common source, than met us before 
"when considering the first beginnings of certain bodily struc- 



tures. 



For the distinction between the " right 



V 



and the " use- 



ful" is so fundamental and essential that not only does the idea 
of benefit not enter into the idea of duty, but we see that the 
very fact of an act not being beneficial to us makes it the more 
praiseworthy, while gain tends to diminish the merit of an action. 
Yet this idea, " right," thus excluding, as it does, all reference 
to utility or pleasure, has nevertheless to be constructed and 
evolved from utility and pleasure, and ultimately from pleasur- 

* 

able sensations, if we are to accept pure Darwinianism : if we 
are to accept, that is, the evolution of man's psychical nature and 
highest powers, by the exclusive action of "Natural Selection," 
from such faculties as are possessed by brutes; in other words, 
if we are to believe that the conceptions of the highest human 
morality arose through minute and fortuitous variations of brutal 

* 

desires and appetites in all conceivable directions. 

It is here contended, on the other hand, that no conservation 
of any such variations could ever have given rise to the faintest 
beginning of any such moral perceptions ; that by " Natural 
Selection" alone the maxim fiat justitia, mat caelum could never 
have been excogitated, still less have found a widespread accept- 
ance ; that it is impotent to suggest even an approach towards 
an explanation of the first beginning of the idea of "right." It 
need hardly be remarked that acts may be distinguished not only 
as pleasurable, useful, or beautiful, but also as good in two dif- 
ferent senses : (1) materially moral acts, and (2) acts which are 
formally moral. The first are acts good in themselves, as acts, 
apart from auy intention of the agent which may or may not 



if 


























•) 






^m 





• 











. 






































V 









196 



WE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



< 

have been directed towards "right." The second are acts which 
are good not only in themselves, as acts, but also in the deliberate 
intention of the agent who recognizes his actions as being "right. " 
Thus acts may be materially moral or immoral, in a very high 
degree, without being in the least formally so. For example, 
a person may tend and minister to a sick man with scrupulous 
care and exactness, having in view all the time nothing but the 
future reception of a good legacy. Another may, in the dark, 
shoot his own father, taking him to be an assassin, and so commit 



what is materially an act of parricide, though formally it is only 

* 

an act of self-defence of more or less culpable rashness. A 
woman may innocently, because ignorantly, marry a married man, 
and so commit a material act of adultery. She may discover 
the facts, and persist, and so make her act formal also. 

Actions of brutes, such as tho^e of the bee, the ant, or the beaver, 
however materially good as regards their relation to the com- 
munity to which such animals belong, are absolutely destitute of 
the most incipient degree of real, i.e. formal "goodness,' 7 because 
unaccompanied by mental acts of conscious will directed towards 
the fulfilment of duty. Apology is due for thus stating so 
elementary a distinction, but the statement is not superfluous, 
for confusion of thought, resulting from confounding together 
these very distinct things, is unfortunately far from un- 
co mm on. 

Thus some Darwinians assert that the germs of morality exist 
in brutes, and we have seen that Mr. Darwin himself speculates on 
the subject as regards the highest apes. It may safely be affirmed, 
however, that there is no trace in brutes of any actions simu- 
lating morality which are not explicable by the fear of punish- 
ment, by the hope of pleasure, or by personal affection. No sign 
of moral reprobation is given by any brute, and yet had such 
existed in germ through Darwinian abysses of past time, some 
evidence of its existence must surely have been rendered per- 
ceptible through "sp.ryiv.al of the fittest " in other forms besides 









■ ■ 











IX.] 



EVOLUTION AND ETHICS. 



197 



man, if that " survival" has alone and exclusively produced it 
in him. 

Abundant examples may, indeed, be brought forward of useful 
acts which simulate morality, such as parental care of the young, 



\ 



&c. 



But did the most undeviating habits guide all brutes in 



such matters, were even ai>ed and infirm members of a commu- 
nity of insects or birds carefully tended by young which bene- 
fited by their experience, such acts would not indicate even the 
faintest rudiment of real, i.e. formal, morality. " Natural Selec- 
tion" would, of course, often lead to the prevalence of acts 
beneficial to a community, and to acts materially good; but 
unless they can be shown to be formally so, they are not in 
the least to the point, they do not offer any explanation of the 
origin of an altogether new and fundamentally different motive 

and conception. 

It is interesting, on the other hand, to note Mr. Darwin's 
statement as to the existence of a distinct moral feeling, even 



lowest and most degraded of all 



the 



in, perhaps, the veryl 

human races known to us. Thus in the same " Journal of Re- 
searches" 1 before quoted, bearing witness to the existence of 
moral reprobation on the part of the Fuegians, he says : " The 
nearest approach to religious feeling which I heard of was shown 
by York Minster (a Fuegian so named), who, when Mr. Bynoe 
shot some very young ducklings as specimens, declared in the 
most solemn manner, ' Oh, Mr. Bynoe, much rain, snow, blow 
much.' This was evidently a retributive punishment for wasting 
human food." 

Mr. Wallace gives the most interesting testimony, in his 
" Malay Archipelago," to the existence of a very distinct, and in 
some instances highly developed moral sense in the natives with 
whom he came in contact. In one case, 2 a Papuan who had 
been paid in advance for bird-skins and who had not been able 





















i 












1 Vol. i. p. 215. 



2 " Malay Archipelago," vol. ii. p. 365 






































I 



198 



THE G EXES IS OF SPECIES. 



w 

[chap. 



to 



fulfil his contract be/ore Mr. Wallace was on the point of 

down after us holding up a bird, 

a 



running 



starting, " came 

and saying with great satisfaction, * low I owe you nothing !"' 

And this though he could have withheld payment with complete 
impunity. 

Mr. Wallace's observations and opinions on this head seem 
hardly to meet with due appreciation in Sir John Lubbock's recent 
work on Primitive Man.* But considering the acute powers of 
observation and the industry of Mr. Wallace, and especially 
considering the years he passed in familiar and uninterrupted 
intercourse with natives, his opinion and testimony should surely 
carry with it great weight. He has informed the Author that 
he found a strongly marked and widely diffused modesty, in 
sexual matters, amongst all the tribes with which he came in 



contact. 



Mr 



on the 



Tasmanians, testifies to the modesty exhibited by the naked 
females of that race, who by the decorum of their postures 
gave evidence of the possession in germ of what under circum- 
stances would become the highest chastity and refinement. 

Hasty and incomplete observations and inductions are pre- 
judicial enough to physical science, but when their effect is to 
degrade untruthfully our common humanity, there is an addi- 
tional motive to regret them. A hurried visit to a tribe, whose 
language, traditions and customs are unknown, _ _ 

deemed sufficient for "smart" remarks as to "ape characters," 
&c, which are as untrue as irrelevant, 
forgotten how extremely difficult it is to enter into the ideas 



is sometimes 



It should not be 



and feelings of an alien race. 



If in the nineteenth century a 






French theatrical audience can witness with acquiescent approval, 
as a type of English manners and ideas, the representation of a 
marquis who sells his wife at Smithfield, &c. &c, it is surely no 

* 

* "The Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man ; ' 
p. 261. Longmans, 1870. ' 










T-* 











t«r 



IX.] 



EVOLUTION AND ETHICS. 






199 



wonder if the ideas of a tribe of newly visited savages should he 
more or less misunderstood. To enter into such ideas requires 

I 

long, and familiar intimacy, like that experienced by the explorer 



of the Malay 



From him, and others, we have 



abundant evidence that moral ideas exist, at least in germ, in 

V 

savage races of men, while they sometimes attain even a highly 

r 

developed state. Xo amount of evidence as to acts of moral 
depravity is to the point, as the object here aimed at is to 
establish that moral intuitions exist in savages, not that their 

actions are good. 

Objections, however, are sometimes drawn from the different 
notions as to the moral value of certain acts, entertained by men 
of various countries or of different epochs ; also from the diffi- 
culty of knowing what particular actions in certain cases are the 
rio-ht ones, and from the effects which prejudice, interest, passion, 
habit, or even, indirectly, physical conditions, may have upon 
our moral perceptions. Thus Sir John Lubbock speaks 1 of cer- 
tain Feejeeans, who, according to the testimony of Mr. Hunt, 2 
have the custom of piously choking their parents under certain 
circumstances, in order to insure their happiness in a future life. 
Should any one take such facts as telling against the belief in 
an absolute morality, he would show a complete misapprehen- 



/< 



Were 



and faculty by which he is made intuitively aware what acts 
considered in and by themselves are right and what wrong, 
an infallible and universal internal code, — the illustration would 
be to the point. But all that need be contended for is that the 
intellect perceives not only truth, but also a quality of " higher " 
which ought to be followed, and of "lower 77 which ought to 
be avoided : when two lines of conduct are presented to the will 
for choice, the intellect so acting being the conscience. 






i "Primitive Man," p. 248. 

2 "Fiji and the Fijians," vol. i. p. 183. 























































200 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



This has been well put by Mr. James Martineau in his 
excellent essay on Whewell's Morality. He says/ u If moral 
good were a quality resident in each action, as whiteness in 
snow, or sweetness in fruits ; and if the moral faculty was our 
appointed instrument for detecting its presence; many conse- 
quences would ensue which are at variance with fact. The wide 
range of differencss observable in the ethical judgments of men 
would not exist ; and even if they did, could no more be reduced 
and modified by discussion than constitutional differences of 
hearing or of vision. And, as the quality of moral good either 
must or must not exist in every important operation of the will, 
we should discern its presence or absence separately in each; 
and even though we never had the conception of more than one 
insulated action, we should be able to pronounce upon its 
character. This, however, we have plainly no power to 
do. Every moral judgment is relative, and involves a com- 
parison of two terms. When we praise what has been clone, 
it is with the coexistent conception of something else that 
might have been done ; and when we resolve on a course as 
right, it is to the exclusion of some other that is wron<*. 



This fact, 



'/< 



an election of one act as higher than another, appears of 



fundamental importance in the analysis of the moral 
I timents." 



sen- 



From this point of view it is plain how trifling are arguments 
drawn from the acts of a savage, since an action highly immoral 
in us might be one exceedingly virtuous in him — being the 



highest presented to hi 



3 



choice in his degraded intellectual 



condition and peculiar circumstances. 

It need only be contended, then, that there is a perception 
of "right" incapable of further analysis; not that there is any 
infallible internal guide as to all the complex actions which 



1 cc 1? 



Essays," Second Series, vol. ii. p. 13. 





























IX.] 



EFOL UTION AND ETHICS. 



201 



This 



present themselves for choice. The principle is given in our 
nature, the application of the principle is the result of a thousand 

educational influences. . _ „ 

It is no wonder, then, that, in complex « cases of conscience, 
it is sometimes a matter of exceeding difficulty to determine 
which of two courses of action is the less objectionable, 
no more invalidates the truth of moral principles than does the 
difficulty of a mathematical problem cast doubt on mathematical 
principles. Habit, education, and intellectual gifts facilitate the 

correct application of both. 

Aeain if our moral insight is intensified or blunted by our 
habitual'wishes or, indirectly, by our physical condition the same 
may be said of our perception of the true relations of physical 
facts one to another. An eager wish for marriage has led many 
a man to exaggerate the powers of a limited income, and a fit of 
dyspepsia has given an unreasonably gloomy aspect to more than 

one balance-sheet. 

Considering that moral intuitions have to do with insensible 
matters, they cannot be expected to be more clear than the per- 
eption of physical facts. And if the latter perceptions may be 
influenced by volition, desire, or health, our moral views may 
also be expected to be so influenced, and this in a higher degree 
because they so often run counter to our desires A bottle or 
■wv of wine may make a sensible object appear double; what 
wonder, then, if our moral perceptions are sometimes warped 
and distorted by such powerful agencies as an evil education or 



two 



habitual absence of self-restraint. 



In neither case does 



occasional distortion invalidate the accuracy of normal and 

habitual perception. ' # . . 

The distinctness here and now of the ideas of right and 



"useful" is however, as 



before said, fully conceded by Mr. 



Herbert Spencer, although he contends that these conceptions 



are one in root and origin. 



His utilitarian Genesis of Morals, however, has been, recently 







■ II 
















J 







































■ 




































202 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



■ 

combated by Mr. Richard Holt Hutton in a paper which appeared 
in Macruillans Magazine. 1 

This writer aptly objects an argumentum ad hominem, applying 
to morals the same argument that has been applied in this work 

* 

to our sense of musical harmony, and by Mr. Wallace to the 
vocal organs of man. 

■ 

Mr. Herbert Spencer's notions on the subject are thus ex- 
pressed by himself: "To make my position fully understood, 
it seems needful to add that, corresponding to the fundamental 
propositions of a developed moral science, there have been, and 
still are developing in the race certain fundamental moral 
intuitions ; and that, though these moral intuitions are the result 
of accumulated experiences of utility gradually organized and 
inherited, they have come to be quite independent of conscious 
experience. Just in the same way that I believe the intuition 
of space possessed by any living individual to have arisen from 
organized and consolidated experiences of all antecedent indi- 
viduals, who bequeathed to him their slowly developed nervous 
organizations ; just as I believe that this intuition, requiring 
only to be made detinite and complete by personal experiences, 
has practically become a form of thought quite independent 
of experience ; — so do I believe that the experiences of utility, 
organized and consolidated through all past generations of the 
human race, have been producing corresponding nervous modi- 
fications which, by continued transmissions and accumulation, 
have become in us certain faculties of moral intuition, active 

_ 

emotions responding to right and wrong conduct, which have no 
apparent basis in the individual experiences of utility. I also 
hold that, just as the space intuition responds to the exact 
demonstrations of geometry, and has its rough conclusions inter- 
preted and verified] by them, so will moral intuitions respond 
to the demonstrations of moral science, and will have their 
rough conclusions interpreted and verified by them." 

1 See No. 117, July 1S69, p. 272. . 






r 









IX.] 



EVOLUTION AND ETHICS. 



203 



Against this view of Mr. Herbert Spencer, Mr. Button objects 
"1. That even as regards Mr. Spencers illustration from geo- 
metrical intuitions, his process would he totally inadequate, 
since you could not deduce the necessary space intuition of 
which he speaks from any possible accumulations of familiarity 



with space relations. 



• • 



We cannot inherit more than our 



fathers had: no amount of experience of facts, however uni- 
versal, can give rise to that particular characteristic of intuitions 
and a priori ideas, which compels us to deny the possibility that 
in any other world, however otherwise different, our experience 
(as to space relations) could be otherwise. 

" 2. That the case of moral intuitions is very much stronger. ^ 
" 3. That if Mr. Spencer's theory accounts for anything, it 
accounts not for the deepening of a sense of utility and inutility 

but for the drying up of the sense of 
utility tnd inutility into mere inherent tendencies, which would 
exercise over us not more authority but less, than a rational 

* 

sense of utilitarian issues. 



into right and wrong 



a 



Mr 



tional sacredness now attached to individual moral rules and 
principles, without accounting a fortiori for the general claim 
of the greatest happiness principle over us as the final moral 
intuition— which is conspicuously contrary to the fact, as not 
even the utilitarians themselves plead any instinctive or in- 
tuitive sanction for their great principle. 

" 5. That there is -no trace of positive evidence of any single 
instance of the transformation of a utilitarian rule of right into 
an intuition, since we find no utilitarian principle of the most 
ancient times which is now an accepted moral intuition, nor 
any moral intuition, however sacred, which has not been pro- 
mulgated thousands of years ago, and which has not constantly 
had to stop the tide of utilitarian objections to its authority 

and this age after age, in our own day quite as much as m 
days gone by. . ... Surely, if anything is remarkable in 







nil 

































































I 



























204 



THE GElXESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



the history of morality, it is the anticipatory character, if I 
may use the expression, of moral principles— the intensity and 
absoluteness with which they are laid down ages before the 
world has approximated to the ideal thus asserted." 

Sir John Lubbock, in his work on Primitive Man before re- 
ferred to, abandons Mr. Spencer s explanation of the genesis of 
morals while referring to Mr. Hutton's criticisms on the subject. 
Sir John proposes to substitute " deference to authority 
stead of " sense of interest " as the origin of our conception of 
"duty," saying that what has been found to be beneficial has 
been traditionally inculcated on the young, and thus has become 
to be dissociated from " interest " in the mind, though the 
inculcation itself originally sprung from that source. This, 
however, when analysed, turns out to be a distinction without a 
iifference. It is nothing but utilitarianism, pure and simple, 



?; 



111- 



( 



after all. For it can never be intended that authority is obeyed 
because of an intuition that it should be deferred to, for that 
would be to admit the very principle of absolute morality which 
Sir John combats. It must be meant, then, that authority 
is obeyed through fear of the consequences of disobedience, or 
through pleasure felt in obeying the authority which commands. 
In the latter case we have "pleasure" as the end and no rudi- 
merit of the conception "duty." In the former we have fear of 
punishment, which appeals directly to the sense of "utility to the 
individual/' and no amount of such a sense will produce the 
least germ of "ought" which is a conception different in hind, 
and in which the notion of "punishment" has no place. Thus 
Sir John Lubbock's explanation only concerns a mode in which 
the sense of " duty " may be stimulated or appealed to, and 
makes no approximation to an explanation of its origin. 

Could the views of Mr. Herbert Spencer, of Mr. Mill, or of 
Mr. Darwin on this subject be maintained, or should they come 
to be generally accepted, the consequences would be disastrous 



indeed ! 



»/ 
















*^^ 



■ 
















IX.] 



WOL UTION AND ETHICS. 



205 












"retrieving? then certainly we should have to view with appre- 
hension the spread of intellectual cultivation, which would lead 
the human "retrievers" to regard from a new point of view their 
fetching and carrying. We should he logically compelled to 
acquiesce in the vociferations of some continental utilitarians, 
who would banish altogether the senseless words " duty " and 
"merit;" and then, one important influence which has aided 
human progress being withdrawn, we should be reduced to Jvope 
that in this case the maxim cessanie causa cessat ip " 
mhdit through some incalculahle accident fail to apply. 

C ... 



iffectns 



It is true 



that Mr. Spencer tries to erect a safeguard 
acinar such moral disruption, by asserting that for every im- 
moral act, word, or thought, each man during this life receives 
minute and exact retribution, and that thus a regard for indi- 



Ancient litera- 



.idual self-interest will effectually prevent any moral catastrophe. 
But by what means will he enforce the acceptance of a dogma 
which is not only incapable of proof, but is opposed to the com- 
monly received opinion of mankind in all ages? 
ture, sacred and profane, teems with protests against the success- 
ful 'evil-doer, and certainly, as Mr. Button observes/ "Honesty 
must have been associated by our ancestors with many unhappy 
as well as many happy consequences, and we know that in 
ancient Greece dishonesty was openly and actually associated 
with happy consequences When the concentrated ex- 
perience of previous generations was held, not indeed to justify, 
but to excuse by utilitarian considerations, craft, dissimulation, 

sensuality, selfishness." 

This dogma is opposed to the moral consciousness of many as 
to the events of their own lives ; and the Author, for one, believes 
that it is absolutely contrary to fact. 

History affords multitudes of instances, but an example may 
be selected from one of the most critical periods of modern 

• Macmillans Magazine, No. 117, July 1869. 



















7 s 





















o 





206 



m# GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



are 



times. Let it be granted that Lewis the Sixteenth of France 
and his queen had all the defects attributed to them by the 
most hostile of serious historians; let all the excuses possible 
be made for his predecessor, Lewis the Fifteenth, and also for 
Madame de Pompadour, can it be pretended that there 
grounds for affirming that the vices of the two former so far 
exceeded those of the latter, that their respective fates were 
plainly and evidently just? that while the two former died in 
their beds, after a life of the most extreme luxury, the others 
merited to stand forth through coming time as examples of the 
most appalling and calamitous tragedy? 

- This theme, however, is too foreign to the immediate matter 
in hand to be further pursued, tempting as it is. But a passing 
protest against a superstitious and deluding dogma may stand, — 
a dogma which may, like any other dogma, be vehemently 
asserted and maintained, but which is remarkable for being 
destitute, at one and the same time, of both authoritative sanc- 
tion and the support of reason and observation. 

To return to the bearing of moral conceptions on "Natural 
Selection," it seems that, from the reasons given in this chapter, 
we may safely affirm — 1. That "Natural Selection" could not have 
produced, from the sensations of pleasure and pain experienced 
by brutes, a higher degree of morality than w 7 as useful; there- 
fore it could have produced any amount of "beneficial habits," 
but not abhorrence of certain acts as impure and sinful. 

2. That it could not have developed that high esteem for 
acts of care and tenderness to the aged and infirm which actually 
exists, but would rather have perpetuated certain low social 
conditions which obtain in some savage localities. 

3. That it could not have evolved from ape sensations the 
noble virtue of a Marcus Aurelius, or the loving but manly 
devotion of a St. Lewis. 

4 

4. That, alone, it; could not have given rise to the maxim 
fiat jus 



9 
















**v 



1 1 







IX.] 



EVOL UTION AND ETHICS. 



207 



5. That the interval between material and formal morality is 
one altogether beyond its power to traverse. 

Also, that the anticipatory character of moral principles is a 
fatal bar to that explanation of their origin which is offered to 
us bv Mr. Herbert Spencer. And, finally, that the solution of 
that' origin proposed recently by Sir John Lubbock is a mere 
version of simple utilitarianism, appealing to the pleasure or 
safety of the individual, and therefore utterly incapable of 

solving the riddle it attacks. 

Such appearing to be the case as to the power of " Natural 
Selection," we, nevertheless, find moral conceptions— formally 
moral ideas-not only spread over the civilized world, bnt 
manifesting themselves umnistakeably (in however rudimentary 
a condition, and however misapplied) amongst the lowest and 

If from amongst these, individuals 
can°be brought forward who seem to be destitute of any moral 
conception, similar cases also may easily be found in highly 



most degraded of savages. 



Such cases tell no more against moral 
intuitions than do cases of colour-blindness or idiotism tell 



civilized communities. 



■ 

against sight and reason. 



AVe have thus a most important and 
conspicuous" fact, the existence of which is fatal to the theory 
of -Natural Selection," as put forward of late by Mr. Darwin 
and bis most ardent followers. It must be remarked, however, 
that whatever force this fact may have against a belief in the 
origination of man from brutes by minute, fortuitous variations, 
it has no force whatever against the conception of the orderly 
evolution and successive manifestation of specific forms by 
ordinary natural law— even if we include amongst such the 
upright frame, the ready hand and massive brain of man 

himself. 












































CHAPTER X. 






PANGENESIS. 









A provisional hypothesis supplementing " Natural Selection."— Statement 
of the hypothesis.— Difficulty as to multitude of gemmules.— As to 
certain modes of reproduction.— As to formations without the requisite 
gemmules.— Mr. Lewes and Professor Delpino.— Difficulty as to de- 
velopmental force of gemmules.— As to their spontaneous fission. 



Pangenesis scarcely 
Owen. — Herbert 



Pangenesis and Vitalism.— Paradoxical reality. 

superior to anterior hypotheses. — Buffon. 

Spencer.— "Gemmules" as mysterious as "physiological units." 

Conclusion. 



In addition to the theory of " Natural Selection," by which it 
has been attempted to account for the origin of species, Mr. 
Darwin has also put forward what he modestly terms " a provi- 
sional hypothesis " (that of Pangenesis), by which to account for 
the origin of each and every individual form. 

Now, though the hypothesis of Pangenesis is no necessary 
part of "Natural Selection," still any treatise on specific 
origination would be incomplete if it did nc^t take into con- 
sideration this last speculation of Mr. Darwin. The hypothesis in 
question may be stated as follows : That each living organism is 
ultimately made up of an almost infinite number of minute par- 
ticles, or organic atoms, termed " gemmules," each of which has 
the power of reproducing its kind. Moreover, that these parti- 
cles circulate freely about the organism which is made up of them, 
and are derived from all the parts of all the organs of the less 
























/ ' 







CHAP. X.] 



PANGENESIS. 



209 



remote ancestors of each. such, organism during all the states 
and stages of such several ancestors' existence ; and therefore of 
the several states of each of such ancestors' organs. That such 
a complete collection of gemmules is aggregated in each ovum 
and spermatozoon in most animals, and in each part capable of 
reproducing by gemmation (budding) in the lowest animals and 
in plants. Therefore in many of such lower organisms such a 
congeries of ancestral gemmules must exist in every part of their 
bodies, since in them every part is capable of reproducing by 
gemmation. Mr. Darwin must evidently admit this, since he 
says : " It has often been said by naturalists that each cell of a 
plant has the actual or potential capacity of reproducing the 
whole plant j but it has this power only in virtue of containing 



derived ft 



» i 



and 



organs 



Moreover, these gemmules are supposed to tend to aggregate 
themselves, and to reproduce in certain definite relations to other 
gemmules. Thus, when the foot of an eft is cut off, its repro- 
duction is explained by Mr. Darwin as resulting from the aggre- 
gation of those floating gemmules which come next in order to 
those of the cut surface, and the successive aggregations of the 
other kinds of gemmules which come after in regular order. 
Also, the most ordinary processes of repair are similarly ac- 
counted for, and the successive development of similar parts 

in creatures in which such complex evolutions 
occur is explained in the same way, by the independent action 
of separate gemmules. 

In order that each living creature may be thus furnished, the 
number of such gemmules in each must be inconceivably great 
Mr. Darwin says : 2 "In a highly organized and complex anima 
the gemmules thrown off from each different cell or unit through- 

o 

out the body must be inconceivably numerous and minute. Each 
unit of each part, as it changes during development — and w r e 

1 " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii.-p. 403. 

2 Ibid. p. 366. 














































^ 






210 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap. 



know that some insects undergo at least twenty metamorphoses 

must throw off its gemmules. All organic beings, moreover, 
include many dormant gemmules derived from their grandparents 
and more remote progenitors, but not from all their progenitors. 
These almost infinitely numerous and minute gemmules must be 
included in each bud, ovule, spermatozoon, and pollen grain." 
"We have seen also that in certain cases a similar multitude of 
gemmules mast be included also in every considerable part of 
the whole body of each organism, but where are we to stop ? 
There must be gemmules not only from every organ, but from 
every component part of such organ, from every subdivision of 
such component part, and from every cell, thread, or fibre enter- 
ing into the composition of such subdivision. Moreover, not 
only from all these, but from each and every successive stage 
of the evolution and development of such successively more 
and more elementary parts. At the first glance this new atomic 
theory has charms from its apparent simplicity, but the attempt 
thus to follow it out into its ultimate limits and extreme conse- 
quences seems to indicate that it is at once insufficient and 
cumbrous. 

Mr. Darwin himself is, of course, fully aware that there must 
be some limit to this aggregation of gemmules. He says : 1 
" Excessively minute and numerous as they are believed to be, 
an infinite number derived, during a long course of modification 
and descent, from each cell of each progenitor, could not be 
supported and nourished by the organism." 

But apart from these matters, which will be more fully con- 
sidered further on, the hypothesis not only does not appear to 
account for certain phenomena which, in order to be a valid 
theory, it ought to account for ; but it seems absolutely to 
conflict with patent and notorious facts. 

How, for example, does it explain the peculiar reproduction 



1 "Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 402. 












" *^ 






i 1 



X.] 



PANGENESIS. 



211 



which is found to take place in certain marine worms— certain 

annelids? 

In such creatures we see that, from time to time, one of the 
segments of the body gradually becomes modified till it assumes 
the condition of a head, and this remarkable phenomenon is 




. 



i 






AN ANNELID DIVIDING SPONTANEOUSLY. 

<A new head having been formed towards the hinder end of the body of the parent.) 

repeated again and again, the body of the worm thus multiplyin 
serially into new individuals which successively detach themselves 
from the older portion. The development of such a mode of repro- 
duction by '.", Natural Selection" seems not less inexplicable 
than does its continued performance through the aid of " pa'n- 

p 2 




























I 



. 
















^ ^ 






' 







> 


































212 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



genesis. 



For how can gemmules attach themselves to others 
to which they do not normally or generally succeed ? Scarcely 
less difficult to understand is the process of the stomach- carry ing- 
off mode of metamorphosis before spoken of as existing in the 
Echinoderms. Next, as to certain patent and notorious facts : 
On the hypothesis of pangenesis, no creature can develop an 
organ unless it possesses the component gemmules which serve 
for its formation/ No creature can possess such gemmules unless 
it inherits them from its parents, grandparents, or its less 
remote ancestors. Now, the Jews are remarkably scrupulous 
as to marriage, and rarely contract such a union with individuals 
not of their own race. This practice has gone on for thousands 
of years, and similarly also for thousands of years the rite of 
circumcision has been unfailingly and carefully performed. If 
then the hypothesis of pangenesis is well founded, that rite ought 
to be now absolutely or nearly superfluous from the necessarily 
continuous absence of certain gemmules through so many cen- 
turies and so many generations. Yet it is not at all so, and 
this fact seems to amount almost to an experimental demon- 
stration that the hypothesis of pangenesis is an insufficient 
explanation of individual evolution. 

Two exceedingly good criticisms of Mr. Darwin's hypothesis 
have appeared. One of these is by Mr. G. H. Lewes, 1 the other 
by Professor Delpino of Florence. 2 The latter gentleman gives 
a report of an observation made by him upon a certain plant, 
which observation adds force to what has just been said about 
the Jewish race. He says : 3 "If we examine and compare the 
numerous species of the genus Salvia, commencing with Salvia 
officinalis, which may pass as the main state of the genus, and 

1 See Fortnightly Review, New Series, vol. iii. April 1868, p. 352. 

2 This appeared in the Rivista Contemporanea Nazionale Italiana, and 
was translated and given to the English public in Scientific Opinion for 
September 29, October 6, and October 13, 1869, pp. 365, 391, and 407. 

8 See Scientific Opinion, of October 13, 1869, p. 407. 
























x.l 



FAN GENESIS. 



213 



concluding with Salvia verticillata, -which may be taken as the 
most highly developed form, and as the most distant from the 
type, we observe a singular phenomenon. The lower cell of each 
of the two fertile anthers, which is much reduced and different 
from the superior even in Salvia officinalis, is transmuted in 
other salvice into an organ (nectarotheca) having a very different 
form and function, and finally disappears entirely in Salvia 

verticillata. 

" Now, on one occasion, in a flower belonging to an individual 
of Salvia verticillata, and only on the left stamen, I observed a 
perfectly developed and pollinigerous lower cell, perfectly homo- 
logous with that which is normally developed in Salvia officinalis. 
This case of atavism is truly singular. According to the theory of 
Pangenesis, it is necessary to assume tbat all the gemmules of this 
anomalous formation, and therefore the mother-gemmule of the 
cell, and the daughter-gemmules of the special epidermic tissue, 
and of the very singular subjacent tissue of the endothecium, 
have been perpetuated, and transmitted from parent to offspring 
in a dormant state, and through a number of generations, such 
as startles the imagination, and leads it to refuse its consent to 
the theory of Pangenesis, however seductive it may be." This 
seems a strong confirmation of what has been here advanced. 

The main objection raised against Mr. Darwin's hypothesis is 
that it (Pangenesis) requires so many subordinate hypotheses for 
its support, and that some of these are not tenable. 

Professor Delpino considers l that as many as eight of these 
subordinate hypotheses are required, namely, that 

" 1. The emission of the gemmules takes place, or may take 

place in all states of the cell. 

2. The quantity of gemmules emitted from every cell is very 






u 



great. 



" 3. The minuteness of the gemmules is extreme. 
































i 







m 

























See 



of September 29, 1869, p. 366. 












t 




t 




o 



14 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 




























" 4. The gemirrales possess two sorts of affinity, one of which 
might he called propagative, and the other germinative affinity. 

u 5. By means of the propagative affinity all the gemmules 
emitted by all the cells of the individual flow together and be- 
come condensed in the cells which compose the sexual organs, 
whether male or female (embryonal vesicle, cells of the embryo, 
pollen grains, fovilla, antherozoids, spermatozoids), and likewise 
flow together and become condensed in the cells which consti- 
tute the organs of a sexual or agamic reproduction (buds, spores, 
bulbilli, portions of the body separated by scission, &c). 

"6. By means of the germinative affinity, every gemmule 
(except in cases of anomalies or monstrosities) can be developed 
only in cells homologous with the mother-cells of the cell from 
which they originated. In other words, the gemmules from 
any cell can only be developed in unison with the cell preceding 
it in due order of succession, and whilst in a nascent state. 

" 7. Of each kind of gemmule a great number perishes; a 
great number remains in a dormant state through many gene- 
rations in the bodies of descendants ; the remainder germinate 
and reproduce the mother-cell. 

"8. Every gemmule may multiply itself by a -process of 
scission into any number of equivalent gemmules." 

Mr. Darwin has published a short notice in reply to Professor 
Delpino, in Scientific Opinion of October 20, 1869, p. 426. 
In this reply he admits the justice of Professor Delpino 's attack, 
but objects to the alleged necessity of the first subordinate 
hypothesis, namely, that the emission of gemmules takes place in 
all states of the ceU." But if this is not the case, then a great 
part of the utility and distinction of pangenesis is destroyed, 

Lewes justly says, 1 " If gemmules produce whole cells, 
we have the very power which was pronounced mysterious in 



Mr 



larger organisms/' 



1 Fortnightly Review, New Series, vol. iii. April 1868, p. 508. 















































. 



■ 









X.] 



PANGENESIS. 



215 



Mr. Darwin also does not see the lorce ot the objection to wie 
power of self-division which must he asserted of the gemmules 
themselves if Pangenesis he true. The. objection, however, 
appears to many to he formidahle. To admit the power of spon- 
taneous division and multiplication in such rudimentary struc- 
tures, seems a complete contradiction. The gemmules, by the 
hypothesis of Pangenesis, are the ultimate organized components 
of the body, the absolute organic atoms of which each body is 
composed ; bow then can they be divisible ? Any part of a gem- 
mule would be an impossible (because a less than possible) quan- 
tity. If it is divisible into still smaller organic wholes, as a 
germ-cell is, it must be made up as the germ-cell is, of subordinate 
component atoms, which are then the true gemmules. This pro- 
cess may be repeated ad infinitum, unless we get to true organic 
atoms, the true gemmules, whatever they may be, and they 
necessarily will be incapable of any process of spontaneous fission. 
Tt is remarkable that Mr. Darwin brings forward in support of 
emmule fission, the observation that " Thuret has seen the zoo- 



A steam-engine and a 



spore of an alga divide itself, and both halves germinate." Yet 
on the hypothesis of Pangenesis, the zoospore of an alga must 
contain gemmules from all the cells of the parent algse, and from 
all the parts of all their less remote ancestors in all their stages 
of existence. What wonder then that such an excessively com- 
plex body should divide and multiply; and what parity is there 
between such a body and a gemmule ? 
steel-filing might equally well be compared together. 

Professor Delpino makes a further objection which, however, 
will only be of weight in the eyes of Yitalists. He says, 1 Pan- 
genesis is not to be received because " it leads directly to the 
negation of a specific vital principle, co-ordinating and regu- 
lating all the movements, acts, and functions of the individuals 
in which it is incarnated. For Pangenesis of the individual is a 


















* ■» 

























Scientific Opinion, of October 13, 1869, p. 408, 






























216 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



term without meaning. If, in contemplating an animal of high 
organization, we regard it purely as an aggregation of developed 
gemmules, although these gemmules have heen evolved succes- 
sively one after the other, and one within the other, notwith- 
standing they elude the conception of the real and true indi- 
vidua! , these prohlematical and invisible gemmules must he 
regarded as so many individuals. Now, that real, true, living 
individuals exist in nature, is a truth which is persistent] v 
attested to us by our consciousness. But how, then, can we ex- 
plain that a great quantity of dissimilar elements, like the atoms 
of matter, can unite to form those perfect unities which we call 
individuals, if we do not suppose the existence of a specific prin- 
ciple, proper to the individual hut foreign to the component 
atoms, which aggregates these said atoms, groups them into mole- 
cules, and then moulds the molecules into cells, the cells into 
tissues, the tissues into organs, and the organs into apparatus 1 " 

" But, it may he urged in opposition by the Pangenesists, your 
vital principle is an unknown and irresolute x. This is true ; 
hut, on the other hand, let us see whether Pangenesis produces 
a clearer formula, and one free from unknown elements. The 
existence of the gemmules is a first unknown element ; the pro- 
pagative affinity of the gemmules is a second ; their germinative 
affinity is a third; their multiplication hy fission is a fourth — 
and what an unknown element ! " 

"Thus, in Pangenesis, everything proceeds hy force of un- 
known elements, and we may ask whether it is more logical to 
prefer a system which assumes a multitude of unknown elements 
to a system which assumes only a single one 1" 

Mr. Darwin appears, hy "Natural Selection," to destroy the 
reality of species, and hy Pangenesis that of the individual. 
Mr. Lewes ohserves 1 of the individual that "This whole is only 
a subjective conception which summarizes the parts, and that in 



1 Fortnightly Review, New Series, vol. iii. April 1868, p. 509. 




























' 









*•] 



PANGENESIS. 



217 



point of fact it is the parts which are reproduced." But the 
parts are also, from the same point of view, merely subjective 
until we come to the absolute organic atoms. These atoms, on 
the other hand, are utterly invisible, intangible; indeed, in the 
words of Mr. Darwin, inconceivable. Thus, then, it results from 
the theories in question, that the organic world is reduced to 
utter unreality as regards all that can be perceived by the 
senses or distinctly imagined by the mind; while the only reality 
consists of the invisible, the insensible, the inconceivable; in 
other words, nothing is known that really is, and only the non- 
existent can be known. A somewhat paradoxical outcome of 
the speculations of those who profess to rely exclusively on the 
testimony of sense. " Les extremes se touchent, ,r and extreme 
sensationalism shakes hands with the " das seyn ist das nichts " 






of Hegel. 



Altogether the hypothesis of Pangenesis seems to be little, if 
at all, superior to anterior hypotheses of a more or less similar 

nature. 

Apart from the atoms of Democritus, and apart also from the 

speculations of medieval writers, the molecules of Bonnet and of 
Buffon almost anticipated the hypothesis of Pangenesis. Ac- 
cording to the last-named author, 1 organic particles from every 
part of the body assemble in the sexual secretions, and by their 
union build up the embryo, each particle taking its due place, 
and occupying in the offspring a similar position to that which it 
occupied in the parents.. In 1849 Professor Owen, in his treatise 
"Parthenogenesis," put forward another conception. Ac- 
cording to this, the cells resulting from the subdivision of the 
germ-cell preserve their developmental force, unless employed in 
building up definite organic structures. In certain creatures, and 
in certain parts of other creatures, germ-cells unused are stored 

1 "Histoire Naturelle, generate et particuliere, " tome ii. 1749, p. 327. 
" Ces liqueurs semiriales sont toutes deux un extrait de toutes les parties 

du corps," &c. 



on 


















■ 























218 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap 



up, and by their agency lost limbs and other mutilations are 
repaired. Such unused products of the germ- cell are also 



According to Mr 

living 



supposed to become located in the generative products. 

Spencer, in his "Principles of 
Biology," each living organism consists of certain so-called 
" physiological units." Each of these units has an innate power 
and capacity, by which it tends to build up and reproduce the 
entire organism of which it forms a part, unless in the meantime 
its force is exhausted by its taking part in the production of 
some distinct and definite tissue— a condition somewhat similar 
to that conceived by Professor Owen. 

Now, at first sight, Mr. Darwin's atomic theory appears to be 
more simple than any of the others. It has been objected that 



Mr 



Mr. 



the other hand, requires nothing of the kind, but explains the 
evolution of each individual by purely mechanical conceptions. 
In fact, however, it is not so. Each gemmule, according to 
Mr. Darwin, is really the seat of powers, elective affinities, and 
special tendencies as marked and mysterious as those possessed 



Mr 



ception that, the former has no tendency to build up the whole 
living, complex organism of which it forms a part. Some may 
think this an important distinction, but it can hardly be so, for 
Mr. Darwin considers that his gemmule has the innate power 
and tendency to build up and transform itself into the whole 
living, complex cell of which it forms a part ; and the one ten- 
dency is, in principle, fully as difficult to understand, fully as 
mysterious, as is the other. The difference is but one of degree, 
not of kind. Moreover, the one mystery in the case of the 
"physiological unit" explains all, while with regard to the 
gemmule, as we have seen, it has to be supplemented by other 
powers and tendencies, each distinct, and each in itself inex- 
plicable and profoundly mysterious. 















*- 


















X.] 



PANGENESIS. 



219 



to direct gr 



That there should be physiological units possessed of the power 
attributed to them, harmonizes with what has recently been 
put forward by Dr. H. Charlton Bastian ; who maintains that 
under fit conditions the simplest organisms develop themselves 
into relatively large and complex ones. Tbis is not supposed 
by him to be due to any inheritance of ancestral gemmules, but 

owth and transformation of the most minute and 
the simplest organisms, which themselves, by all reason and 
analogy, owe their existence to immediate transformation from 

the inorganic world. 

Thus, then, there are grave difficulties in the way of the 
reception of the hypothesis of Pangenesis, which moreover, if 
established, would leave the evolution of individual organisms, 
when thoroughly analysed, little if at all less mysterious or 
really explicable than it is at present. 

As was said at the beginning of this chapter, " Pangenesis " 
and " Natural Selection " are quite separable and distinct hypo- 
theses. The fall of one of these by no means necessarily 



includes that of the other. 



Nevertheless, Mr. Darwin has 



associated them closely together, and, therefore, the refutation 
of Pangenesis may render it advisable for those who have 
hitherto accepted "Natural Selection" to reconsider that 

* 

theory. 










































CHAPTER XL 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



* 

Review of the statements and arguments of preceding chapters. 
Cumulative argument against predominant action of "Natural Selec- 



tion. 



■Whether anything positive as well as negative can be 



enunciated.— Constancy of laws of nature does not necessarily imply 
constancy of specific evolution.— Possible exceptional stability of exist- 



ing epoch.- 



Probability that an internal cause of change exists.— Innate 
powers must be conceived as existing somewhere or other.— Symbolism 
of molecular action under vibrating impulses.— Professor Owen's state- 
ment—Statement of the Author's- view.— It avoids the difficulties 
which oppose "Natural Selection."— It harmonizes apparently con- 
flicting conceptions.— Summary and conclusion. 

Having now severally reviewed the principal bio-logical facts 
which bear upon specific manifestation, it remains to sum up 
the results, and to endeavour to ascertain what, if anything 



can be said positively, as well as negatively, 
interesting question. 



on this deeply 



In the preceding chapters it has been contended, in the first 
place, that no mere survival of the fittest accidental and 
minute variations can account for the incipient stages of useful 
structures, such as, e.g., the heads of flat-fishes, the baleen of 
whales, vertebrate limbs, the laryngeal structures of the new- 
born kangaroo, the pedicellariae of Echinoderms, or for many 
of the facts of mimicry, and especially those last touches of 
mimetic perfection, where an insect not only mimics a leaf, but 
one worm-eaten and attacked by fungi.. 




































CHAP. XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



221 



Also, that structures like the hood of the cohra and the rattle 
of the rattlesnake seem to require another explanation. 

Again, it has "been contended that instances of colour, as in 
some apes ; of beauty, as in some shell-fish ; and of utility, as 
in many orchids, are examples of conditions which are quite 
"beyond the power of Natural Selection to originate and develop. 

Next, the peculiar mode of origin of the eye (by the simul- 
taneous and concurrent modification of distinct parts), with 
the wonderful refinement of the human ear and voice, have 
been insisted on ; as also, that the importance of all these 

is intensified through the necessity (admitted by Mr. 



facts 



be 



taneously modified in order that slightly favourable variations 
may hold their own in the struggle for life, against the over- 
whelming foree and influence of mere number. 

Again, we have considered, in the third chapter, the great 
improbability that from minute variations in all directions 
alone and unaided, save by the survival of the fittest, closely 
similar structures should independently arise; though, on a 
non-Darwinian evolutionary hypothesis, their development might 
be expected a priori. We have seen, however, that there are 
many instances of wonderfully close similarity which are not 
due to genetic affinity ; the most notable instance, perhaps, 



being that brought forward by Mr. Murphy, namely, 



the 



appearance of the same eye-structure in the vertebrate and 
molluscous sub-kingdoms. A curious resemblance, though less 
in degree, has also been seen to exist between the auditory 
organs of fishes and of Cephalopods. Eemarkable similarities 
between certain placental and implacental mammals, between 
the bird's-head processes of Polyzoa and the pedicellariae of 
Echinoderms, between Ichthyosauria and Cetacea, with very 
many other similar coincidences, have also been pointed out. 

Evidence has also been brought forward to show that simi- 
larity is sometimes directly induced by very obscure conditions, 



i 











• 




























* I 










222 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 


















[cHAr 



were 



brought forward, in Chapter IV., such as the 



at present quite inexplicable, e. g. by causes immediately con- 
nected with geographical distribution: as in the loss of the 
tail in certain forms of Lepidoptera and in simultaneous modi- 
fications of colour in others, and. in the direct modification of 
young English oysters, when transported to the shore of the 
Mediterranean. 

Again, it has been asserted that certain groups of organic 
forms seem to have an innate tendency to remarkable deve- 
lopments of some particular kind, as beauty and singularity of 
plumage in the group of birds of paradise. 

It has also been contended that there is something to be 
said in favour of sudden, as opposed to exceedingly minute 

and gradual, modifications, even if the latter are not fortuitous. 
■ Cases 

bivalve just mentioned, twenty-seven kinds of American trees 
simultaneously and similarly modified, also the independent 
production of pony breeds, and the case of the English grey- 
hounds in Mexico, the offspring of which produced directly 
acclimated progeny. Besides these, the case of the Normandy 
pigs, of Datura tatula, and also of the black-shouldered peacock, 
have been spoken of. The teeth of the labyrinthodon, the 
hand of the potto, the whalebone of whales, the wino-s of 
birds, the climbing tendrils of some plants, &c. have also been 
adduced as instances of structures, the origin and production 
of which are probably due rather to considerable modifications 
than to minute increments. 

It has also been shown that certain forms which were once 
supposed to be especially transitional and intermediate (as, e.g., 
the aye-aye) are really by no means so ; while the general rule, 
that the progress of forms has been " from the more general to 
the more special," has been shown to present remarkable ex- 
ceptions, as, e. g., Macrauchenia, the Glyptodon, and the sabre- 
toothed tiger (Machairodus). 
• Next, as to specific stability, it has been seen that there may 



\ 































XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



223 



■ 

"be a certain limit to normal variability, and that if changes 
take place they may he expected a priori to he marked and 
considerable ones, from the facts of the inorganic world, and 
perhaps also of the lowest forms of the organic world, 
has also heen seen that with regard to minnte spontaneous 
variations in races, there is a rapidly increasing difficulty in 
intensifying them, in any one direction, hy ever such careful 



It 



breeding. 



Moreov 



a tendency to variability in special directions, and probably in 
different degrees, and that at any rate Mr. Darwin himself 
concedes the existence of an internal barrier to change when 
he credits the goose with " a singularly inflexible organization ;" 
also, that he admits the presence of an internal proclivity to 
change when he speaks of " a whole organization seeming to 
have become plastic, and tending to depart from the parental 

type." 

We have seen also that a marked tendency to reversion does 



exist, inasmuch as 



it sometimes takes place in 



a striking 



manner, as exemplified in the white silk fowl in England, in ' 

spite of careful selection in breeding. 

Again, we have seen that a tendency exists in nature to 
eliminate hybrid races, by whatever means that elimination is 
effected, while no similar tendency bars the way to an indefinite 
blending of varieties. This has also been enforced by state- 
ments as to the prepotency of certain pollen of identical species, 

but of distinct races. 

To all the preceding considerations have been added others 

derived from the relations of species to past time. It has been 
contended that we have as yet no evidence of minutely inter- 
mediate forms connecting uninterruptedly together undoubtedly 
distinct species. That while even "horse ancestry" fails to 
supply such a desideratum, in very strongly marked and excep- 
tional kinds (such as the Ichthyosauria, Chelonia, and Anoura), 
the absence of links is very important and significant. For if 






































224 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



every species, without exception, has arisen by minute modifica- 
tions, it seems incredible that a small percentage of such 
transitional forms should not have been preserved This of 
course, is especially the case as regards the marine Ichthyosauria 
and Plesiosauria, of which such numbers of remains have been 
discovered. 



Sir William Thomson's great authority has been 



seen to 



oppose itself to " Natural Selection," by limiting, on astronomical 
and physical grounds, the duration of life on this planet to 
about one hundred million years. This period, it has been con- 
tended, is not nearly enough on the one hand for the evolution 
of all organie forms by the exclusive action of mere minute, 
fortuitous variations ; on the other hand, for the deposition of 
all the strata which must have been deposited, if minute fortui- 
tous variation was the manner of successive specific manifestation. 

Again, the geographical distribution of existing animals has 
been seen to present difficulties which, though not themselves 
insurmountable, yet have a certain weight when taken in con- 
junction with all the other objections. 

The facts of homology, serial, bilateral and vertical, have also 
been passed in review. Such facts, it has been contended, are 
not explicable without admitting the action of what may most 
conveniently be spoken of as an internal power, the existence of 
which is supported by facts not only of comparative anatomy 
but of teratology and pathology also. "Natural Selection" also 
has been shown to be impotent to explain these phenomena, 
while the existence of such an internal power of homologous 
evolution diminishes the a priori improbability of an analogous 
law of specific origination. 

All these various considerations have been supplemented by 
an endeavour to show the utter inadequacy of Mr. Darwin's 
theory with regard to the higher psychical phenomena of man 
(especially the evolution of moral conceptions), and with regard 
to the evolution of individual organisms by the action of 


















XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



225 



Pangenesis. And it was implied that if Mr. Darwin's latter 
hypothesis can be shown to be untenable, an antecedent doubt 
is thus thrown upon his other conception, namely, the theory of 



u 



Natural Selection.' 



A 



cumulative argument 



thus arises against 



the prevalent 

action of " Natural Selection," which, to the mind of the Author, 
is conclusive. As before observed, he was not originally 



Mr 



Reiterate 



endeavours to solve its difficulties have, however, had the 
effect of convincing him that that theory as the one or as the 
leading explanation of the successive evolution and manifesta- 
tion of specific forms, is untenable. At the same time he 
admits fully that "Natural Selection" acts and must act, and 
that it plays in the organic world a certain though a secondary 

and subordinate part. 

The one modus operandi yet suggested having been found 
insufficient, the question arises, Can another be substituted 
in its place 1 If not, can anything that is positive, and if any- 
thing, what, be said as to the question of specific origination 1 

Now, in the first place, it is of course axiomatic that the 
laws- which conditioned the evolution of extinct and of existing 
species are of as much efficacy at this moment as at any preced- 
ing period, that they tend to the manifestation of new forms as 
much now as ever before. It by no means necessarily follows, 
however, that this tendency is actually being carried into 
effect, and that new species of the higher animals and plants 
are actually now produced. They may be so or they may not, 



according as 



existing circumstances favour, or conflict with, 



the action of those laws. It is possible that lowly organized 
creatures may be continually evolved at the present day, the 
requisite conditions being more or less easily supplied. There 
is, however, no similar evidence at present as to higher forms ; 

7 * # 

while, as we have seen in Chapter VII., there are a prion con- 
siderations which militate against their being similarly evolved. 

Q 


































226 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 












[chap. 





The presence of wild varieties and the difficulty which often 
exists in the determination of species are sometimes adduced 
as arguments that high forms are now in process of evolution. 
These facts, however, do not necessarily prove more than that 
some species possess a greater variability than others, and (what 
is indeed unquestionable) that species have often been unduly 
multiplied by geologists and botanists. It may be, for example, 
that Wagner was right, and that all the American monkeys of 
the genus cebus may be reduced to a single species or to two. 

With regard to the lower organisms, and supposing views 
recently advanced to become fully established, there is no reason 
to think that the forms said to be evolved were new species, but 
rather reappearances of definite kinds which had appeared before 
and will appear again under the same conditions. In the same 
way, with higher forms similar conditions must educe similar 
results, but here practically similar conditions can rarely obtain 
because of the large part which " descent " and "inheritance" 
always play in such highly organized forms. 

Still it is conceivable that different combinations at different 
times may have occasionally the same outcome just as the 
multiplications of different numbers may have severally the 
same result. 

There are reasons, however, for thinking it possible that the 
human race is a witness of an exceptionally unchanoino- and 
stable condition of things, if the calculations of Mr. Croll are 
valid as to how far variations in the eccentricity in the earth's 
orbit together with the precession of the equinoxes have pro- 
duced changes in climate. Mr. Wallace has pointed out 2 that 
the last 00,000 years having been exceptionally unchanging as 

* 

i See Nature, March 3, 1870, p. 454. Mr. Wallace says (referring to 
Mr. droll's paper in the Phil. Mag.), "As we are now, and have been for 
60,000 years, in a period of low eccentricity, the rate of change of species 
during that time may be no measure of the rate that has generally obtained 
in past geological epochs" 



























XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



227 



fingers on such cases ; as Mr. Murphy well 



regards these conditions, specific evolution may have been ex- 
ceptionally rare. It becomes then possible to suppose that for a 
similar period stimuli to change in the manifestation of animal 
forms may have been exceptionally few and feeble, — that is, if 
the conditions of the earth's orbit have been as exceptional as 
stated. However, even if new species are actually now being 
evolved as actively as ever, or if they have been so quite 
recently, no conflict thence necessarily arises with the view 
here advocated. For it by no means follows that if some 
examples of new species have recently been suddenly pro- 
duced from individuals of antecedent species, we ought to be 

able to put our 
observes 1 in a passage before quoted, "If a species were to come 
suddenly into being in the wild state, as the Ancon sheep did 
under domestication, how could we ascertain the fact ? If the 
first of a newly-born species were found, the fact of its discovery 
would tell nothing about its origin. Naturalists would register 
it as a very rare species, having been only once met with, but 
they would have no means of knowing whether it were the first 

or the last of its race." 

But are there any grounds for thinking that in the genesis of 
species an internal force or tendency interferes, co-operates with 
and controls the action of external conditions ? 

It is here contended that there are such grounds, and that 
though inheritance, reversion, atavism, Natural Selection, &c, 
play a part not unimportant, yet that such an internal power is 

■ 

a great, perhaps the main, determining agent. 

It will, however, be replied that such an entity is no vera 
causa; that if the conception is accepted, it is no real explanation j 
and that it is merely a roundabout way of saying that the facts 
are as they are, while the cause remains unknown. To this it 
may be rejoined that for all who believe in the existence of the 



" Habit and Intelligence/' vol. i. p. 344. 



Q : 



9 



9 •' !*'! 














































228 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



abstraction "force" at all, other than will, this conception of 
an internal force must be accepted and located somewhere 



cannot be eliminated altogether; and that therefore it may 
as reasonably be accepted in this mode as in any other. 

It was urged at the end of the third chapter that it is con- 
gruous to credit mineral species with an internal power or force. 
By such a power it ,may be conceived that crystals not only 
assume their external symmetry, but even repair it when 
injured. Ultimate chemical elements must also be conceived as 
possessing an innate tendency to form certain unions, and to 
cohere in stable aggregations. This was considered towards the 
end of Chapter VIII. 

Turning to the organic world, even on the hypothesis of 
Mr. Herbert Spencer or that of Mr. Darwin, it is impossible to 
escape the conception of innate internal forces. "With regard 
to the physiological units of the former, Mr. Spencer himself, as 
we have seen, distinctly attributes to them "an innate tendency " 
to evolve the parent form from which they sprang. With 



regard to 



the 



gemmules of Mr. Darwin, we have seen 



5 



m 



Chapter X., with how many innate powers, tendencies, and 
capabilities they must each be severally endowed, to reproduce 
their kind, to evolve complex organisms or cells, to exercise 
germinative affinity, &c. 

If then (as was before said at the end of Chapter VIII.) 
such innate powers must be attributed to chemical atoms 
to mineral species, to gemmules, and to physiological units, 
it is only reasonable to attribute such to each individual 
organism. 

The conception of such internal and latent capabilities is 
somewhat like that of Mr. Galton, before mentioned, according 
to which the organic world consists of entities, each of which is, 
as it were, a spheroid with many facets on its surface, upon 
one of which it reposes in stable equilibrium. When by the 
accumulated action of incident forces this equilibrium is dis- 



















^ -« 



















XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



229 



turbed, the spheroid is supposed to turn over until it settles on 
an adjacent facet once more in stable equilibrium. 

The internal tendency of an organism to certain considerable 
and definite changes would correspond to the facets on the 

surface of the spheroid. 

It may be objected that we have no knowledge as to how 
terrestrial, cosmical and other forces can affect organisms so as to 
stimulate and evolve these latent, merely potential forms. But 
Ave have had evidence that such mysterious agencies do affect 
organisms in ways as yet inexplicable, in the very remarkable 
effects of geographical conditions which were detailed in the 

third chapter. 

It is quite conceivable that the material organic world may be 

so constituted that the simultaneous action upon it of all known 
forces, mechanical, physical, chemical, magnetic, terrestrial, and 
cosmical, together with, other as yet unknown forces which 
probably exist, may result in changes which are harmonious and 
symmetrical, just as the internal nature of vibrating plates causes 
particles of sand scattered over them to assume definite and 
symmetrical figures when made to oscillate in different ways by 
the bow of a violin being drawn along their edges. The results 
of these combined internal powers and external influences might 
be represented under the symbol of complex series of vibrations 
(analogous to those of sound or light) forming a most complex 
harmony or a display of most varied colours. In such a way 
the reparation of local injuries might be symbolized as a filling 
up and completion of an interrupted rhythm, 
monstrous aberrations from typical structure 
spond to a discord, and sterility from crossing be compared 
with the darkness resulting from the interference of waves 



Thus also 
might corre- 



of light. 



Such symbolism will harmonize with the peculiar reproduction, 



\ 



Mioned 



the facts of serial homology, as well as those of bilateral and 






























-: 









230 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



vertical symmetry. Also, as the atoms of a resonant body may 
be made to give out sound by the juxtaposition of a vibrating 
tuning-fork, so it is conceivable that ihe physiological units of a 
living organism may be so influenced by surrounding conditions 
(organic and other) that the accumulation of these conditions 
may upset the previous rhythm of such units, producing modi- 
fications in them—a fresh chord in the harmony of nature— a 
new species ! 

But it may be again objected that to say that species arise by 
the help of an innate power possessed by organisms is no expla- 
nation, but is a reproduction of the absurdity, V opium endormit 
parcequ'il a une vertu soporifiqw. It is contended, however, 
\ that this objection does not apply, even if it be conceded that 
there is that force in Moliere's ridicule which is generally attri- 
buted to it.* Much, however, might be said in opposition to 
more than one of that brilliant dramatist's smart philosophical 
epigrams, just as to the theological ones of Voltaire, or to the 



biological 



one of that other Frenchman who for 



a time 



discredited a cranial skeletal theory by the phrase " Vertebre 
pensante." 2 

• In. fact, however, it is a real explanation of how 
lives ' ... . 



a man 



to say that he lives independently, on his own income, 
instead of being supported by his relatives and friends. In the 
same way,, there is fully as real a distinction between the produc- 
tion of new specific manifestations entirelv ab externo and by the 
production of the same through an innate force and tendency, 

^l a ^ n : : !f ! *l COnt , end that beside the °P ; ™ there existed a real 



distinct objective entity, 
ridicule indeed. 



its soporific virtue, 



r, , ., . - .he would be open to 

i*ut ; the constitution of our minds is such that we cannot 



but distinguish ideally a thing from its even esTeS ZIZTZ 
qualities. The joke is sufficiently amusing, however, regarded a the 
solemn enunciation of a mere truism. <*» 

2 Noticed by Professor Owen in his "Archetype," p. 76. Recently it has 
been attempted to discredit Darwinism in France' by speaking of "it « « £ 

la science mousseicse /" 































XT.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



231 



the determination of which into action is occasioned by external 



circumstances. 



To say that organisms possess this innate power, and that by 
it new species are from time to time produced, is by no means 
a mere assertion that they are produced, and in an unknown 



mode. 



It is the negation of that view which deems external 



forces alone sufficient, and at the same time the assertion 
of something positive, to be arrived at by the process of 

reductio ad- absurdum. 

All physical explanations result ultimately in such conceptions 
of innate power, or else in that of will force. The far-famed 
explanation of the celestial motions ends in the conception 
that every particle of matter has the innate power of attracting 
every other particle directly as the mass, and inversely as the 
square of the distance. 

We are logically driven to this positive conception it we do 
not accept the view that there is no force but volition, and that 
all phenomena whatever are the immediate results of the action 
of intelligent and self-conscious will. 

We have seen that the notion of sudden changes— saltatory 

nature— has received countenance from Professor 
Huxley l We must conceive that these jumps are orderly, 
and according to law, inasmuch as the whole cosmos is such. 
Such orderly evolution harmonizes with a teleology derived, 
not indeed from external nature directly, but from the mind of 
1U axx. On this point, however, more will be said in the next 
chapter. But, once more, if new species are not manifested 
by the action of external conditions upon minute 
individual differences, in what precise way may we conceive that 
manifestation to have taken place 1 

Are new species now evolving, as they have been from time 
to time evolved 1 If so, in what way and by what conceivable 



actions in 



man. 



indefinite 



means 1 



" Lay Sermons," p. 342 
















• 













. 

































TN 







232 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



^ In the first place, they must be produced by natural action 
in pre-existing material, or by supernatural action. 

For reasons to be given in the next chapter, the second hypo- 
thesis need not be considered. 

If, then, new species are and have been evolved from pre-exist 
ing material, must that material have been organic or inorganic % 

As before said, additional arguments have lately been brought 
forward to show that individual organisms do arise from a biis 
ot ^-organic material only. As, however, this at the most 
appears to be the case, if at all, only with the lowest and 
most minute organisms exclusively, the process 
observed, though it may perhaps be fairly inferred. 



cannot be 



We 




that highly organized animals and plants can be suddenly or 
gradually built up by any combination of physical forces and 
natural powers acting externally and internally upon and in 
merely inorganic material as a base. 

But the question is, how have the highest kinds of animals 
and plants arisen? It seems impossible that they can have 
appeared otherwise than by the agency of antecedent organisms 
not greatly different from them. 

itude of facts, ever increasing in number and impor- 
tance, all point to such a mode of specific manifestation. 

One very good example has been adduced by Professor Flower 
in the introductory lecture of his first Hunterian Course. 1 It 
is the reduction in size, to a greater or less degree, of the second 
and third digits of the foot in Australian marsupials, and this 
in spite of the very different form and function of the foot in 
different groups of those animals. 

A similarly significant evidence of relationship is afforded 
by processes of the zygomatic region of the skull in certain 
edentates existing and extinct. 

x Introductory Lecture of February 14, 1870, pp. 24-30, Figs 1 
Churchill and Sons.) ' s 



4. 








^^ 










XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



233 



Again, the relation between existing and recent faunas of the. 
different regions of the world, and the predominating (though 
by no means exclusive) march of organization, from the more 
general to the more special, point in the same direction. 

Almost all the facts brought forward by the patient industry 
of Mr. Darwin in support of his theory of " Natural Selection," 
are of course available as evidence in favour of the agency of 
pre-existing and similar animals in specific evolution. 

Now the new forms must be produced by changes taking 
place in organisms in, after or before their birth, either in their 
embryonic, or towards or in their adult, condition. 

Examples of strange births are sufficiently common, and 
they may arise either from direct embryonic modifications or 
apparently from some obscure change in the parental action. 
To the former category belong the hosts of instances of malfor- 
mation through arrest of development, and perhaps generally 
monstrosities of some sort are the result of such affections of the 
embryo. To the second category belong all cases of hybridism, 
of cross breed, and in all probability the new varieties and forms, 
such as the memorable one of the black-shouldered peacock, 
all these cases we do not have abortions or monstrosities, but 
more or less harmonious forms often of great functional activity, 
endowed with marked viability and generative prepotency, 
except in the case of hybrids, when we often find even a more 
marked generative impotency. 

It seems probable therefore that new species may arise from 
some constitutional affection of parental forms— an affection 
mainly, if not exclusively, of their generative system. Mr. 
Darwin has carefully collected 1 numerous instances to show how 
excessively sensitive to various influences this system is. 
says : 2 " Sterility is independent of general health, and U often 

1 See especially "Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. 
chap, xviii. a " Origin of Species," 5th edition, pp. 323, 324. 



In 



He 

















\ 
























- 





■ I 



234 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



accompanied by excess of size, or great luxuriance," and, "Ko 
one can tell, till he tries, whether any particular animal will 
breed under confinement, or any exotic plant seed freely under 



culture." 



When 



nature may be, it generally tends to be inherited, at least in 
a temporary and sometimes in a most persistent 



manner. 



Yet the obscure action of conditions will alter characters long 
inherited, as the grandchildren of Aylesbury ducks, removed to 
a distant part of England, completely lost their early habit of 
incubation, and hatched their eggs at the same time with the 
common ducks of the same place." 2 

Mr. Darwin quotes Mr. Bartlett as saying: "It is remarkable 
that lions breed more freely in travelling collections than in the 
zoological gardens ; probably the constant excitement and irrita- 
tion produced by moving from place to place, or change of air, 
may have considerable influence in the matter." 3 

Mr. Darwin also says: "There is reason to believe that insects 
are affected by confinement like the higher animals," and he 
gives examples. 4 

Again, he gives examples of change oi plumage in the linnet, 
bunting, oriole, and other birds, and of the temporary modifica- 
tion of the horns of a male deer during a voyage. 5 

Finally, he adds that these changes cannot be attributed to 
loss of health or vigour, " when we reflect how healthy, long- 
lived, and vigorous many animals are under captivity, such as 
parrots, and hawks when used for hawking, chetahs when used 
for hunting, and elephants. The reproductive organs themselves 
are not diseased ; and the diseases from which animals in mena- 
geries usually perish, are not those which in any way affect their 
fertility. No domestic animal is more subject to disease than 
the sheep, yet it is remarkably prolific It would appear 



2 



" Animals and 
Ibid. p. 25. 

Ibid. p. 157. 



Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 2, 

3 Ibid. p. 151. 
5 Ibid. p. 158. 
























XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



235 



that any change in the habits of life, whatever these habits may 
be, if great enough, tends to affect in an inexplicable manner the 

powers of reproduction." 

Such, then, is the singular sensitiveness of the generative 

system. 

As to the means by which that system is affected, we see that 

a variety of conditions affect it ; but as to the modes in which 
they act upon it, we have as yet little if any clue. 

We have also seen the singular effects (in tailed Lepidoptera, 
&c.) of causes connected with geographical distribution, the mode 
of action of which is as yet quite inexplicable ; and we have 
also seen the innate tendency which there appears to be in 
certain groups (birds of paradise, &c.) to develop peculiarities 

of a special kind. 

It is, to say the least, probable that other influences exist, ter- 
restrial and cosmical, as yet un-noted. The gradually accumulating 
or diversely combining actions of all these on highly sensitive 
structures, which are themselves possessed of internal responsive 
powers and tendencies, may well result in occasional repeated 
productions of forms harmonious and vigorous, and differing 
from the parental forms in proportion to the result of the 
combining or conflicting action of all external and internal 

influences. 

If, in the past history of this planet, more causes ever inter- 
vened, or intervened more energetically than at present, we 
might a priori expect a richer and more various evolution of 
forms more radically differing than any which could be produced 
under conditions of more perfect equilibrium. At the same time, 
it it be true that the last few thousand years have been a period 
of remarkable and exceptional uniformity as regards this planet's 
astronomical relations, there are then some grounds for thinking 
that oruanic evolution may have been exceptionally depressed 
during the same epoch. 

Now as to the fact that sudden changes and sudden develop- 












I 


























r 








/ 
























, 



236 



\ 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



ments have occurred, and as to the probability that such changes 
are likely to occur, evidence was given in Chapter IV. 

In Chapter V. we also saw that minerals become modified 
suddenly and considerably by the action of incident forces— as, 
e.g., the production of hexagonal tabular crystals of carbonate 
of copper by sulphuric acid, and of long rectangular prisms by 
ammonia, &c. 

We have thus a certain antecedent probability that if changes 
are produced in specific manifestation through incident forces, 
these changes will be sensible and considerable, not minute and 
infinitesimal. 

Consequently, it is probable that new species have appeared 
from time to time with comparative suddenness, and that they 
still continue so to arise if all the conditions necessary for specific 
evolution now obtain. 

This probability will be increased if the observations of Dr. 
Bastian are confirmed by future investigation, 
his report, when the requisite conditions were supplied, the 
transformations which appeared to take place (from very low 
to higher organisms) were sudden, definite, and complete. 

Therefore, if this is so, there must probably exist in higher 

That tendency may 
indeed be long suppressed, and ultimately modified by the action 
of heredity — an action which would increase in force with the 
increase in the perfection and complexity of the 
affected. Still we might expect that such changes as do take 
place would be also sudden, definite, and complete. 

Moreover, as the same causes produce the same effects, several 
individual parent forms must often have been similarly and simul- 
taneously affected. That they should be so affected— at least 
that several similarly modified individuals should simultaneously 

has been seen to be a generally necessary circumstance for 
the permanent duration of such new modifications. 

It is also conceivable that such new forms may be endowed 



According to 



forms a similar tendency to such change. 



organism 



arise 










■ 









XT.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



23 



/ 



with excessive constitutional strength and viability, and with gene- 
rative prepotency, as was the case with the hlack-shouldered 
peacock in Sir J. Trevelyan's flock. This flock was entirely com- 
posed of the common kind, and yet the new form rapidly deve- 



>/ 



Mr 



powers. 



When 



Herbert Spencer, and which is plainly the fact (namely, that 
chan-es of conditions and incident forces, within limits, augment 
the viability and fertility of individuals), harmonizes well with 
the su^ested possibility as to an augmented viability and pre- 
potency in new organic forms evolved by peculiar consentaneous 
actions of conditions and forces, both external and internal. 

The remarkable series of changes noted by Dr. Bastian were 
certainly not produced by external incident forces only, but by 
these acting on a peculiar materia, having special properties and 

Therefore, the changes were induced by the consen- 
taneous action of internal and external forces. 2 In the same way 
then, we may expect changes in higher forms to be evolved by 
similar united action of internal and external forces. 

One other point may here be alluded to. 
able way in which structure and function simultaneously change, 
is borne in mind : when those numerous instances in which 
nature has supplied similar wants by similar means, as detailed 
in Chapter III., are remembered; when also all the wonderful 
contrivances of orchids, of mimicry, and the strange complexity 
of certain instinctive actions are considered: then the conviction 
forces itself on many minds that the organic world 
expression of an intelligence of some kind. This view has 
been well advocated by Mr. Joseph John Murphy, in his recent 
work so oi'ten here referred to. 

i " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i. p. 291. 
2 Though hardly necessary, it may be well to remark that the views neie 
advocated in no way depend 'upon the truth of the doctrine of Spontaneous 

Generation. 



the 



I! 





























































238 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



This intelligence, however, is evidently not altogether such as 
ours, or else has other ends in view than those most obvious to 
us. For the end is often attained in singularly roundabout 
ways, or with a prodigality of means which seems out of all pro- 
portion with the result : not with the simple action directed to 
one end which generally marks human activity. 

Organic nature then speaks clearly to many minds of the 
action of an intelligence resulting, on the whole and in the main, 
in order, harmony, and beauty, yet of an intelligence the ways 
of which are not such as ours. 

This view of evolution harmonizes well with Theistic concep- 
tions : not, of course, that this harmony is brought forward as an 
argument in its favour generally, but it will have weight with 
those who are convinced that Theism reposes upon solid grounds 
of reason as the rational view of the universe. To such it may 
be observed that, thus conceived, the Divine action has that 

- 

amount of resemblance to, and that wide amount of 
divergence from what human action would be, which might be 
expected a priori— might be expected, that is, from a Being 
whose nature and aims are utterly beyond our power to imagine, 
however faintly, but whose truth and goodness are the fountain 
and source of our own perceptions of such qualities. 

The view of evolution maintained in this work, though arrived 
at in complete independence, yet seems to agree in many re- 
spects with the views advocated by Professor Owen in the last 
volume of his "Anatomy of Vertebrates," under the term "deri- 

. He says: 1 " Derivation holds that every species 
in time, by virtue of inherent tendencies thereto. 
'Natural Selection' holds that no such change can take place 
without the influence of altered external circumstances. 2 



slight 



vation." 



ciianges 



De- 



1 Vol. iii. p. 808, 

2 This is hardly an exact representation of Mr. Darwin's view, 
theory, if a favourable variation happens to arise (the external 
stances remaining the same), it will yet be preserved. 



On his 
circum- 



























XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



239 



rivation' sees among the effects of the innate tendency to change 
irrespective of altered circumstances, a manifestation of creative 
power in the variety and beauty of the results ; and, in the ulti- 
mate forthcoming of a being susceptible of appreciating such 
beauty, evidence of the pre-ordaining of such relation of power 
to the appreciation. 'Natural Selection' acknowledges that if 
ornament or beauty, in itself, should be a purpose in creation, it 
would be absolutely fatal to it as a hypothesis." 



U i 



Natural Selection' sees grandeur in the view of life, with 
its several powers, having been originally breathed by the 
Creator into a few forms or into one. ' Derivation' sees therein 
a narrow invocation of a special miracle and an unworthy limi- 
tation of creative power, the grandeur of which is manifested 
daily, hourly, in calling into life many forms, by conversion 
of physical and chemical into vital modes of force, under as 
many diversified conditions of the requisite elements to be so 

combined. 



j; 



The view propounded in this work allows, however, a greater 
and more important part to the share of external influences, it 
being believed by the Author, however, that 'these external 
influences equally with the internal ones are the results of 
one harmonious action underlying the whole of nature, organic 
and inorganic, cosmical, physical, chemical, terrestrial, vital, 

and social. 

According to this view, an internal law presides over the 
actions of every part of every individual, and of every organism 
as a unit, and of the entire organic world as a whole. It is 
believed that this conception of an internal innate force will 
ever remain necessary, however much its subordinate processes 
and actions may become explicable : 

That by such a force, from time to time, new species are mani- 
fested by ordinary generation just as Pavo nigripennis appeared 
suddenly, these new forms not being monstrosities but harmo- 
nious self-consistent wholes. That thus, as specific distinctness 









-- 



(T* 



. 















ei 









ft 








































i i 



: t 







" 












240 



THE GENESIS- O'F SPECIES. 



[chap. 




is manifested by obscure sexual conditions, so in obscure sexual 
modifications specific distinctions arise. 

That these "jumps " are considerable in comparison with the 
minute variations of "Natural Selection"— are in fact sensible 
steps, such as discriminate species from species. 

That the latent tendency which exists to these sadden evo- 
lutions is determined to action by the stimulus of external 
conditions. 

That « Natural Selection " rigorously destroys monstrosities, 
and abortive and feeble attempts at the performance of the' 
evolutionary process. 

That " Natural Selection " removes the antecedent species 
rapidly when the new one evolved is more in harmony with 



surrounding conditions. 



in the first 



That " Natural Selection " favours and develops useful varia- 
tions, though it is impotent to originate them or to erect the 
physiological barrier which seems to exist between species. 

By some such conception as this, the difficulties here enume- 
rated, which beset the theory of " Natural Selection " pure and 
simple, are to be got over. 

Thus, for example, the difficulties discussed 
chapter— namely, those as to the origins and first beginnings 
of certain structures — are completely evaded. 

Again, as to the independent origin of closely similar struc- 
tures, such as the eyes of the Yertebrata and cuttle-fishes, the 
difficulty is removed if we may adopt the conception of an 
innate force similarly directed in each case, and assisted by 
favourable external conditions. 

Specific stability, limitation to variability, and the facts of re- 
version, all harmonize with the view here put forward. The same 
may be said with regard to the significant facts of homology, and 
of organic symmetry ; and our consideration of the hypothesis of 
Pangenesis in Chapter X., has seemed to result in a view as to 
innate powers which accords well with what is here advocated. 





























; 



v f 













XI.] 



SPECIFIC GENESIS. 



241 



The evolutionary hypothesis here advocated also serves to 
explain all those remarkable facts which were stated in the 
first chapter to he explicable by the theory of Natural Selec- 
tion, namely, the relation of existing to recent faunas and floras ; 
the phenomena of homology and of rudimentary structures; also 
the processes gone through in development ; and lastly, the 

wonderful facts of mimicry. 

Finally, the view adopted is the synthesis of many distinct 
and, at first sight, conflicting conceptions, each of which contains 
elements of truth, and all of which it appears to be able more or 

less to harmonize. 

Thus it has been seen that " Natural Selection " is accepted. 
It acts and must act, though alone it does not appear capable of 

y Mr. Darwin, 
much truth in it, and has 



Pangenesis has probably also 



certainly afforded valuable and pregnant suggestions, but un- 
aided and alone it seems inadequate to explain the evolution 

of the individual organism. 

Those three conceptions of the organic world which may be 
spoken of as the teleological, the typical, and the transmutationist, 
have often been regarded as mutually antagonistic and conflicting. 

The genesis of species as here conceived, however, accepts, 
locates, and harmonizes all the three. 

Teleology concerns the ends for which organisms were de- 
signed. The recognition, therefore, that their formation took 
place by an 



evolution not fortuitous, in no way invalidates 



the acknowledgment of their final causes if on other ^ grounds 
there are reasons for believing that such final causes exist. 

Conformity to type, or the creation of species according to 
certain " divine ideas," is in no way interfered with by such a 
process of evolution as is here advocated. Such " divine ideas " 
must be accepted or declined upon quite other grounds than the 
mode of their realization, and of their manifestation in the 
world of sensible phenomena. 



R 




































/ 













H 







242 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. XI. 



Transmutationism (an old name for the evolutionary hypo- 
thesis), which was conceived at one time to he the very anti- 
thesis to the two preceding conceptions, harmonizes weil with 
them if the evolution he conceived to he orderly and designed. 
It will in the next chapter he shown to he completely in 
harmony with conceptions, upon the acceptance of which "final 



causes 



Thus then, 



and " divine ideal archetypes " alike depend. 



if 



the cumulative argument put forward 



this hook is valid, we must admit the insufficiency of Natural 
Seleetion both on account of the residuary phenomena it fails 
to explain, and on account of certain other phenomena which 
seem actually to conflict with that theory. We have seen that 

constant, yet some of the 



though the laws of nature are 



conditions which determine specific change may he exception- 
ally absent at the present epoch of the world's history ; also 
that it is not only possible, but highly probable, that an 
internal power or tendency is an important if not the main 



agent 



in evoking the manifestation of new species on the 
scene of realized existence, and that in any case, from the facts 
of homology, innate internal powers to the full as mysterious 
must anyhow be accepted, whether they act in specific origina- 
tion or not. Besides all this, we have seen that it is probable 
that the action of this innate power is stimulated, evoked, 
and determined by external conditions, and also that the same 
external conditions, in the shape of "Natural Selection," play 
an important part in the evolutionary process : and finally, it 



has been affirmed that the view here 



"dvoc of 



ai 



ated, while it is 



supported by the facts on which Darwinism rests, is not open 
to the objections and difficulties which oppose themselves to the 
reception of « Natural Selection," as the exclusive or even as 

in the successive and orderly evolution of 



the 



m am 



agent 



>/ 



T 





















v- 



v 



G^V 



A :-.v 



•V 





#->. 



TV 









> 









- 












.- 



l-t 



•L. V §M- ( ' ■ . k 



«A£ 




,.. 



\Jb yi/l^7\f^ 



)v 



1 



^ m- Q >, 

































CHAPTER XII. 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION., 



Prejudiced opinions on the subject— " Creation '' sometimes denied from 

-The unknowable.— Mr. Herbert Spencer's objections to 
theism ; to creation.— Meanings of term " creation. "—Confusion from 



prejudice. 



not distinguishing between 



" primary " 



and ''derivative" creation. 



Mr. Darwin's objections.— Bearing of Christianity on the theory of 
evolution.— Supposed opposition, the result of a misconception.— Theo- 



logical authority not opposed to evolution.— St. Augustin. 



St. Thomas 



Aquinas.— Certain consequences of want of flexibility of mind.— Reason 
and imagination. — The first cause and demonstration.— Parallel between 
Christianity and natural theology.— What evolution of species is.— Pro 



fessor Agassiz. —Innate powers must be recognized,— Bearing of evolu- 
tion on religious belief. —Professor Huxley.— Professor Owen.— Mr. 
Wallace.— Mr. Darwin.— -4 priori conception of Divine action.— Origin 
of man.— Absolute creation and dogma.— Mr. Wallace's view.— A super- 
Two orders of being in 

■Two modes of origin.— Harmony of the physical, hyperphysical , 



natural origin for man's body not necessary 



man. 




and supernatural.— Reconciliation of science and religion as 
evolution.— Conclusion. 

- 

The special " Darwinian Theory " and that of an evolutionary- 
process neither excessively minute nor fortuitous, having now 
been considered, it is time to turn to the important question, 
whether both or either of these conceptions may have any 
bearing, and if any, what, upon Christian belief 1 

Some readers will consider such an inquiry to be a work 
of supererogation. Seeing clearly themselves the absurdity 
of prevalent popular views, and the shallowness of popular 
objections, they may be impatient of any discussion on the 

r 2 



























244 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 












subject. But it is submitted that there are many minds worthy 
of the highest esteem and of every consideration, which have 
regarded the subject hitherto almost exclusively from one point 
of view; that there are some persons who are opposed to the 
progress (in their own minds or in that of their children or de- 
pendents) of physical scientific truth— the natural revelation 

through a mistaken estimate of its religious bearings, while there 
are others who are zealous in its promotion from a precisely 
similar error. For the sake of both these then the Author may 
perhaps be pardoned for entering slightly on very elementary 
matters relating to the question, whether evolution or Dar- 
winism have any, and if any, what, bearing on theology % 

There are at least two classes of men who will certainly assert 
that they have a very important and highly significant bearing 
upon it. 

One of these classes consists of persons zealous for religion 
indeed, but who identify orthodoxy with their own private 
interpretation of Scripture or with narrow opinions in which 
they have been brought up — opinions doubtless widely spread, 
but at the same time destitute of any distinct and authoritative 
sanction on the part of the Christian Church. 

The other class is made up of men hostile to religion, and who 
are glad to make use of any and every argument which they 
think may possibly be available against it. 

Some individuals within this latter class may not believe 
in the existence of God, but may yet abstain from publicly 
avowing this absence of belief, contenting themselves with 
denials of "creation" and "design," though these denials are 
really consequences of their attitude of mind respecting the 
most important and fundamental of all beliefs. . 

Without a distinct belief in a personal God it is impossible 
to have any religion worthy of the name, and no one can at the 
same time accept the Christian religion and deny the dogma 
of creation. 























XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



245 



•• "I believe in. God," "the Creator of Heaven and Earth," 
the very first clauses of the Apostles' Creed, formally commit 
those who accept them to the assertion of this belief. It, 
therefore, any theory of physical science really conflicts with 
uch an authoritative statement, its importance to Christians 

is unquestionable. 

As, however, " creation" forms a part of " revelation," and 
as "revelation" appeals for its acceptance to "reason" which 
has to prepare a basis for it by an intelligent acceptance of 
theism on purely rational grounds, it is necessary to start with 
a few words as to the reasonableness of belief in God, which 
iudeed are less superfluous than some readers may perhaps 
imagine ; " a few words," because this is not the place where 
the "argument can be drawn out, but only one or two hints 
given in reply to certain modern objections. 

No better example perhaps can be taken, as a type of 
these objections, than a passage in Mr. Herbert Spencer's First 
Principles. 1 This author constantly speaks of the " ultimate 
cause of things 



as " 



the Unknowable," a term singularly unfor- 
tunate, and as Mr. James Martineau has pointed out,' 2 even self- 



i See 2nd edition, p. 113. . . 

2 " Essays, Philosophical and Theological," Triibnerand Co., First Series, 

186R p 190 "Every relative disability may be read two ways. A disquali- 
fication in the nature of thought for knowing x is, from the other side, a 
disqualification in the nature of x from being known. To say then that 
the First Cause is wholly removed from our apprehension is not simply a 
disclaimer of faculty on our part : it is a charge of inability against the First 
Cause too. The dictum about it is this : ' It is a Being that may exist out of 
knowledge, but that is precluded from entering within the sphere of know- 
ledge ' We are told in one breath that this Being must be in every sense 
< perfect, complete, total— including in itself all power, and transcending 
all law ' (p. 33) ; and in another that this perfect and omnipotent One 
is totally incapable of revealing any one of an infinite store of attributes.^ 
Need we point out the contradictions which this position involves ? If 
vou abide by it, you deny the Absolute and Infinite in the very act of 
affirming it, for, in debarring the First Cause from self-revelation, you 










































246 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



t 



contradictory : for that entity, the knowledge of the existence of 
which presses itself ever more and more upon the cultivated in- 
tellect, cannot he the unknown, still less the unknowable, because 
we certainly know it, in that we know for certain that it exists. 
Nay more, to predicate incognoscibility of it, is even a certain 
knowledge of the mode of its existence. Mr. H. Spencer says : 1 
" The consciousness of an Inscrutable Power manifested to us 
through all phenomena has been growing ever clearer; and mus. 
eventually be freed from its imperfections. The certainty that 
on the one hand such a Power exists, while on the other hand its 
nature transcends intuition, and is beyond imagination, is the 
certainty towards which intelligence has from the first been pro- 
gressing." One would think then that the familiar and accepted 
word "the Inscrutable" (which is in this passage actually em- 
ployed, and to which no theologian would object) would be an 
indefinitely better term than "the unknowable." The above ex- 
tract has, however, such a theistic aspect that some readers may 
think the opposition here offered superfluous; it may be well, 
therefore, to quote two other sentences. In another place he 
observes, 2 " Passing over the consideration of credibility, and 
confining ourselves to that of conceivability, we see that atheism, 
pantheism, and theism, when rigorously analysed, severally prove 
to be absolutely unthinkable;" and speaking of "every form of 
religion," he adds, 3 « The analysis of every possible hypothesis 
proves, not simply that no hypothesis is sufficient but that 
no hypothesis is even thinkable." The unknowable is ad- 
mitted to be a power which cannot be regarded as having 
sympathy with us, but as one to which no emotion whatever 

impose a limit on its nature. And in the very act of declaring the First 
tause incognizable, you do not permit it to remain unknown. For that 
only is unknown, of which you can neither affirm nor deny any predicate ■ 
here you deny the power of self-disclosure to the 'Absolute,' of which 
therefore something is known ;— viz., that nothing can be known ! " 

2 Loc. cit. p. 43. 



1 Loc. cit. p, 108 



3 Loc. cit. p. 46. 






















XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



247 



practice 



can be ascribed, and we are expressly forbidden << by duty, 
to affirm personality of God as much as to deny it ot Him. 
How such a being can be presented as an object on which to ex- 
ercise religious emotion it is difficult indeed to understand. Aspi- 
ration love, devotion to be poured forth upon what we can never 
know upon what we can never affirm to know, or care for, us, 
our thoughts or actions, or to possess the attributes of wisdom 
and goodness ! The worship offered in such a religion must be, 
as Professor Huxley says/ « for the most part of the silent 
8 ort"— silent not only as to the spoken word, but silent as to tne 
mental conception also. It will be difficult to distinguish the 
follower of this religion from the follower of none, and the man 
who declines either to assert or to deny the existence of God, is 
practically in the position of an atheist. For theism enjoins the 
cultivation of sentiments of love and devotion to God, and the 
pracuu* of -their external expression. Atheism forbids both, 
while the simply non-theist abstains in conformity with the 
prohibition of the atheist and thus practically sides with him. 
Moreover, since man cannot imagine that of which he has no 
experience in any way whatever, and since he has experience 
only of human perfections and of the powers and properties of 
inferior existences j if he be required to deny human perfec- 
tions and to abstain from making use of such conceptions he 
is thereby necessarily reduced to others ot 

i Mr J Martineau, in his "Essays," vol. i. p. 211, observes, "Mr. 
S neW coSZ o pious worship are hard to satisfy ; there must he 
b S the I) line ana human no communion of thought, relates o 
S or approach of affection." . . . , « But you canno c^Utu e 
a religion out of mystery alone, any more than out of knowledge alone 
nor an vou measure the relation of doctrines to humility and piety by the 
ZTlZnZ conscious darkness which they leave. All worship, J>emg 
d ScteTto what is above us and transcends our ^pehenm steads 
rpTesence of a mystery. But not all that stands before a mysteiy 

is worship." 

2 "Lay Sermons, "p. 20. 



an inferior order. 






, 



- 






J 

















* 




































248 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



Mr. 



Spencer says, 1 "Those who espouse this alternative 
position, make the erroneous assumption that the choice is 
between personality and something lower than personality; 
whereas the choice is rather between personality and something 
higher. Is it not j ust possible that there is a mode of being 
as much transcending intelligence and will, as these transcend 
mechanical motion 1 " 

"It is true we are totally unable to conceive any such higher 

But this is not a reason for questioning its 



mode of beiim. 



existence; it is rather the reverse. 



» 



" May we not therefore 



rightly refrain from assigning to the ' ultimate cause ' any attri- 
butes whatever, on the ground that such attributes, derived as 
they must be from our own natures, are not elevations but degra- 
dations?" The way however to arrive at the object aimed at 
(i.e. to obtain the best attainable conception of the First Cause) 
is not to refrain from the only conceptions possible to us, but 
to seek the very highest of these, and then declare their utter 
inadequacy; and this is precisely the course which has been 
pursued by theologians. It is to be regretted that before writing 
on this matter Mr. Spencer did not more thoroughly acquaint 
himself with the ordinary doctrine on the subject. It is always 
taught in the Church schools of divinity, that nothing, not 
even existence, is to be predicated univocally of " God " and 
" creatures ;" that after exhausting ingenuity to arrive at the 
loftiest possible conceptions, we must declare them to be 
utterly inadequate; that, after all, they are but accommoda- 
tions to human infirmity; that they are in a sense objec- 
tively false (because of their inadequacy), though subjectively 
and very practically true. Eut the difference between this 
mode of treatment and that adopted by Mr. Spencer is wide 
indeed; for the practical result of the mode inculcated by 
the Church is that each one may freely affirm and act upon 

1 Loc. cit. p. 109. 
























XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



249 



the highest human conceptions he can attain of the power, 
wisdom, and goodness of God, His watchful care, His loving 
providence for every man, at every moment and in every need ; 
for the Christian knows that the falseness of his conceptions 
lies only in their inadequacy ; he may therefore strengthen and 
refresh himself, may rejoice and revel in conceptions of the 
goodness of God, drawn from the tenderest human images of 
fatherly care and love, or he may chasten and abase himself by 
consideration of the awful holiness and unapproachable majesty 
of the Divinity derived from analogous sources, knowing that 
no thought of man can ever be true enough, can ever attain the 
incomprehensible reality, which nevertheless really is all that 
can be conceived, plus an inconceivable infinity beyond. 

A ^ood illustration of what is here meant, and of the dif- 
ference between the theistic position and Mr. Spencer's, may 
be supplied by an example he has himself proposed. Thus, 1 he 
imagines an intelligent watch speculating as to its maker, and 
conceiving of him in terms of watch-being, and figuring him as 
furnished witli springs, escapements, cogged wheels, &c, his 

^ T • 1 "1* _£? i- -« ri 



motions facilitated by oil— in 



a word, like himself. 



It is 



assumed by Mr. Spencer that this necessary watch conception 
would be completely false, and the illustration is made use of 
to show "the presumption of theologians "-the absurdity and 
unreasonableness of those men who figure the incomprehensible 
cause of all phenomena as a Being in some way comparable 
with man. Now, putting aside for the moment all other consider- 
ations, and accepting the illustration, surely the example demon- 
strates rather the unreasonableness of the objector himself/ It is 
true, indeed, that a man is an organism indefinitely more complex 
and' perfect than any watch ; but if the watch could only con- 
ceive of its maker in watch terms, or else in terms altogether 



inferior, the watch would plainly be right m 



speakin 



1 Loc. cit. p. 11L 





i 

























250 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



its maker as a, to it, inconceivably perfect kind of watch, 
acknowledging at the same time, that this, its conception of 
him, was utterly inadequate, although the best its inferior nature 
allowed lt to form. For if, instead of so conceiving of its 
maker, it refused to make nse of these relative perfections as 
a makeshift, and so necessarily thought of him as amorphous 



? 



metal, or mere oil, or by the help of 



conception which 



entertaining, 
man can 



a watch might 



be 



that watch would b 



e 



any other inferior 
imagined capable of 
wrong indeed. For 



much more properly be compared with, and has 
much more affinity to, a perfect watch in full activity than 
to a mere piece of metal, or drop of oil. But the watch is 
even more in the right still, for its maker, man, virtually has 
the cogged wheels, springs, escapements, oil, &c, which the 
watch s conception has been supposed to attribute to him • 
inasmuch as all these parts must have existed as distinct ideas' 
m the human watchmaker's mind before he could actually con- 



struct the clock formed bv him. 



Nor is even this all, for, 



oy the hypothesis, the watch thinks. It must, therefore, think 
of its maker as "a thinking being," and in this it is absolutely 
and completely right} Either, therefore, the hypothesis is absurd 
or it actually demonstrates the very position it was chosen to refute 
Unquestionably, then, on the mere ground taken by Mr. Herbert 
Spencer himself, if we are compelled to think of the First Cause 
either in human terms (but with human imperfections abstracted 
and human perfections carried to the highest conceivable degree) 
or, on the other hand, in terms decidedly inferior, such as those 
are driven to who think of Him, but decline to accept as a help 
the term « personality ; » there can be no question but that 
the nrst conception is immeasurably nearer the truth than the 
second Yet the latter is the one put forward and advocated 
by that author in spite of its unreasonableness, and in spite also 

i In this criticism on Mr. Herbert Spencer, the Author finds he has been 
anticipated by Mr. James Martineau. (See "Essays," vol. i. p. 208.) 













p^ 









XII.] 



THEOLOGY ANT) EVOLUTION. 



2 5 1 



of its conflicting with the whole moral nature of man and all bis 

noblest aspirations. 

.Again, Mr. Herbert Spencer objects to the conception of God 
as "first' cause," on the ground that « when our symbolic con- 
ceptions are such that no cumulative or indirect processes of 
thought can enable us to ascertain that there are corresponding 
actualities, nor any predictions be made whose fulfilment can 
prove this, then they are altogether vicious and illusive, and m 
no way distinguishable from pure fictions." L 

Now, it is quite true that " symbolic conceptions," which are 
not to be justified either (1) by presentations of sense, or (2) by 



intuitions, are invalid as 



representations of real truth. Yet 



the conception of God referred to is justified by our primary 
intuitions and we can assure ourselves that it does stand for an 
actuality by comparing it with(l) our intuitions of free-will and 
causation, and (2) our intuitions of morality and responsibility. 
That we have these intuitions is a point on which the Author 
joins issue with Mr. Spencer, and confidently affirms that they 
cannot logically be denied without at the same time complete 
and absolute scepticism resulting from such denial-scepticism 
wherein vanishes any certainty as to the existence both of Mr. 
Spencer and his critic, and by which it is equally impossible to 
have a thought free from doubt, or to go so far as to affirm the 
existence of that very doubt or of the doubter who doubts it. 

It may not be amiss here to protest against the intolerable 
assumption of a certain school, who are continually talking in lofty 
terms of " science," but who actually speak of primary religious 
conceptions as " unscientific," and habitually employ the word 
"science," when they should limit it by the prefix "physical." 
This is the more amazing as not a few of this school adopt 
the idealist philosophy, and affirm that "matter and force" are 
hut names for certain " modes of consciousness." It might be 
expected of them at least to admit that opinions which repose 

1 Loc, cit. p. 29. 









fc^kJ 
































252 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



» J J * -^ ■ ■!-- TM^^. - _ ■ 

primary and fundamental intuitions, are especially and par 
dlence scientific. 



of God. 



v 



excellence scientific. 

Such are some of the objections to the Christian conception 
" ~ J TV e may now turn to those which are directed against 
God as the Creator, i.e. as the absolute originator of the° uni- 
verse, without the employment of any pre-existing means or 
material. This is again considered by Mr. Spencer as a thoroughly 
illegitimate symbolic conception, as much so as the atheistic one 
the difficulty as to a self -existent Creator being in his opinion 
"" " " !" ' niverse. To this it may be re- 

plied that both are of course equally unimaginable, but that it 
is not a question of facility of conception-not which is easiest 
to conceive,^ but which best accounts for, and accords with, psy- 

namely, with the above-mentioned intuitions. 
It is contended that we have these primary intuitions, and that 
with these the conception of a self-existent Creator is perfectly 
harmonious. On the other hand, the notion of a self-existent uni- 
verse—that there is no real distinction between the finite and the 
infinite— that the universe and ourselves are one and the same 
things with the infinite and the self-existent ; these assertions, in 
addition to being unimaginable, contradict our primary intuitions. 
Mr. Darwin's objections to " Creation " are of quite a different 
kind, and, before entering upon them, it will be well to endeavour 



chological fact 



clearly to understand what we 

. ■ 



mean by "Creation," in the 



various senses in which the term may be used. 

In the strictest and highest sense « Creation " is the absolute 
ongmation of anything by God without pre-existing means or 
material, and is a supernatural act. 1 

^ In the secondary and lower sense, « Creation " is the forma- 
tion of anything by God derivatively ; that is, that the preceding 
matter has been created with the potentiality to evolve from it, 

/p T ! ie + ^ Uth0r , m f ^ by tMs ' that [t is directl y and ^mediately the act 

of God, the word supernatural" being used in a sense convenient for the 
purposes of this work, and not in its ordinary theological sense 







> 









XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



253 



under suitable conditions, all the various forms it subsequently 

And this power having been conferred by God in the 



assumes. 



first instance, and those laws and powers having been instituted 
by Him, through the action of which the suitable conditions are 
supplied, He is said in this lower sense to create such various 
subsequent forms. This is the natural action of God in the 
physical world, as distinguished from His direct, or, as it may be 
here called, supernatural action. 

In yet a third sense, the word « Creation " may be more or 
less improperly applied to the construction of any complex for- 
mation or state by a voluntary self-conscious being who makes 
use of the powers and laws which God has imposed, as when a 
man is spoken of as the creator of a museum, or of « his own 
fortune " &c. Such action of a created conscious intelligence 
is purely natural, but more tban physical, and may be con- 
veniently spoken of as hyperphysical. _ 

We have thus (1) direct or supernatural action; (2) physical 
action; and (3) hyperphysical action-the two latter both be- 
Win- to the order of nature. 1 Neither the pbysical nor the 
hypophyseal actions, however, exclude the idea of the Divine 
concurrence, and with every consistent theist that idea is 
necessarily included. Dr. Asa Gray has given expression to 
this.* He says, -Agreeing that plants and animals were pro- 
duced by Omnipotent fiat, does not exclude the idea of natural 
order and what we call secondary causes. The record of the fiat 
_ < Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, 
&c ' let the earth bring forth the living creature after his 
kin d '-seems even to imply them," and leads to the conclusion 
that the various kinds were produced through natural agencies. 

i The nhrase "order of nature" is not here used in its theological sense 
as distinguished from the "order of grace," but as a term here convenient, 
to denote actions not due to direct and immediate Divine intervention. 

," A Free Examination of Darwin's Treatise," p. 29, reprinted from the 
Atlantic Monthly for July, August, and October, 1860. 





















' 



; 









; 


























254 



■ ■ 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap. 



Now, much confusion has arisen from not keeping clearly in 
view this distinction hetween absolute creation and derivative 
creation. With the first, physical science has plainly nothing 
whatever to do, and is impotent to prove or to refute it The 
second is also safe from any attack on the part of physical 
science, for it is primarily derived from psychical not physical 
phenomena. The greater part of the apparent force possessed 
hy objectors to creation, like Mr. Darwin, lies in their treating 
the assertion of derivative creation as if it was an assertion of 
absolute creation, or at least of supernatural action. Thus, he 
asks whether some of his opponents believe " that at' in- 
numerable periods in the earth's history, certain elemental 



atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into 



tissues. 



living 



Certain of Mr. Darwin's objections, however, are not 
physical, but metaphysical, and really attack the dogma of 
secondary or derivative creation, though to some perhaps they 
may appear to be directed against absolute creation only. 

Thus he uses, as an illustration, the conception of a man who 
builds an edifice from fragments of rock at the base of a precipice 
by selecting for the construction of the various parts of the 
building the pieces which are the most suitable owing to the 
shape they happen to have broken into. Afterwards, alluding 
to this illustration, he says,* "The shape of the fragments of 
stone at the base of our precipice may be called accidental but 
this is not strictly correct, for the shape of each depends 'on a 
long sequence of events, all obeying natural laws, on the nature 
of the rock, on the lines of stratification or cleavage, on the 
form oi the mountain which depends on its upheaval and subse- 
quent denudation, and lastly, on the storm and earthquake 



which threw down the fragments. 



But in regard to the use to 



which the fragments may be put, their shapl may strictly be 

. i " Origin of Species," 5th edition, p. 571. 

2 "Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. ii. p. 431. 













XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



255 



paid to be accidental And here we are led to face a great 
difficulty, in alluding to which. I am aware that I am travelling 
beyond my proper province." 

" An omniscient Creator must have foreseen every consequence 
which results from the laws imposed by Him ; but can it be 



reasonably maintained that the Creator intentionally ordered, if 
we use the words in any ordinary sense, that certain fragments 
of rock should assume certain shapes, so that the builder might 
erect his edifice? If the various laws wdiich have determined 
the shape of each fragment w r ere not predetermined for the 
builder's sake, can it with any greater probability be maintained 
that He specially ordained, for the sake of the breeder, each of 
the innumerable variations in our domestic animals and plants — 
many of these variations being of no service to man, and not 
beneficial far more often injurious, to the creatures themselves ? 



Did He ordain that the crop and tail-feathers of the pigeon 
should vary, in order that the fancier might make his grotesque 
pouter and fantail breeds? Did He cause the frame and mental 
qualities of the dog to vary, in order that a breed might be formed 
of indomitable ferocity, with jaws fitted to pin down the bull for 
man's brutal sport ? But, if we give up the principle in one case 
■if we do not admit that the variations of the primeval dog 



were intentionally 



guided, 



in order that the greyhound, for 



instance, that perfect image of symmetry and vigour, might be 
formed, — no shadow of reason can be assigned for the belief that 
the variations, alike in nature, and the result of the same general 
laws, which have been the groundwork through JSTatural Selec- 
tion of the formation of the most perfectly adapted animals in 
the world, man included, were intentionally and specially guided . 
However much we may wish it, we can hardly follow Professor 
Asa Gray in his belief that 
beneficial lines/ like a stream 



' variation has been led along certain 
' along definite and useful lines of 



irrigation. 



j f> 



6i 



If we assume that each particular variation was from the 












































■I I 








256 



• THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



beginning of all time pre-ordained, the plasticity of the organiza- 
tion, which leads to many injurious deviations of structure, as 
well as that redundant power of reproduction which inevitably 
leads to a struggle for existence, and, as a consequence, to the 
Natural Selection and survival of the fittest, must appear to us 
superfluous la^vs of nature. On the other hand, an omnipotent 
and omniscient Creator ordains everything and foresees every- 
thing. Thus we are brought face to face with a difficulty as 
insoluble as is that of freewill and predestination." 
' Before proceeding to reply to this remarkable passage, it 
may be well to remind some readers that belief in the exist- 
ence of God, in His primary creation of the universe, and in 
His derivative creation of all kinds of being, inorganic and 
organic, do not repose upon physical phenomena, but, as has 
been said, on primary intuitions. To deny or ridicule any of 
these beliefs on physical grounds is to commit the fallacy of 

* 

ignoratio elenchi. It is to commit an absurdity analogous te thnt 
of saying a blind child could not recognize his father because he 
could not see him, forgetting that he could hear and feel him. 
Yet there are some who appear to find it unreasonable and absurd 
that men should regard phenomena in a light not furnished by 
or deducible from the very phenomena themselves, although the 
men so regarding them avow that the light in which they do 
view them comes from quite another source. It is as if a man, 
A, coming into B's room and finding there a butterfly, should 
insist that B had no right to believe that the butterfly had not 
flown in at the open window, inasmuch as there was nothing 
about the room or insect to lead to any other belief; while B 
can well sustain his right so to believe, he having met C, who 
told him he brought in the chrysalis and, having seen the insect 
emerge, took away the skin. 

By a similarly narrow and incomplete view the assertion that 
human conceptions, such as "the vertebrate idea," &c, are ideas 
in the mind of God, is sometimes ridiculed ; as if the assertors 









XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



57 






either on the one hand pretended to some prodigious acuteness of 
mind — a far-reaching genius not possessed by most naturalists 
or, on the other hand, as if they detected in the very phenomena 
furnishing such special conception evidences of Divine imaginings. 
But let the idea of God, according to the highest conceptions of 

* 

Christianity, be once accepted, and then it becomes simply a 
truism to say that the mind of the Deity contains all that is good 
and positive in the mind of man, plus, of course, an absolutely 
inconceivable infinity beyond. That thus such human concep- 
tions may, nay must, be asserted to be at the same time ideas 
in the Divine mind also, as every real and separate individual 
that has been, is, or shall be, is present to the same mind. Nay, 
more that such human conceptions are but faint and obscure 

w 

adumbrations of corresponding ideas which exist in the mind of 
God in perfection and fulness. 1 

The theist, having arrived at his theistic convictions from quite 
other sources than a consideration of zoological or botanical 

i The Rev. Baden Powell says, "All sciences approach perfection as 
they approach to a unity of first principles,— in all cases recurring to or 
tending towards certain. high elementary conceptions which are the repre- 
sentatives of the unity of the great archetypal ideas according to which 
the whole system is arranged. Inductive conceptions, very partially and 
imperfectly realized and apprehended by human intellect, are the ex- 
ponents in our minds of these great principles in nature." 

" All science is but the partial reflexion in the reason of man, of the 
great all-pervading reason of the universe. And thus the unity of science is 
the reflexion of the unity of nature, and of the unity of that supreme 
reason and intelligence which pervades and rules over nature, and from 
whence all reason and all science is derived." (Unity of Worlds, Essay i., 
§ ii.; Unity of Sciences, pp. 79 and 81.) Also he quotes from Oersted's 
44 Soul in Nature" (pp. 12, 16, 18, 87, 92, and 377). "If the laws of 
reason did not exist in nature, we should vainly attempt to force them 
upon her : if the laws of nature did not exist in our reason, we should 
not be able to comprehend them." .... " We find an agreement 



• • 



between our reason and works which our reason did not produce." 
"All existence is a dominion of reason." "The laws of nature are laws 
of reason, and altogether form an endless unity of reason ; . . 
and the same throughout the universe." 



one 

























i \ i 



B 



I^M 







* I 









O 



258 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 












phenomena, returns to the consideration of such phenomena and 
views them in a theistic light without of course asserting or im- 
plying that such light has been derived from them, or that there 
is an obligation of reason so to view them on the part of others 
who refuse to enter upon or to accept those other sources 
whence have been derived the theistic convictions of the theist. 

But Mr. Darwin is not guilty of arguing against metaphysical 
ideas on physical grounds only, for he employs very distinctly 
metaphysical ones ; namely, his conceptions of the nature and 

* 

attributes of the First Cause. But what conceptions does he 



offer us ? 



Nothing but 



that low anthropomorphism which, 
unfortunately, he so often seems to treat as the necessary result 
of Theism. It is again the dummy, helpless and deformed, set 
up merely for the purpose of being knocked down. 

* 

It must once more be insisted on, that though man is indeed 
compelled to conceive of God in human terms, and to speak of 

■ 

Him by epithets objectively false, from their hopeless inadequacy, 
yet nevertheless the Christian thinker declares that inadequacy 
in the strongest manner, and vehemently rejects from his idea of 
God all terms distinctly implying infirmity or limitation. 

Now, Mr. Darwin speaks as if all who believe in the Almighty 
were compelled to accept as really applicable to the Deity con- 
ceptions which affirm limits and imperfections. Thus he says : 
" Can it be reasonably maintained that the Creator intention- 
ally ordered " " that certain fragments of rock should assume 
certain shapes, so that the builder might erect his edifice ? " 

Why, surely every theist must maintain that in the first foun- 
dation of the universe — the primary and absolute creation — God 
saw and knew every purpose which every atom and particle of 
matter should ever subserve in all suns and systems, and throughout 
all coming aeons of time. It is almost incredible, but neverthe- 
less it seems necessary to think that the difficulty thus proposed 
rests on a sort of notion that amidst the boundless profusion of 
nature there is too much for God to superintend; that the number 














XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND W0LUT10N. 



259 



of objects is too great for an infinite and omnipresent being to 
attend singly to each, and all in their due proportions and needs ! 
In the same way Mr. Darwin asks whether God can have ordered 
the race variations referred to in the passage last quoted, for 
the considerations therein mentioned. To this it may be at 
once replied that even man often has several distinct intentions 
and motives for a single action, and the theist has no difficulty 
in supposing that, out of an infinite number of motives, the 
motive mentioned in each case may have been an exceedingly 
subordinate One. The theist, though properly attributing to 
God what, for want of a better term, he calls "purpose" and 
"design," yet affirms that the limitations of human purposes and 
motives'are by no means applicable to the Divine "purposes." Out 
of many, say a thousand million, reasons for the institution of the 
laws of the physical universe, some few are to a certain extent 
conceivable by us ; and amongst these the benefits, material and 
moral accruing from them to men, and to each individual man 
in every circumstance of his life, play a certain, perhaps a very 
subordinate, part. 1 As Baden Powell observes, « How can we 

i In the same way Mr. Lewes, in criticising the Duke of Argyll's « Reign 
of Law" (Fortnightly Review, July 1867, p. 100), asks whether we should 
consider that man wise who spilt a gallon of wine in order to fill a wine- 
glass 1 But, because we should not do so, it by no means follows that we 
can argue from such an action to the action of God in the visible universe. 
For the man's object, in the case supposed, is simply to fill the wme-glass, 
and the wine spilt is so much loss. With God it may be entirely different 
in both respects. All these objections are fully met by the principle thus 
laid down by St. Thomas Aquinas : " Quod si aliqua causa particulars de- 
ficiat a suo effectu, hoc est propter aliquam causam particularem impedi- 
antem qua continetur sub ordine causa universalis. Unde efiectus ordmem 
causa universalis nullo modo potest exire." . . . . " Sicut indigestio contmgit 
water ordinem virtutis nutritivse ex aliquo impedimento, puta ex grussitie 
cibi auam necesse est reducere in aliam causam, et sic usque ad causam 
nrimam universalem. Cum igitur Deus sit prima causa universalis non 
nuius -eneri tantum, sed universaliter totius entis, impossible est quod 
aliquicf contingat prater ordinem divinse gubernationis ; sed ex hoc ipso 
quod ahquid ex una- parte videtur exire ab ordine divinaa providentia, quo 







\\ 
























I 



: IB 















260 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap. 






undertake to affirm, amid all the possibilities of things of which 
we confessedly know so little, that a thousand ends and purposes 
may not be answered, because we can trace none, or even imagine 
none, which seem to our short-sighted faculties to be answered in 
these particular arrangements ? 

The objection to the bull-dog's ferocity in connexion with 
"man's brutal sport" opens up the familiar but vast question of 
the existence of evil, a problem the discussion of which would 
be out of place here. Considering, however, the very great 
stress which is laid in the present day on the subject of animal 
suffering by so many amiable and excellent people, one or two 
remarks on that matter may not be superfluous. To those 
who accept the belief in God, the soul and moral responsibility ; 
and recognize the full results of that acceptance — to such, 
physical suffering and moral evil are simply incommensurable. 
To them the placing of non-moral beings in the same scale 

■ But even 

considering physical pain only, all must admit that this de- 
pends greatly on the mental condition of the sufferer. Only 
during consciousness does it exist, and only in the most high re- 
organized men does it reach its acme. The Author has been assured 
that lower races of men appear less keenly sensitive to physical 
pain than do more cultivated and refined human beings. Thus 
only in man can there really be any intense degree of suffering, 
because only in him is there that intellectual recollection of past 
moments and that anticipation of future ones, which constitute in 
great part the bitterness of suffering. 2 The momentary pang, the 
present pain, which beasts endure, though real enough, is yet, 

consideratur secundam aliquam particularem causam, necesse est quod in 
eundem ordinem relabatur secundum aliam causam. ,, — Sum. Theol. p. i. 
q. 19, a. 6, and q. 103, a. 7. 

1 " Unity of Worlds," Essay ii., § ii., p. 260. 

2 See the exceedingly good passage on this subject by the Rev. Dr. 
Newman, in his " Discourses for Mixed Congregations," 1850, p. 345. 



with moral agents will be utterly unendurable. 








1 






XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



261 






doubtless, not to be compared as to its intensity with the suffer- 
ing which is produced in man through his high prerogative of 

i 

self-consciousness. 1 

As to the " beneficial lines" (of Dr. Asa Gray, before re- 
ferred to), some of the facts noticed in the preceding chapters 
seem to point very decidedly in that direction, but all must 
admit that the actual existing outcome is far more " beneficial" 
than the reverse. The natural universe has resulted in the 
development of an unmistakable harmony and beauty, and in 
a decided preponderance of good and of happiness over their 

opposites. 

Even if " laws of nature " did appear, on the theistic hypo- 
thesis to be " superfluous " (which it is by no means intended 
here to admit), it would be nothing less than puerile to prefer 
rejecting the hypothesis to conceiving that the appearance 
of superfluity was probably due to human ignorance ; and this 
especially might be expected from naturalists to whom the inter- 
dependence of nature and the harmony and utility of obscure 
phenomena are becoming continually more clear, as, e.g., the 
structure of orchids to their illustrious expositor. 

Having now cleared the ground somewhat, we may turn to 
the question what bearing Christian dogma has upon evolution, 
and whether Christians, as such, need take up any definite 

■ 

attitude concerning it. 

As has been said, it is plain that physical science and "evolu- 
tion" can have nothing whatever to do with absolute or primary 
creation. The Eev. Baden Powell well expresses this, saying : 
" Science demonstrates incessant past changes, and dimly points 
to yet earlier links in a more vast series of development of 
material existence; but the idea of a beginning, or of creation, 
in the sense of the original operation of the Divine volition to 

i See Mr. G.H. Lewes's " Sea-Side Studies," for some excellent remarks, 
beginning at p. 329, as to the small susceptibility of certain animals to 

pain. 












































I 







262 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap, 



s 



constitute nature and matter, is beyond the province of physical 
philosophy." 1 

With secondary or derivative creation, physical science is also 
incapable of conflict ; for the objections drawn by some writers 
eemingly from physical science, are, as has been already argued, 
rather metaphysical than physical. 

Derivative creation is not a supernatural act, but is simply the 
Divine action by and through natural laws. To recognize such 

* 

action in such laws is a religious mode of regarding phenomena, 
which a consistent theist must necessarily accept, and which an 
atheistic believer must similarly reject. But this conception, if 
deemed superfluous by any naturalist, can never be shown to be 
false by any investigations concerning natural laws, the constant 
action of which it presupposes. 

The conflict has arisen through a misunderstanding. 



Some 

have supposed that by " creation" was necessarily meant either 
primary, that is, absolute creation, or, at least, some supernatural 
action; they have therefore opposed the dogma of "creation" in 
the imagined interest of physical science. 

Others have supposed that by "evolution" was necessarily 
meant a denial of Divine action, a negation of the providence of 
God. They have therefore combated the theory of "evolution" 
in the imagined interest of religion. 

It appears plain then that Christian thinkers are perfectly free 



to accept the 



general evolution theory. 



But are there any 



theological authorities to justify this view of the matter? 

Now, considering how extremely recent are these biological 

speculations, it might hardly be expected a priori that writers 
of earlier ages should have given expression to doctrines harmo- 
nizing in any degree with such very modern views, 2 nevertheless 



l 



" Philosophy of Creation," Essay iii., § iv., p. 480. 

2 It seems almost strange that modern English thought should so long 
hold aloof from familiar communion with Christian writers of other ages 
and countries. It is rarely indeed that acquaintance is shown with such 





XII ] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



263 



such most certainly is the case, and it would be easy to give 
numerous examples. It will be better, however, only to cite 

- 

authors, though a bright example to the contrary was set by Sir William 
Hamilton. Sir Charles Lyell (in his " Principles of Geology," 7th edition, 
p 35) speaks with approval of the early Italian geologists 01 
Vallisneri he says, < ' I return with pleasure to the geologists of Italy 




who preceded, as has been already shown, the naturalists of other 
countries in their investigations into the ancient history of the earth, and 
who still maintained a decided pre-eminence. They refuted and ridiculed 
the phvsico-theological systems of Burnet, Whiston, and Woodward ; 
while Vallisneri, in his comments on the Woodward ian theory, remarked 
how much the interests of religion, as well as of those of sound philosophy, 
had suffered bv perpetually mixing up the sacred writings with questions 
of physical science." Again, he quotes the Carmelite friar Generelli, who, 
illustrating Moro before the Academy of Cremona in 1749, strongly opposed 
those who would introduce the supernatural into the domain of nature. " I 
hold in utter abomination, most learned Academicians ! those systems which 
are built with their foundations in the air, and cannot be propped up with- 
out a miracle, and I undertake, with the assistance of Moro, to explain to 
you how these marine monsters were transported into the mountains by 

natural causes. " m . 

Sir Charles Lyell notices with exemplary impartiality the spirit ol 
intolerance on both sides. How in France, Buffon, on the one hand, was 
influenced by the theological faculty of the Sorbonne to recant his theory of 
the earth, and how Voltaire, on the other, allowed his prejudices to get the 
better, if not of his judgment, certainly of his expression of it Thinking 
that fossil remains of shells, &c, were evidence in favour of orthodox views, 
Voltaire, Sir Charles Lyell (Principles, p. 56) tells us, "endeavoured to in- 
culcate scepticism as to the real nature of such shells, and to recall from con- 
tempt the exploded dogma of the sixteenth century, that .they ^ were sports of 

nature, 
real plants." 



; CAJJ1UUVU UU^lx^v vx v— " ' . , £ 

He also pretended that vegetable impressions were not those ol 
reai i»»u». . . . "He would sometimes, in defiance of all consistency, shift 
his "round when addressing the vulgar ; and, admitting the true nature 
of the shells collected in the Alps and other places, pretend that they were 
Eastern species, which had fallen from the hats of pilgrims coming from 
Syria The numerous essays written by him on geological subjects were 
ail calculated to strengthen prejudices, partly because he was^ ignorant of 
the real state of the science, and partly from his bad faith.'- As to tne 
harmony between many early Church writers of great authority and modern 
views as regards certain matters of geology, see •■ Geology and Revelation, 
by the Rev. Gerald Molloy, D.D., London, 1870. 





























264 











. 






i 






THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap. 



one or two authorities of weight. Now, perhaps no writer of 
the earlier Christian ages could be quoted whose authority is 
more generally recognized than that of St. Augustin. The same 
may be said of the mediaeval period, for St. Thomas Aquinas ; and, 
since the movement of Luther, Suarez may be taken as a writer 
widely venerated as an authority and one whose orthodoxy has 
never been questioned. 

It must be borne in mind that for a considerable time after 
even the last of these writers no one had disputed the generally 
received view as to the small age of the world or at least of the 
kinds of animals and plants inhabiting it. It becomes therefore 
much more striking if views formed under such a condition of 
opinion are found to harmonize with modern ideas regarding 
" Creation " and organic life. 

Now St. Augustin insists in a very remarkable manner on the 
merely derivative sense in which God's creation of organic forms 
is to be understood ; that is, that God created them by conferring 
on the material world the power to evolve them under suitable 
conditions. He says in his book on Genesis -, 1 "Terrestria animalia, 
tanquam ex ultimo elemento mundi ultima ; nihilominus poten- 
tialiter, quorum numeros tempus postea visibiliter explicaret." 

Again he says : — 

" Sicut autem in ipso grano invisibiliter erant omnia simul, 
quae per tempora in arborem surgerent ; ita ipse mundus cogitan- 
dus est, cum Deus simul omnia creavit, habuisse simul omnia quae 
in illo et cum illo facta sunt quando factas est dies ; non solum 



caelum cum sole et luna et sideribus 



sed etiam ilia quae 



aqua et terra produxit potentialiter atque causaliter, priusquam 
per temporum moras ita exorirentur, quomodo nobis jam not a 
sunt in eis operibus, quae Deus usque nunc operatur." 2 

" Omnium quippe rerum quae corporaliter visibiliterque 

i "De Genesi ad liti," lib. v., cap. v., No. 14 in Ben. Edition, 
vol. iii. p. 186. 

2 Lib. cit., cap. xxii., No. 44. 






• 








XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



265 



nascuntur, occulta quaedam semina in istis corporeis mundihujus 

elementis latent." 1 

And again : " Ista quippe originaliter ac primordialiter in 
quadam textura elementorum cuncta jam creata sunt; sed 
acceptis opportunitatibus prodeunt." 2 

St. Thomas Aquinas, as was said in the first chapter, quotes 
with approval the saying of St. Augustin that in the first insti- 
tution of nature we do not look for Miracles, hut for the laws of 
Nature : " In prima institutione naturae non quairitur miracu- 
lum, sed quid Datura rerum habeat, ut Augustinus dicit." 3 

Asain, he quotes with approval St. Augustin's assertion that 
the kinds were created only derivatively, " potentialiter tantum"* 

■ 



Also he says 



a 



In prima autem rerum institutione fuit 



principium activum verbum Dei, quod de materia elementari 
produxit animalia, vel in actu vel virtute, secundum Aug. lib. 5 

de Gen. ad lit. c. 5." 5 

Speaking of " kinds " (in scholastic phraseology " substantial 

forms") latent in matter, he says : " Quas quidam posuerunt non 
incipere per actionem naturae sed prius in materia exstitisse, 
ponentes latitationem formarum. Et hoc accidit eis ex ignorantia 
materia, quia nesciebant distinguere inter potentiam et actum. 
Quia enim formae praeexistunt eas simpliciter praeexistere. " " 

Also Cornelius a Lapide 7 contends that at least certain 
animals were not absolutely, but only derivatively created, say- 
ing of them, " Non fuerunt creata formaliter, sed potentialiter." 

As to Suarez, it will be enough to refer to Disp. xv. § 2, n. 9, 
p. 508, t. i. Edition. Vives, Paris; also Nos. 13—15, and many 



6 



i Lib. cit., "De Trinitate," lib. iii., cap. viii,, No. 14 

2 Lib. cit., cap. ix., No. 16. 

3 St. Thomas, Summa, i., quest. 67, art. 4, ad 3. 

4 Primae Partis, vol. ii., quest. 74, art. 2. 

5 Lib. cit, quest. 71, art. 1. 

6 Lib. cit., quest. 45, art. 8. 

7 Vide In Genesim Comment, cap. i. 










I 


















ft 



















266 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



other references to the same effect could easily be given, but 
these may suffice. 

It is then evident that ancient and most venerable theological 
authorities distinctly assert derivative creation, and thus har- 
monize with all that modern science can possibly require. 

It may indeed truly be said with Eoger Bacon, " The saints 
never condemned many an opinion which the moderns think 
ought to be condemned." x 

The various extracts given show clearly how far " evolution " 
is from any necessary opposition to the most orthodox theology. 
The same may be said of spontaneous generation. The most 
recent form of it, lately advocated by Dr. H. Charlton Bastian, 2 
teaches that matter exists in two different forms, the crystal- 
line (or statical) and the colloidal (or dynamical) conditions. 
It also teaches that colloidal matter, when exposed to certain 
conditions, presents the phenomena of life, and that it can be 
formed from crystalline matter, and thus that the prima materia 
of which these are diverse forms contains potentially all the 

This 

theory moreover harmonizes well with the views here advo- 
cated, for just as crystalline matter builds itself, under suitable 



multitudinous kinds of animal and vegetable existence. 



defi 



defi 



'S 



and directions of development. It is 



not collected in haphazard, accidental aggregations, but evolves 
according to its proper laws and special properties. 

The perfect orthodoxy of these views is unquestionable, 
Nothing is plainer from the venerable writers quoted, as well as 

1 Roger Bacon, Opus tertium, c. ix. p. 27, quoted in the Rambler for 
1859, vol. xii. p. 375. 

2 See Nature, June and July, 1870. Those who, like Professors Huxley 
and Tyndall, do not accept his conclusions, none the less agree with 
him in principle, though they limit the evolution of the organic world 
from the inorganic to a very remote period of the world's history. (See 
Professor Huxley's address to the British Association at Liverpool, 1870, 
p. 17.) 








XIT.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



267 



from a mass of other authorities, than that " the supernatural" is 
not to be looked for or expected in the sphere of mere nature. For 
this statement there is a general consensus of theological authority. 
The teaching which the Author has received is, that God^ is 
indeed inscrutable and incomprehensible to us from the infinity 
of His attributes, so that our minds can, as it were, only take in, 
in a most fragmentary and indistinct manner (as through a glass 
darkly), dim conceptions of infinitesimal portions of His incon- 
ceivable perfection. In this way the partial glimpses obtained 
by us in different modes differ from each other j not that God is 
anything but the most perfect unity, but that apparently con- 
flicting views arise from our inability to apprehend Him, except 
in this imperfect manner, i.e. by successive slight approximations 
along different lines of approach. Sir William Hamilton has said, 1 
"Nature conceals God, and man reveals Him." It is not, according 
to the teaching spoken of, exactly thus ; but rather that physical 
nature reveals to us one side, one aspect of the Deity, while the 
moral and religious worlds bring us in contact with another, and 
at first, to our apprehension, a very different one. The difference 
and discrepancy, however, which is at first felt, is soon seen to 
proceed not from the reason but from a want of flexibility in the 

This want is far from surprising. Not only may 
a man naturally be expected to be an adept in his own art, but 
at the same time to show an incapacity for a very different mode 

of activity.' 2 



imagination. 



We 



i " Lectures on Metaphysics and Logic," vol. i. Lecture if, p. 40. 

» In the same way that an undue cultivation of any one kind of know- 
ledge is prejudicial to philosophy. Mr. James Martineau well observes, 
' ' Nothiu g is more common than to see maxims, which are unexceptionable 
as the assumptions of particular sciences, coerced into the service of a uni- 
versal philosophy, and so turned into instruments of mischief and distortion. 
That "we can know nothing but phenomena," — that "causation is 
simply constant priority,"-that " men are governed invariably by their 
interests " are examples of rules allowable as dominant hypotheses m physics 
or political economy, but exercising a desolating tyranny when thrust on 

























H 



/ 



I 



I 




268 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



rcHAP. 



fc- 



in jurisprudence, or a prizefighter who is an acute metaphy- 

Nay, more than this, a positive distaste may grow up 



sician. 



which, in the intellectual order, may amount to a spontaneous 
and unreasoning disbelief in that which appears to be in oppo- 
sition to the more familiar concept, and this at all times. It is 
often and truly said, " that past ages were pre-eminently credu- 
lous as compared with our own, yet the difference is not so much in 
the amount of the credulity, as in the direction which it takes." x 

Dr. Newman observes: "Any one study, of whatever kind, 
exclusively pursued, deadens in the mind the interest, nay 
the perception of any other. Thus Cicero says, that Plato 



and Demosthenes, Aristotle and Isocrates, might have 



re- 



spectively excelled in each other's province, but that each 
was absorbed in his own. Specimens of this peculiarity occur 
every day. You can hardly persuade some men to talk about 
anything but their own pursuit ; they refer the whole world 
to their own centre, and measure all matters by their own 
rule, like the fisherman in the drama, whose eulogy on his 
deceased lord was ' he was so fond of fish.'" 2 

The same author further says: 3 "When anything, which 
comes before us, is very unlike what we commonly expe- 
rience, we consider it on that account untrue ; not because it 
really shocks our reason as improbable, but because it startles 

Now, revelation presents to us a 
perfectly different aspect of the universe from that presented by 
the sciences. The two informations are like the distinct subjects 
represented by the lines of the same drawing, which, accordingly 

to the throne of universal empire. He who seizes upon these and similar 
maxims, and carries them in triumph on his banner, may boast of his 
escape from the uncertainties of metaphysics, but is himself all the while 
the unconscious victim of their very vulgarest deception." ("Essays," 
Second Series, A Plea for Philosophical Studies, p. 421.) 
i Lecky's " History of Rationalism," vol. i. p. 73. 

2 "Lectures on University Subjects," by J. H. Newman, D.D., p. 322. 

3 Loc. cit. p. 324. 



our imagination as strange. 









M 







xn.] 



THEOLOGY AND EFOLUTION. 



269 



as they are read on their concave or convex side, exhibit to us 
now a group of trees with branches and leaves, and now human 



faces." 



i 



While 






fact, they often are inconsistent in appearance ; and this seeming 
discordance acts most keenly on the imagination, and may sud- 
denly expose a man to the temptation, and even hurry him on 
to the commission of definite acts of unbelief, in which reason 
itself really does not come into exercise at all." l 

Thus we find in fact just that distinctness between the ideas 
derived from physical science on the one hand and from religion 
on the other, which we might a priori expect if there exists 

i 

that distinctness between the natural and the miraculous which 

* 

theological authorities lay down. 

Assuming, for argument's sake, the truth of Christianity, it 
evidently has not been the intention of its Author to make the 
evidence for it so plain that its rejection would be the mark of 
intellectual incapacity. Conviction is not forced upon men in 
the way that the knowledge that the government of England is 
constitutional, or that Paris is the capital of France, is forced 
upon all who choose to inquire into those subjects. The Chris- 
tian system is one which puts on the strain, as it were, every 
faculty of man's nature, and the intellect is not (any more than 
we should a priori expect it to be) exempted from taking part 
in the probationary trial* A moral element enters into the 

■ 

acceptance of that system. 

And so with natural religion — with those ideas of the super- 
natural, viz. God, Creation, and Morality, which are anterior 
to revelation and repose upon reason. Here again it evidently 
has not been the intention of the Creator to make the evidence 

■ 

of His existence so plain that its non-recognition would be 

1 Thus Professor Tyndall, in the Pall Mall Gazette of June 15, 1868, 
speaking of physical science, observes, " The logical feebleness of science is 
not sufficiently borne in mind. It keeps down the weed of superstition, 
not by logic, but by slowly rendering the mental soil unfit for its culti- 

I vation. 






" 






















































■ ■' 



/ 



270 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



the mark of intellectual incapacity. Conviction, as to theism, 
is not forced upon men as is the conviction of the existence 
of the sun at noon-day. 1 A moral element enters also here, 
and the analogy there is in this respect between Christianity 
and theism speaks eloquently of their primary derivation from 
one common author. 

Thus we might expect that it would be a vain task to seek 
anywhere in nature for evidence of Divine action, such that no 
one could sanely deny it. God will not allow Himself to be 
caught at the bottom of any man's crucible, or yield Himself 
to the experiments of gross-minded and irreverent inquirers. 
The natural, like the supernatural, revelation appeals to the 
ivhole of man's mental nature and not to the reason alone. 2 

None, therefore, need feel disappointed that evidence of the 
direct action of the first cause in merely natural phenomena ever 
eludes our grasp ; for assuredly those same phenomena will ever 
remain fundamentally inexplicable by physical science alone. 

There being then nothing in either authority or reason which 
makes "evolution" repugnant to Christianity, is there anything 
in the Christian doctrine of "Creation " which is repugnant to 
the theory of "evolution"? 

Enough has been said as to the distinction between absolute 
and derivative " creation." It remains to consider the suc- 
cessive " evolution " (Darwinian and other) of " specific forms " 
in a theological light. 

As to what "evolution" is, we cannot of course hope to 
explain it completely, but it may be enough to define it as 
the manifestation to the intellect, by means of sensible impres. 
sions, of some ideal entity (power, principle, nature, or activity) 

i By this it is not, of course, meant to deny that the existence of God 
can be demonstrated so as to demand the assent of the intellect taken, 
so to speak, by itself. 

I 

2 See some excellent remarks in the Rev. Dr. Newman's Parochial 
Sermons— the new edition (1869), vol. i. p. 211. 


























XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



271 



which before that manifestation was in a latent, unrealized, and 
merely "potential" state — a state that is capable of becoming real- 
ized, actual, or manifest, the requisite conditions being supplied. 
"Specific forms," kinds or species, are (as was said in the 
introductory chapter) " peculiar congeries of characters or 
attributes, innate powers and qualities, and a certain nature 

realized in individuals." 

Thus, then, the "evolution of specific forms" means the actual 
manifestation of special powers, or natures, which before were 
latent, in such a successive manner that there is in some way 
a wenetic relation between posterior manifestations and those 

which preceded them. 

On the special Darwinian hypothesis the manifestation of 

these forms is determined simply by the survival of the fittest of 

many indefinite variations. 

On the hypothesis here advocated the manifestation is con- 
trolled and helped by such survival, but depends on some 
unknown internal law or laws which determine variation at 
special times and in special directions. 

Professor Agassiz objects to the evolution theory, on the 
ground that " species, genera, families, <fcc., exist as thoughts, 
individuals as facts," 1 and he offers the dilemma, "If species do 
not exist at all, as the supporters of the transmutation theory 
maintain, how can they vary ? and if individuals alone exist, 
how can the differences which may be observed among them 
prove the variability of species 1" 

But the supporter of " evolution " need only maintain that the 
several "kinds" become manifested gradually by slight differ- 
ences among the various individual embodiments of one specific 
idea. He might reply to the dilemma by saying, species do 
not exist as sjiecies in the sense in which they are said to vary 
(variation applying only to the concrete embodiments of 

1 American Journal of Science, July 1860, p. 143, quoted in Dr. Asa 
Gray's pamphlet, p. 47. 










* x r f 



r ■ u ■ * 






n 













































\ 




272 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



form ceased and that of the new one began. 



the specific idea), and the evolution of species is demonstrated 

* 

not by individuals as individuals, but as embodiments of 
different specific ideas. 

Some persons seem to object to the term "creation" being 
applied to evolution, because evolution is an " exceedingly slow 
and gradual process." Now even if it were demonstrated that 
such is really the case, it may be asked, what is " slow and 
gradual"? The terms are simply relative, and the evolution of 
a specific form in ten thousand years would be instantaneous 
to a being whose days were as hundreds of millions of years. 

There are others again who are inclined absolutely to deny 
the existence of species altogether, on the ground that their evo- 
lution is so gradual that if we could see all the stages it would 
be impossible to say when the manifestation of the old specific 

IBut surely it is no 

approach to a reason against the existence of a thing that we 
cannot determine the exact moment of its first manifestation. 

* 

When watching " dissolving views," who can tell, whilst closely 
observing the gradual changes, exactly at what moment a new 
picture, say St. Mark's, Venice, can be said to have commenced 
its manifestation, or have begun to dominate a preceding repre- 
sentation of "Dotheboys' Hall"? That, however, is no reason 
for denying the complete difference between the two pictures 
and the ideas they respectively embody. 

The notion of a special nature, a peculiar innate power and 
activity — what the scholastics called a " substantial form" — will 
be distasteful to many. The objection to the notion seems, 
however, to be a futile one, for it is absolutely impossible to 
altogether avoid such a conception and such an assumption. If 
we refuse it to the individuals which embody the species, we 
must admit it as regards their component parts — nay, even if we 
accept the hypothesis of pangenesis, we are nevertheless com- 

i 

pelled to attribute to each gemmule that peculiar power of re- 
producing its own nature (its own " substantial form "), with its 



- 








XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



273 



special activity, and that remarkable power of annexing itself 

■ 
■ 

to certain other well-defined gemmules whose nature it is also 
to plant themselves in a certain definite vicinity. So that in 
each individual, instead of one snch peculiar power and activity 
dominating and controlling all the parts, you have an infinity 

* 

of separate powers and activities limited to the several minute 

•component gemmules. 

It is possible that in some minds, the notion may lurk that 
such powers are simpler and easier to understand, because the 
bodies they affect are so minute! This absurdity hardly bears 
stating. We can easily conceive a being so small, that a gem- 
mule would be to it as large as St. Paul's would be to us. 

Admitting then the existence of species, and of their suc- 
cessive evolution, is there anything in these ideas hostile to 

Christian belief? 

Writers such as Vogt and Buchner will of course contend 
that there is; but naturalists, generally, assume that God acts in 
and by the various laws of nature. And this is equivalent to 
admitting the doctrine of " derivative creation.' 7 With very few 
exceptions, none deny such Divine concurrence. Even " design " 
and " purpose" are recognized as quite compatible with evo- 
lution, and even with the special " nebular " and Darwinian 
forms of it. Professor Huxley well says, 1 "It is necessary to 
remark that there is a wider teleology, which is not touched by 
the doctrine of evolution, but is actually based upon the funda- 
mental proposition of evolution." . . . . " The teleologies! and 
the mechanical views of nature are not necessaiily mutually 
exclusive; on the contrary, the more purely a mechanist the 
speculator is, the more firmly does . lie assume a primordial 
molecular arrangement, of which all the phenomena of the uni- 
verse are the consequences ; and the more completely thereby is 

* 

he at the mercy of the teleologist, who can always defy him to 

i See The Academy for October 1869, No. 1, p. 13. 

T 





















I 




















274 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



disprove that this primordial molecular arrangement was not 
intended to evolve the phenomena of the universe." 1 

Professor Owen says, that natural evolution, through secon- 
dary causes, "by means of slow physical and organic operations 
through long ages, is not the less clearly recognizable as the act 
of all adaptive mind, because we have abandoned the old error 
of supposing it to be the result 2 of a primary, direct, and sudden 
act of creational construction." . . . "The succession of species by 
continuously operating law, is not necessarily a ' blind operation.' 
Such law, however discerned in the properties and successions 
of natural objects, intimates, nevertheless, a preconceived pro- 
gress. Organisms may be evolved in orderly succession, stage 
after stage, towards a foreseen goal, and the broad features of 
the course may still show the unmistakable impress of Divine 

volition." 

Mr. Wallace 3 declares that the opponents of evolution pre- 
sent a less elevated view of the Almighty. He says : " Why 
should we suppose the machine too complicated to have been 
designed by the Creator so complete that it would necessarily 
work out harmonious results ? The theory of ' continual inter- 
ference' is a limitation of the Creator's power. It assumes that 
He could not work by pure law in the organic, as He has done in 
the inorganic world." Thus, then, there is not only no necessary 
antagonism between the general theory of " evolution " and a 
Divine action, but the compatibility between the two is recognized 
by naturalists who cannot be suspected of any strong theo- 
logical bias. 

1 Professor Huxley goes on to say that the mechanist may, in turn, 
demand of the teleologist how the latter knows it was so intended. To 
this it may be replied he knows it as a necessary truth of reason deduced 
from his own primary intuitions, which intuitions cannot be questioned 

without absolute scepticism. 

2 The Professor doubtless means the direct and immediate result. (See 

Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. v. p. 90.) 
* " Natural Selection," p. 280. 










XII.] 



THEOL OGY AND WOL UTION. 



275 






The very same may be said as to the special Darwinian form 
of the theory of evolution. 



It is true Mr. Darwin writes 



sometimes as if he thought 



We 



that his theory militated against even derivative creation} This, 

however, there is no doubt, was not really meant ; and indeed, 

in the passage before quoted and criticised, the possibility of the 

Divine ordination of each variation is spoken of as a tenable view. 

He says (" Origin of Species," p. 569), "I see no good reason why 

the views given in this volume should shock the religious feelings 

of anyone;" and he speaks of life "having been originally breathed 

by the Creator into a few forms or into one," which is more than 

the dogma of creation actually requires. 

^compatibility is asserted (by any scientific writers worthy of 

mention) between "evolution" and the co-operation of the 

Divine will ; while the same " evolution " has been shown to 

be thoroughly acceptable to the most orthodox theologians who 

repudiate the intrusion of the supernatural into the domain of 

nature. A more complete harmony could scarcely be desired. 

But if we may never hope to find, in physical nature, evidence 
of supernatural action, what sort of action might we expect to find 
there, looking at it from a theistic point of view ? Surely an action 
the results of which harmonize with man's reason, 2 which 

i Dr. Asa Gray, e.g., has thus understood Mr. Darwin. The Doctor says 
in his pamphlet, p. 38, " Mr. Darwm uses expressions which imply that 
the natural forms which surround us, because they have a history or 
natural sequence, could have been only generally, but not particularly 
designed —a view at once superficial and contradictory ; whereas his true 
line should be, that his hypothesis concerns the order and not the cause, 
the how and not the why of the phenomena, and so leaves the question 

of design just where it was before." 

2 "All science is but the partial reflexion in the reason of man, of the great 
all-pervading reason of the universe. And the unity of science is the re- 
flexion of the unity of nature and of the unity of that supreme reason and 
intelligence which pervades and rules over nature, and from whence all 
reason and all science is derived. " (Rev. Baden Powell, " Unity of the 
Sciences," Essay i. § ii. p. 81.) 



T 









I 




















07 



76 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 


























. 



is orderly, which, disaccords with the action of blind chance 
and with the " fortuitous concourse of atoms" of Democritus ; 
but at the same time an action which, as to its modes, ever, 
in parts, and in ultimate analysis, eludes our grasp, and the 
modes of which are different from those by which we should 
have attempted to accomplish such ends. 

Now, this is just what we do find. The harmony, the beauty, 
and the order of the physical universe are the themes of con- 
tinual panegyrics on the part of naturalists, and Mr. Darwin, as 
the Duke of Argyll remarks, 1 " exhausts every form of words 
and of illustration by which intention or mental purpose can be 
described" 2 when speaking of the wonderfully complex adjust- 
ments' to secure the fertilization of orchids. Also, we find 
co-existing with this harmony a mode of proceeding so different 

i 

from that of man as (the direct supernatural action eluding us) 
to form a stumbling-block to many in the way of their recogni- 
tion of Divine action at all : 
inconsistent than to speak of the first cause as utterly inscrutable 
and incomprehensible, and at the same time to expect to find 
traces of a mode of action exactly similar to our own. It is surely 

* 

enough if the results harmonize on the whole and preponde- 
ratingly with the rational, moral, and sesthetic instincts of man. 
Mr. J. J. Murphy 3 has brought strongly forward the evidence 



although nothing can be more 



of " intelligence " throughout organic nature. He believes " that 



there 



is something in organic progress which mere Natural 



Selection among spontaneous variations will not account for/' 
and that "this something is that organizing intelligence which 
guides the action of the inorganic forces, and forms structures 
which neither Natural Selection nor any other unintelligent 
agency could form." 



i " The Reign of Law," p. 40. 

2 Though Mr. Darwin's epithets denoting design are metaphorical, 
admiration of the result is unequivocal, nay, enthusiastic ! 

3 See " Habit and Intelligence," vol. i. p. 348. 



his 






' 






\ 



r 






, 








XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 



27 



t 



This intelligence, however, Mr. Murphy considers may be 
unconscious, a conception which it is exceedingly difficult to 
understand, and which to many minds appears to be little less 
than a contradiction in terms; the very first condition of an 
intelligence being that, if it knows anything, it should at least 

know its own existence. 

Surely the evidence from physical facts agrees well with the 
overruling, concurrent action of God in the order of nature; 
which is no miraculous action, but the operation of laws which 
owe their foundation, institution, and maintenance to an 
omniscient Creator of whose intelligence our own is a feeble 
adumbration, inasmuch as it is created in ^ the "image and 
likeness " of its Maker. 



This leads to the final consideration, a difficulty by no means 
to be passed over in silence, namely the Origin of Man. To 
the general theory of Evolution, and to the special Darwinian 
form of it no exception, it has been shown, need be taken on 
the around of orthodoxy. But in saying this, it has not been 
meant to include the soul of man. 

It is a generally received doctrine that the soul of every 
individual man is absolutely created in the strict and primary 
sense of the word, that it is produced by a direct or supernatural 1 
act, and, of course, that by such an act the soul of the first 
man was similarly created. It is therefore important to inquire 
whether " evolution " conflicts with this doctrine. 

STow the two beliefs are in fact perfectly compatible, and that 
either on the hypothesis — 1. That man's body was created in a 
manner different in kind from that by which the bodies of 
other animals ' were created; or 2. That it was created in a 

similar manner to theirs. 

One of the authors of the Darwinian theory, indeed, contends 

i The term, as before said, not being used in its ordinary theological 
sense but to denote an immediate Divine action as distinguished from 
God's action through the powers conferred on the physical universe. 



i 















I 







* 


























1 











I 



f \ 



































278 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



that even as regards man's body, an action took place different 
from that by which brute forms were evolved. Mr. Wallace 1 
considers that " Natural Selection " alone could not have pro- 
duced so large a brain in the savage, in possessing which he is 
furnished with an organ beyond his needs. Also that it could 
not have produced that peculiar distribution of hair, especially 
the* nakedness of the back, which is common to all races of men, 
nor the peculiar construction of the feet and hands. He says, 2 
after speaking of the prehensile foot, common without a single 
exception to all the apes and lemurs, " It is difficult to see why 
the prehensile power should have been taken away " by the 
mere operation of Natural Selection. " It must certainly have 
been useful in climbing, and the case of the baboons shows that 
it is quite compatible with terrestrial locomotion. It may not 
be compatible with, perfectly easy erect locomotion ; but, then, 
how can we conceive that early man, as an animal, gained any- 
thing by purely erect locomotion ] Again, the hand of man 
contains latent capacities and powers which are unused by 
savages, and must have been even less used by palaeolithic man 
and his still ruder predecessors. It has all the appearance of 
an organ prepared for the use of civilized man, and one which 
was required to render civilization possible." Again speaking 
of the " wonderful power, range, flexibility, and sweetness of 
the musical sounds producible by the human larynx," he adds 7 

faculty 
30uld have been developed by Natural Selection j because it is 
never required or used by them. The singing of savages is a 
more or less monotonous howling, and the females seldom sing at 
all. Savages certainly never choose their wives for fine voices, but 
for rude health, and strength and physical beauty. Sexual selec- 
tion could not therefore have developed this wonderful power, 
which only comes into play among civilized people. It seems 
as if the organ had been prepared in anticipation of the future 



"The habits of savages give no indication of how thi 
c 



s 



1 See "Natural Selection," pp. 332 to 360. 



Loc. cit., p. 349. 








XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



279 



process of man, since it contains latent capacities which are 
usekss to him in his earlier condition. The delicate correlations 
of structure that give it such marvellous powers, could not there- 
fore have heen acquired by means of Natural Selection." 

To this may he added the no less wonderful faculty in the ear 
of appreciating delicate musical tones, and the harmony of chords. 

It matters not what part of the organ subserves this func- 
tion but it has been supposed that it is ministered to by the fibres 
of Gorti 1 Now it can hardly be contended that the preservation 





FIBRES OF COKTI. 



of any race of men in the struggle for life could have depended on 
such an extreme delicacy and refinement of the internal ear , 2 —a 
perfection only fully exercised in the enjoyment and apprecia- 
tion of the most exquisite musical performances. Here, surely, 
we have an instance of an organ preformed, ready beforehand for 
such action as could never by itself have been the cause of its 
development,— the action having only been subsequent, not 
anterior. The Author is not aware what may be the minute 
structure of the internal ear in the highest apes, but if (as 
from analogy is probable) it is much as in man, then a fortiori 
we have an instance of anticipatory development of a most 

i See Professor Huxley's " Lessons in Elementary Physiology," p. 218. 

s It may be objected, perhaps, that excessive delicacy of the ear nugnt 
have been produced by having to guard against the approach of enemies, 
some savages being remarkable for their keenness of hearing at great dis- 
tance« But the perceptions of intensity and quality of sound are veijr 
different. Some persons who have an extre inely acute ear for ^delicate 
sounds, and who are fond of music, have yet an incapacity for detecting 
whether an instrument is slightly out of tune. 







I 






• ■ -V ■ /• ■ .. - ■ 









1. 


















2.-0 



THE G ENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



* IB < 



marked and unmistakable kind. And this is not all. There 

is no reason to suppose that any animal besides man appreciated 
musical harmony. It is certain that no other one produces it- 



Wallace 



- _ 

some of man's mental faculties, such as "the capacity to form 

ideal conceptions of space and time, of eternity and infinity 

the capacity for intense artistic feelings of pleasure, in form, 
colour and composition— and for those abstract notions of form 
and number which render geometry and arithmetic possible," 
also from the origin of the moral sense. 1 

The validity of these objections is fully conceded, by the 
Author of this book, but he would push it much further, 
and contend (as has been now repeatedly said), that another 
law, or other laws, than " Natural Selection " have determined 
the evolution of all organic forms, and of inorganic forms also. 
And it must be contended that Mr. Wallace, in order to be quite 
self- consistent, should arrive at the very same conclusion, inas- 
much as he is inclined to trace all phenomena to the action of 
superhuman will. He says : 2 "If therefore we have traced one 
force, however minute, to an origin in our own will, while we 
have no knowledge of any other primary cause of force, it does 
not seem an improbable conclusion that all force may be will- 
force ; and. thus, that the whole universe is not merely dependent 
on, but actually is, the will of higher intelligences, or of one 
Supreme Intelligence/' 

If there is really evidence, as Mr. Wallace believes, of the 
action of an overruling intelligence in the evolution of the 
" human form divine ;" if we may go so far as this, then surely 
an analogous action may well be traced in the production of the 
horse, the camel, or the dog, so largely identified with human 
wants and requirements. And if from other than physical con- 
siderations we may believe that such action, though undemon- 
strable, has been and is ; then (reflecting on sensible phenomena 



1 Loc. cit., pp. 35.1, 352. 



2 Loc. cit, p. 368 








3M 



XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



281 



the theistic light derived from psychical facts) We may, in the 
language of Mr. Wallace, " see indications of that power in facts 
which, by themselves, would not serve to prove its existence." l 

Mr. Murphy, as has been said before, finds it necessary to 
accept the wide-spread action of "intelligence" as the agent by 
which all organic forms have been called forth from the inorganic. 
But all science tends to unity, and this tendency makes it 
reasonable to extend to all physical existences a mode of forma- 
tion which we may have evidence for in any one of them. It 
therefore makes it reasonable to extend, if possible, the very 
same agency which we find operating in the field of biology, also 
to the Inorganic world. If on the grounds brought forward the 
action of intelligence may be affirmed in the production of man's 
bodily structure, it becomes probable a priori that it may also 
be predicated of the formative action by which has been pro- 
duced the animals which minister to him, and all organic life 
whatsoever. iS T ay more, it is then congruous to expect analogous 
action in the development of crystalline and colloidal structures, 
and in that of all chemical compositions, in geological evolutions 
and the formation not only of this earth, but of the solar- 
system and whole sidereal universe. 






If such really be the direction in which physical science, 
philosophically considered, points ; if intelligence may thus be 
,een to preside over the evolution of each system of worlds and 
the unfolding of every blade of grass— this grand result har- 

indeed with the teachings of faith that God acts and 



monizes 



concurs, in the natural order, with those laws of the material 
universe which were not only instituted by His will, but are 
sustained by His concurrence; and we are thus enabled to dis- 
cern in the natural order, however darkly, the Divine Author 
of nature— Him in whom "we live, and move, and have 






our 






?> 



But if this view is accepted, then it is no longer absolutely 



^Loc. cit., p. 3C0 












* 



. 














■ 



■ 


















28 



O. 



7!fl"# GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap 



necessary to suppose that any action different in kind took place 
in the production of man's body, from that which took place 
in the production of the bodies of other animals, and of the 
whole material universe. 

Of course, if it can be demonstrated that that difference which 
Mr. Wallace asserts really exists, it is plain that we then have 
to do with facts not only harmonizing with religion, but, as it 
were, preaching and proclaiming it. 

It is not, however, necessary for Christianity that any such 
view should prevail. Man, according to the old scholastic defi- 
nition, is " a rational animal" {animal rationale), and his ani- 
inality is distinct in nature from his rationality, though insepa- 
rably joined, during life, in one common personality. This 
animal body must have had a different source from that of the 
spiritual soul which informs it, from the distinctness of the two 
orders to which those two existences severally belong. 

Scripture seems plainly to indicate this when it says that 
u God made man from the dust of the earth, and breathed into 
his nostrils the breath of life." This is a plain and direct state- 
ment that man's body was not created in the primary and 
absolute sense of the word, but was evolved from pre-existing 
material (symbolized, by the term " dust of the earth"), and was 
therefore only derivatively created, i.e. by the operation of 
secondary laws. His soul, on the other hand, was created in 
quite a different way, not by any pre-existing means, external to 
God himself, but by the direct action of the Almighty, sym- 
bolized by the term " breathing : " the very form adopted by 
Christ, when conferring the supernatural powers and graces of 
the Christian dispensation, and a form still daily used in the 
rites and ceremonies of the Church. 

That the first man should have had this double origin agrees 
with what we now experience. For supposing each human soul 
to be directly and immediately created, yet each human body 
is evolved by the ordinary operation of natural physical laws. 









I 



,* 




^^^^ 




' 



■ 



XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 



283 



Professor Flower in his Introductory Lecture 1 (p. 20) to his 



Whatever 



man's place may be, either in or out of nature, whatever hopes, or 
fears or feelings about himself or his race he may have, we all 
of ns admit that these are quite uninfluenced by our knowledge 
of the fact that each individual man comes into the world by the 
ordinary processes of generation, according to the same laws 
which apply to the development of all organic beings whatever 
that every part of him which can come under the scrutiny oi 
the anatomist or naturalist, has been evolved according to these 
regular laws from a simple minute ovum, indistinguishable to 
our senses from that of any of the inferior animals. If this be 
so-if man is what he is, notwithstanding the corporeal mode oi 
ori«in of the individual man, so he will assuredly be neither less 
nor° more than man, whatever may be shown regarding the 
corporeal origin of the whole race, whether this was from the 
dust of the earth, or by the modihcation of some pre-existing 

animal form." • , . 

Man is indeed compound, in him two distinct orders of being 

impinge and mingle ; and with this an origin from two concurrent 

modes of action is congruous, and might be expected apru^ At 

the same time as the « soul " is « the form of the body, the 

former might be expected to modify the latter into a structure 

of harmony and beauty standm^ 

Mmt „ Also that, with the full perfection and beauty of that 
soul, attained by the concurrent action of "Nature" and 
« Grace," a character would be formed like nothing else which 
is visible in this world, and having a mode of action different, 
inasmuch as complementary to all inferior modes of action. 

Something of this is evident even to those who approach the 
subject from the point of view of physical science only. 



a alone in the organic world of 



nature. 



Thus 



Wallace 



1 Published by John Churchill 



2 Natural Selection, p. 324. 






- 
















































284 



<7) 



HE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. 



" apart, as not only the head and culminating point of the 
grand series of organic nature, but as in some degree a new and 
distinct order of being. 1 From those infinitely remote ages when 
the first rudiments of organic life appeared upon the earth, every 
plant and every animal has been subject to one great law of 



■ physical change. 



As the earth has gone through its grand 



o 



cycles of geological, climatal, and organic progress, every form 
of life has been subject to its irresistible action, and has been 
continually but imperceptibly moulded into such new shapes as 
would preserve their harmony with the ever-changing universe. 
No living thing could escape this law of its being; none (except, 
perhaps, the simplest and most rudimentary organisms) could 
remain unchanged and live amid the universal change around it." 
"At length, however, there came into existence a being in 
whom that subtle force we term mind, became of greater import- 
ance than, his mere bodily structure. Though with a naked and 



unprotected body, this gave him clothing against the varying in- 
clemencies of the seasons. Though unable to compete with the 
deer in swiftness, or with the wild bull in strength, this gave 
him weapons with which to capture or overcome both. Though 
less capable than most other animals of living on the herbs and 
the fruits that unaided nature supplies, this wonderful faculty 
taught him to govern and direct nature to his own benefit, and 
make her produce food for him when and where he pleased. 
From the moment when the first skin was used as a covering • 
when the first rude spear was formed to assist in the chase; 
when fire was first used to cook his food ; when the first seed 
was sown or shoot planted, a grand revolution was effected in 
nature, a revolution which in all the previous ages of the earth's 
history had had no parallel, for a being had arisen who was no 
longer necessarily subject to change with the changing universe, 
a being who was in some degree superior to nature, inasmuch as 
he knew how to control and regulate her action, and could keep 

1 The italics are not Mr. Wallace's. 





* I 



-J- 





XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 



285 



himself in harmony with her, not by a change in body, but by 



an advance in mind." 

"On this view of his special attributes, we may admit 'that he 
is indeed a being apart.' Man has not only escaped < Natural 
Selection' himself, but he is actually able to take away some of 
that power from nature which before his appearance she univer- 
sally exercised. We can anticipate the time when the earth 
will produce only cultivated plants and domestic animals ; when 
man's selection shall have supplanted 'Natural Selection ;' and 
when the ocean will be the only domain in which that power 
can be exerted. 



)! 



Baden Powell 1 observes on this subject: "The relation of 
the animal man to the intellectual, moral, and spiritual man, 
resembles that of a crystal slumbering- in its native quarry to 
the same crystal mounted in the polarizing apparatus of the 
philosopher. The difference is not in physical nature, but 
in investing that nature with a new and higher application. Its 
continuity with the material world remains the same, but a new 
relation is developed in it, and it claims kindred with ethereal 
matter and with celestial light." 

This well expresses the distinction between the merely 
physical and the hyperphysical natures of man, and the sub- 
sumption of the former into the latter which dominates it. 

The same author in speaking of man's moral and spiritual 
nature says, 2 « The assertion in its very nature and essence refers 
wholly to a different ohder of things, apart from and tran- 
scending any material ideas whatsoever." Again 3 he adds, "In 
proportion as man's moral superiority is held to consist in attn 
butes not of a material or corporeal kind or origin, it can signify 
little how his physical nature may have originated." 

Now physical science, as such, has nothing to do with the 
soul of man which is hyperphysical. That such an entity exists, 



1 " 



Unity of Worlds," Essay ii. 



2 Ibid. Essay i. § ii. p. 76. 



ii. p. 247. 

3 Ibid. Essay iii. § jv. p. 466. 










^H 






1 I 






9 







































286 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES 



[chap. 



that the correlated physical forces go through their Protean 
transformations, have their persistent ebb and flow outside of 
the world of will and self-conscious moral being, are propo- 
sitions the proofs of which have no place in this work. This 
at least may however be confidently affirmed, that no reach of 
physical science in any coming century will ever approach to a 
demonstration that countless modes of being, as different from 
each other as are the force of gravitation and conscious maternal 
love, may not co-exist. Two such modes are made known to us 
by our natural faculties only : the physical, which includes the 
first of these examples ; the hyperphysical, which embraces the 
other. For those who accept revelation, a third and a distinct 
mode of being and of action is also made known, namely, the 






direct and immediate or, in the sense here given to the term, 
the supernatural. An analogous relationship runs through and 
connects all these modes of being and of action. The higher 
mode in each case employs and makes use of the lower, the 
action of which it occasionally suspends or alters, as gravity is 
suspended by electro-magnetic action, or the living energy of 
an organic being restrains the inter-actions of the chemical 
affinities belonging to its various constituents. 

Thus conscious will controls and directs the exercise of the 
vital functions according to desire, and moral consciousness tends 
to control desire in obedience to higher dictates. 1 The action of 

1 A good exposition of how an inferior action has to yield to one higher 
is given by Dr. Newman in his " Lectures on University Subjects," p. 3-72. 
u What is true in one science, is dictated to us indeed according to that 
science, but not according to another science, or in another department. 

What is certain in the military art, has force in the military art, but 
not in statesmanship ; and if statesmanship be a higher department of 
action than war, and enjoins the contrary, it has no force on our reception 
and obedience at all. And so what is true in medical science, might in all 
cases be carried out, were man a mere animal or brute without a soul ; 
but since he is a rational, responsible being, a thing may be ever so true in 
medicine, yet may be unlawful m fact, in consequence of the higher law of 
morals and religion coming to some different conclusion." 



a 







■■^H 








I 









XII.] 



THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 



287 



living organisms depends upon and subsumes the laws of inorganic 
matter. Similarly the actions of animal life depend upon and 

^^_ ^^_ ^^_ — Up BM*, ^^^""' H<*^» £ ^fc 



r 

subsume the laws of organic matter. 



In the same way the 



actions of a self-conscious moral agent, such as man, depend 
upon and subsume the laws of animal life. When a part or the 
whole series of these natural actions is altered or suspended by 
the intervention of action of a still higher order, we have then a 



" miracle." 



In this way we find a perfect harmony in the double nature 
of man, his rationality making use of and subsuming his ani- 
mality ;"' his soul arising from direct and immediate creation, and 
his body being formed at first (as now in each separate indi- 
vidual) by derivative or secondary creation, through natural 
law* By such secondary creation, i.e. by natural laws, for the 
most part as yet unknown but controlled by « Natural Selec- 
tion " all the various kinds of animals and plants have been 
manifested on this planet. That Divine action has concurred 
and concurs in these laws we know by deductions from our 
primary intuitions ; and physical science, if unable to demonstrate 
such action, is at least as impotent to disprove it. Disjoined 
from these deductions, the phenomena of the universe present an 
aspect devoid of all that appeals to the loftiest aspirations of 
man that which stimulates his efforts after goodness, and pre- 
sents consolations for unavoidable shortcomings. Conjoined 
with these same deductions, all the harmony of physical nature 
and the constancy of its laws are preserved unimpaired, while 
the reason, the conscience, and the esthetic instincts are alike 
aratified. We have thus a true reconciliation of science and 
religion, in which each gains and neither loses, one being comple- 
mentary to the other. 

Some apology is due to the reader for certain observations 
and arguments which have been here advanced, and which have 
little in the shape of novelty to recommend them. But after all, 
novelty can hardly be predicated of the views here criticised 















warn 











































288 



THE GENESIS OF SPECIES. 



[chap. XII. 



■ 

and opposed. Some of these seem almost a return to the " for- 
tuitous concourse of atoms" of Democritus, and even the very 
theory of "Natural Selection" itself — a " survival of the fittest" 
— was in part thought out not hundreds but thousands of years 
ago. Opponents of Aristotle maintained that by the accidental 
occurrence of combinations, organisms have been preserved and 
perpetuated such as final causes, did they exist, would have 
brought about, disadvantageous combinations or variations being 
speedily exterminated. " For when the very same combinations 
happened to be produced which the law of final causes would 
have called into being, those combinations which proved to be 



advantageous to 



th 



e 



organism 



» i 



were preserved; while those 
which were not advantageous perished, and still perished like the 

minotaurs and sphinxes of Empedocles. 

In conclusion, the Author ventures to hope that this treatise 
may not be deemed useless, but have contributed, however 
slightly, towards clearing the way for peace and conciliation 
and for a more ready perception of the harmony which exists 
between those deductions from our primary intuitions before 
alluded to, and the teachings of physical science, as far, that is, as 
concerns the evolution of organic forms — the genesis of species. 

The aim has been to support the doctrine that these species 
have been evolved by ordinary natural laivs (for the most part 
unknown) controlled by the subordinate action of "Natural Selec- 
tion," and at the same time to remind some that there is and can 
be absolutely nothing in -ohvsical science which forbids them 



to regard those natural laws as acting with the Divine concur- 
rence and in obedience to a creative fiat originally imposed 
on the primeval Cosmos, "in the beginning/' by its Creator, its 
Upholder, and its Lord. 



■> 



1 Quoted from the Rambler of March I860, p. 364: ""Orrov fiev ovp airavra 

awe fir], wo"irep Kau el eveicd rou iyii/ero, ravra /xeu icrciOr} a7ro rod aCro/jidrov 

* 

(TvarduTa iiuTrideieos, ocra 5e wn uvtws dirdoXero koX dTroAAvrai, KaOdireo 
'ELnreSoHiXfjs Aeyei rd fiovyev? k-jX Cv§p!irpupa.'"— AllIST. Phys. ii. C 8. 



Cambridge University Library 



permanent 



Wk/ ^^ 



from 



Botany School 







7-*3'-\ - 





INDEX 






A. 

Aard-Vark, 174. 

Absolute creation, 252. 
Acanthometrse, 186. 
Acrodont teeth, 148. 
Acts formally moral, 195. 
Acts materially moral, 195. 
Adductor muscles, 79. 
Agassiz, Professor, 271. 
Aged, care of, 192. 
Aggregational theory, 163. 
Algoa Bay, cat of, 98. 

Allantois, 82. 

Amazons, butterflies of, 85. 
Amazons, cholera in the, 192. 
American butterflies, 29. 
American maize, 100. 
American monkeys, 226. 

Amiurus, 147. 
Amphibia, 109. ^ 
Analogical relations, 157. 
Ancon sheep, 100, 103, 227. 
Andrew Murray, Mr., 83. 

Angora cats, 175. 
Animal's sufferings, 260. 

Ankle bones, 158. 

Annelids undergoing fission, 169, 

211. 
Annulosa, eye of, 76. 

Anoplotherium, 109. 

Anteater, 83. 
Antechinus, 82. 
Antenna, of orchid, 56. 
Anthropomorphism, 258. 
Ape's sexual characters, 49. 
Apostles' Creed, 245. 
Appendages of lobster, 161. 
Appendages of Normandy pigs, 99. 
Appendages of turkey, 100. 
Ar>r>endix, vermiform, 83. 



Appreciation of Mr. Darwin, 10. 

Apteryx, 7, 70. 
Aqueous humour, 76. 

Aquinas, St. Thomas, 17, 263, 265. 

Archegosaurus, 135. 

Archeopteryx, 73. 

Arcturus, 193. 

Argyll, Duke of, 14, 276. 

Aristotle, 288. 

Armadillo, extinct^ kind, 110. 

Arthritis, rheumatic, 183. 

Artiodactyle foot, 109. 

Asa Gray, Dr., 253, 255, 261. 

Asceticism, 193. 

Ascidians, placental structure, 81. 
Assumptions of Mr. Darwin, 16. 
Astronomical objections, 136. 

Auditory organ, 74. 
Augustin, St., 17, 263, 264. 

Aurelius, Marcus, 206. 

Avian limb, 106. 

Avicularia, 80. 

Axolotl, 165. 

Aye- Aye, 107. 

Aylesbury ducks, 234. 



B. 



Backbone, 135, 162. 

Bacon, Roger, 266. 

Baleen, 40. 

Bamboo insect, 33. 

Bandicoot, 67. 

Bartlett, Mr. A. D., 126, 231 

Bartlett, Mr. E., 192. 

Basil, St., 17. 

Bastian, Dr. H. Charlton, 115, 

237, 266. 
Bat, wing of, 64. 
Bates, Mr., 29, 85, 87. 

U 



219 

















290 



INDEX. 















Bats, 108. 

Beaks, 83. 

Beasts, sufferings of, 260, 

Beauty of shell-fish, 54. 

Bee orchid, 55. 

Bird, wings of, 64. 

Birds compared with reptiles, 70. 

Bird's-head processes, 80. 

Birds of Paradise, 90. 

Birth of individual and species, 2 

Bivalves, 79. 

Black sheep, 122. 

Black-shouldered peacock, 100. 

Bladebone, 70. 

Blood-vessels, 182. 

Blyth, Mr., 100, 181. 

Bones of skull, 153. 

Bonnet, M. , 217. 

Borwick, Mr., 198. 

" Boots" of pigeons, 181. 

Breathing, modified power of, 99. 

Breeding of lions, 234. 

Brill, 37. 

Broccoli, variety of, 100. 

Bryozoa, 81. 

Buchner, Dr. , 273. 

Budd, Dr. W., 183. 

Buffon, 217. 

Bull-dog's instinct, 260. 

Burt, Prof. Wilder, 180, 184. 

Butterflies, 29. 

Butterflies, Amazonian, 85. 

Butterflies, American, 29. 

Butterflies of Indian region, 83. 

Butterflies, tails of, 85. 

Butterfly, Leaf, 31. 









C. 



Cacotus, 149. 

Caecum, 83. 
Calamaries, 77. 
Cambrian deposits, 137. 
Cape ant-eater, 174. 
Care of aged, 192. 
Carinate birds, 70. 
Carnivora, 68. . 
Carnivorous dentition, 110. 
Carp fishes, 146. 
Ca.rpal bones, 106, 178. 
Carpenter, Dr. , 115. 

Carpus, 177, 178. 
Cases of conscience, 201. 

Cassowary, 70. 






Catasetum, 56. 

Causes of spread of Darwinism, 10. 

Cebus, 226. 

Celebes, butterflies of, 85. 
Centetes, 148. 
Centipede, 66 } 159. 
Cephalopoda, 74. 
Ceroxylus laceratus, 36. 

Cetacea, 42, 83, 105, 108, 174. 
Chances against few individuals, 57. 
Characinidae, 146. 

Cheirogaleus, 158. 

Chetahs, 234. 

Chickens, mortality of hybrids, 124, 

Chioglossa, 165. 

Chiromys, 107. 

Cholera, 192. 

Choroid, 76. 

Chronic rheumatism, 183. 

Circumcision, 212. 

Clarias, 146. 

Climate, effects of, 98. 

Climbing plants, 107. 

Clock- thinking illustration, 249. 

Cobra, 50. 

Cockle, 79. 

Cod, 39. 

Colloidal matter, 266. 

Conceptions, symbolic, 251. 

Connecticut footsteps, 131. 

Connecting link3, supposed, 107. 

Conscience, cases of, 201. 

Conscientious Papuan, 197. 

Cope, Professor, 71, 130. 

Coracoid, of birds and reptiles, 70. 

Cornea, 77. 

Cornelius a Lapide, 265. 

Correlation, laws of, 173. 

Corti, fibres of, 53, 279. 

Coryanthes, 56. 

Costa, M., 88. 

Cranial segments, 172. 

Creation, 245, 252. 

Creator, 15, 252. 

Creed, Apostles', 245. 
Crocodile, 43. 
Croll, Mr., 137. 
Crustacea, 79, 160. 
Cryptacanthu3, 146. 
Crystalline matter, 266. 
Crystals of snow, 186. 

Cuttle-fishes, 74, 75. 
Cuvier, 109. 

Cyprinoids, 146. 
Cytheridea, 79. 



i 




I- 



i 






IND EX. 



291 



D. 

Dana, Professor, 149. 

Darwin, Mr. Charles, 2, 10, 12, H— 
21, 23, 27, 34, 35, 43, 45, 47, 48, 5o 
-57, 59 65, 88, 94, 98-100, 
107 118-126, 129, 138, 142, 145, 
149 150, 181. 188-190, 196, 208, 
209 214-216, 218, 223, 233, 234, 
252, 254, 258, 259, 275, 276. 

Datura tatula, 101. 

Delhi, days at, 98. 

Delpino, Signor, 212, 213, 215. 

Democritus, 217, 275, 288. 

Density of air for breathing, 99. 

Dentition, carnivorous, 110. 

Derivation, 238. 

Derivative creation, 2dA, loA. 

Design, 259. 

Devotion, 193. 

Dibranchiata, 74. 

Difficulties of problem of specinc 

origin, 1. 
Digits, supernumerary, 122, 181. 

Digits, turtle's, 106. 
Dimorphodon, 71. 
Dinornis, 70. 
Dinosauria, 71. 
Diseased pelvis, 182. 
Dissemination of seeds, Q5. 

Doris, 170. 

Dotheboys' Hall, 272. 
Dragon, the flying, 64, 158. 

Dragon-fly, 77. 
Droughts, 25. 
Duck-billed platypus, 175. 

Dugong, 41, 175. 

Duke of Argyll, 14, 276. 

Dyspepsia, 201. 

E. 

Eae, 74. 

Ear, formation of, 51. 
Early specialization, 111, 
Echinodermata, 44. 
Echinoidea, 44. 
Echinops, 148. 
Echinorhinus, 172. 

Echinus, 43. 

Economy, Fuegian political, 192. 

Eczema, 183. 

Edentata, 174. 

Egyptian monuments, 138. 

Elasmobranchs, 140. 

Elbow and knee affections, 183. 

- 



Empedocles, 288. 
Eocene ungulata, 110. 

Eolis, 170. 

Equus, 97. 
Ericulus, 148. 

Ethics, 188. 

Eudes Deslongchamps, 99. 

Eurypterida, 141, 171. 

Eutropius, 147. 
Everett, Rev. R, 98. 
Evolution requires geometrical 
crease of time, 139. 

Eye, 76. 

Eye, formation of, 51. 

Eye of trilobites, 135. 



m- 









F. 

■ 

Fabre, M., 46. 

Feather-legged breeds, 181 , 

Fee jeans, 199. 

Fertilization of orchids, 55. 

"Fiat justitia, mat ccelum," 195, 

Fibres of Corti, 53, 279. 

Final misery, 194. 

Finger of Potto, 105. 

Fish, flying, 64. 

Fishes, fresh-water, 145. 

Fishes, thoracic and jugular, 39, 

140. on 

Fixity of position of limbs, 39. 

Flat-fishes, 37, 166. 

Flexibility of bodily organization, 

degrees of, 119. 

Flexibility of mind, 267. 

Flies, horned, 93. ^ \ 

Flight of spiders, 65. 

Flounder, 37. 

Flower, Professor, 163, 232, 283. 

Fly, orchid, 55. 
Flying- dragon, 64, 158. 

Flying fish, 64. 

Foetal teeth of whales, 7. 

Food, effects on pigs, 99. 

Footsteps of Connecticut, 131. 

Foraminifera, 186. 

Formally moral acts, 195. 

Formation of eye and ear, 51. 

Forms, substantial, 186, 272. 

Four-gilled Cephalopods, 76. 

Fowls, white silk, 122. 

French theatrical audience, 1£8. 

Fresh- water fishes, 145. 

Frogs, Chilian and European, 149. 

Fuego, Terra del, 192. 



■ ■ - 









V 






























292 



INDEX. 



G. 

Galago, 158. 

Galaxias, 147. 

Galeus vulgaris, 172. 

Galton, Mr. F., 97, 113, 228. 

Gascoyen, Mr., 182. 

Gavials, 43. 

Gegenbaur, Prof., 176—178. 

Gemmules, 208. 

Generative system, its sensitiveness, 

235. 
Genesis of morals, 201. 
G eographical distri bution ,144. 
Geographical distribution explained 

by Natural Selection, 6. 
Geometrical increments of time, 139. 

Geotria, 147. 
Giraffe, neck of, 24. 
GizzarcUlike stomach, 83. 
Glacial epoch, 150. 
Glyptodon, 110. 
Godron, Dr., 101. 
Goose, its inflexibility, 119. 
Goppert, Mr., 101. 

Gould, Mr., 88. 

Grasshopper, Great Shielded, 89.. 

Gray, Dr. Asa, 253, 255, 261 . 

Great Ant-eater, 83. 

Great Salamander, 172. 

Great .Shielded Grasshopper, 89. 

Greyhounds in Mexico, 99. 

Greyhounds, time for evolution of, 

138. 

Guinea-fowl, 120. 

Guinea-pig, 126. 

Gunther, Dr., 145, 146, 172. 



H. 

Hairless Dogs, 174, 175. 

Hamilton, Sir Wm., 267. 
Harmony, musical, 54, 279. 
Heart in birds and reptiles, 158. 
Hegel, 217. 
Heliconidse, 29. 

Hell, 194. 
Heptanchus, 172. 

Herbert Spencer, Mr., 20, 28, 67, 72, 
163—166, 168, 170—172, 184, 187, 
202, 203, 205, 218, 228, 245, 246, 

248 ? 251. 
Hessian flies, 170. 
Heterobranchus, 146. 
Hewitt, Mr., 124, 181. 
Hexanchus, 172. 



Hipparion, 97, 134. 

Homogeny, 158. 

Homology, bilateral or lateral, 156, 

164. 
Homology, meaning of term, 7, 156. 
Homology, serial, 159. 

Homology, vertical, 165. 

Homoplasy, 159. 

Honey-suckers, 90. 

Hood of cobra, 50. 

Hook-billed ducks, 100. 

Hooker, Dr., 150. 

Horned flies, 93. 

Horny plates, 40, 42. 

Horny stomach, 83. 

Human larynx, 54, 278. 

Humphry, Professor, 163. 

Hutton, Mr. K Holt, 202, 203. 

Huxley, Professor, 67—69, 71, 72, 
95, 103, 109, 130, 131, 137, 141,, 
163, 172, 173, 231, 247, 273. 

Hybrids, mortality of, 124. 
Hydrocyonina, 146. 
Hyperphysical action, 253. 

Hyrax, 179. 



I. 



ICHTHYOPS1DA, 109. 

Ichthyosaurus, 78, 106, 132, 177. 

Ichthyosis, 183. 

Iguanodon, 71. 

Illegitimate svmbolic conceptions. 

251. 
Illustration by clock-thinking, 249. 
Imaginal disks, 46, 170. 
Implacental mammals, 67, QS. 
Independent origins, 152. 

Indian butterfly, 30. 

Indian region's butterflies, 83. 

Indians and cholera, 192. 
Individual, meaning of word, 2. 
Infirm, care of, 192. 

Influence, local, 83. 

Insect, walking-leaf, 35. 

Insects, walking-stick and bamboo, 

33. > 
Insectivora, 68. 
Insectivorous mammals, 148. 
Insectivorous teeth, 68. x 
Instinct of bull-dog, 260. 
Intermediate forms, 128. 
Intuitions, primary, 251. 
Irregularities in blood-vessels, 182. 
Isaria felina, 115. 





INDEX. 



9 ( ) 3 



J. 



Japanned peacock, 100. 

Jews, 212. 

Joints of backbone, 157, loH. 
Jugular fishes, 39, 141. 
Julia Pastrana, 174. 



K. 

Kallima inachis, 31. 

Kallima paralekta, 31. 
Kangaroo. 42, 67. 
Kowalewsky, 81. 
<Knee and elbow affections 
Kolliker, Professor, 104. 



6 



183. 



L. 

* 

Labyrinthici, 146. 

Labyrinthodon, 104, 134. 

Lamarck, 3. . „ 

Lankester, Mr. Ray, 152, lo8. 

Larynx of kangaroo, 42. 

Larynx of man, 54, 278. 

Lateral homology, 164. 

Laws of correlation, 173. 

Leaf butterfly, 31. 

Legitimate symbolic conceptions, ^,51 

Lens, 76. 
Lepidosteus, 172. 

LS,Mr: G .H.,94,212,2U J 2l6. 

Lewis, St., 206. 
Lewis XV., 206. 

Lewis XVI., 206. 

Limb genesis, 176. 

Limb muscles, 180. 

Limbs, fixity of position of, 39. 

Limbs of lobster, 161. 

Links, supposed connecting, 107. 

Lions, breeding, 234. 

Lions, diseased pelvis, 182. 

Llama, 109. 

Local influences, 83. 

Lobster, 160. 

Lone-tailed bird of Paradise, 91. 

Lubbock, Sir John, 198, 204. 
Lyell Sir, Charles, on dogs, 99, 106. 



M. 

Machairodus, 110. 

Macrauchenia, 109. 
Macropodidre, 69. 



Macroscelides, 68. 
Madagascar, 148, 152. 
Magnificent Bird of Paradise, V6* 
Maize, American, 100. 

Mammals, 67. 

Mammary gland of kangaroo, 42. 

Mammary gland, origin of, 4/. 

Man, origin of, 277. 

Man reveals God, 267. 

Man, voice of, 54. 

Manatee, 41,175. 

Manchamp breed of sheep, 100. 

Manis, 175. 
Man's larynx, 54. 

Many simultaneous modifications, o / . 
Marcus Aurelius, 206. 
Martineau, Mr. James, 200, 245. 
Mastacembelus, 145. 
Materially moral acts, 195. > 
Matter, crystalline and colloidal, 2oo. 
Meaning of word "individual," 2. 
Meaning of word "species," 2. 
Mechanical theory of spine, 164, 
Mediterranean oyster, 88, 98. 

Meehan, Mr., 88. 

Mexico, dogs in, 99. 

Mill, John Stuart, 15, 189, 193, 194. 

Mimicry, 8, 29. 

Miracle, 287. 

Molars, 111. 

Mole, 176. 

Moliere, 230. 

Mombas, cats at, 98. 

Monkeys, American, 226. 

Monster proboscis, 123. 

Moral acts, 195. 

Mordacia, 147. 

Murphy, Mr. J. J., 52, 53, 76, 103, 114, 

115, 137, 185, 221, 276, 281. 
Murray, Mr. Andrew, 83. 
Mus delicatulus, 82. 
Muscles of limbs, 180. 

Mussel, 79. 
Myrmecophaga, 83. 

N. 

N'ASALIS, Semnopithecus, 139. 

Nathusius, 99. 

Natural Selection, shortly stated, o. 

Naudin, M. C., 101. 

Nautilus, 76. 

Nebular evolution, 273. 

Neck of giraffe, 24. 

Newman, the Rev. Dr., 260, 268, 2/0, 

286. 




























' p 
































294 



INDEX. 



New Zealand Crustacea, 149, 
New Zealand fishes, 147. 
Niata cattle, 100. 

Nile fishes, 146. 
Normandy pig, 99. 

North American fish, 147» 

Nyctieebus, 179. 



0, 



Object of book, 5. 

Objections from astronomy, 136. 

Octopods, 77. 

Offensive remarks of Prof. Vogt, 13. 

Old, care of the, 192. 

Old Fuegian women, 192. 

Omygena exigua, 115. 

Ophiocephalus, 146. 

Optic lobes of pterodactyles, 71. 

Orchids, 92. 

Orchids, Bee, &c, 55. 

Organ of hearing, 74. 

Organ of sight, 76. 

Organic polarities 185, 

Origin of man, 277. 

Orioles, 90. 

Ornithoptera, 84. 

Ornithorhynchus, 175, 

Orthoceratidse, 170. 

Orycteropus 174. 

Ostracods, 79. 

Ostrich, 70. 

Otoliths, 74. 

Outlines of butterflies' wings, 86. 

Owen, Professor, 74, 102, 123, 217, 

238, 274. 
Oyster of Mediterranean, 88, 98. 
Oysters, 79. 



P. 



Paget. Mr. J., 182. 

Palseotherium, 109. 
Pallas, 125. 

Pangenesis, 19, 208. 
Pangolin, 175. 

Papilio Hospiton, 85. 
Papilio Machaon, 85. 
Papilio Ulysses, 84. 
Papilionidae, 83. 
Papuan morals, 197, 198 
Parthenogenesis, 'All. 
Passiflora gracilis, 107. 
Pastrana, Julia, 174. 



Pathological polarities, 184. 
Pavo nigripennis, 100. 
Peacock, black shouldered, 100. 
Peacock, inflexibility of, 119. 
Pedicellariae. 44. 
Pelvis, diseased, 182. 

Pendulous appendages of turkey, 100. 
Perameles, 68. 

Periophthalmus, 146. 
Perissodactyle ungulates, 109. 
Permian, jugular fish, 141. 
Perodicticus, 105, 179. 
Pha] angers, 67. 
Phasmidse, 89. 
Phyllopods, 79. 
Physical actions, 253. 
" Physiological units," 168, 218. 
Pigeons' " boots," 181. 
Placental mammals, 67. 
Placental reproduction, 81. 
Plants, tendrils of, 107. 
Plates of baleen, 40. 
Platypus, 175. 

Pleiades, 193. 

Plesiosaurus, 106, 133, 178. 

Pleurodont dentition, 148. 

Pleuronectidae, 37, 166. 

Plotosus, 147. 

Poisoning apparatus, 66. 

Poisonous serpents, 50. 

Polarities, organic, 184, 185. 

Political economy, Fuegian, 192. 

Polyzoa, 80, 81. 

Pompadour, Madame de, 206. 

Poppy, variety of, 101. 

Porcupine, 175. 

Porto Santo rabbit, 100, 122. 

Potto, 105, 179. 

Pouched beasts, 67. 

Powell, the Rev. Baden, 259, 261, 285. 

Premolars, 111. 

Prepotency, 124. 

Primary intuitions, 251. 

Primitive man, 204. 

Problem of origin of kinds, 1. 

Proboscis monkey, 139. 

Proboscis of ungulates, 123. 

Processes, bird's-head, 80. 

Psettus, 146. 

Psoriasis, 183. 

Pterodactyles, compared with birds,- 

70. 
Pterodactyles, wing of, 64. 
Puccinia, 115. 
Purpose, 259. 



(*.*., 











INDEX. 



295 



Q. 

Quasi-vertebral theory of skull, 1 72. 

R. 

Rabbit of Porto Santo, 100, 122. 

Radial ossicle, 176. 

Rarefied air, effect on dogs, 99. 

Rattlesnake, 49, 50. 

Red bird of Paradise, 92. 

Relations, analogical, 157 : 
Relations, homological, 156. 
Reptiles compared with birds, /0. 

Retina, 76. 

Retrieving, virtue a kind of, 189, 10& 

Reversion, cases of, 122. 

Rhea, 70. . . 

Ribs of Cetacea and Sirenia, 41. 

Ribs of flving-dragon, 64, 158. 

Richardson's figures of pigs, 99. 

Roger Bacon, 266. 
Rudimentary structures, 7, 102. 



S. 



Sabre-toothfd tiger, 110. 
St. Augustin, 17, 263-265. 

St. Basil, 17. 

St. Hilaire, M.,179. 

St. Thomas Aquinas, 17, 26o, 265. 

Salamander, great, 172. 

Salter, Mr., 124. 

Salvia officinalis, 213. 

Salvia verticillata, 213. 

Scapula of birds and reptiles, /0. 

Schreber, 13. 
Sclerotic, 76. 
Scorpion, sting of, QQ. 

Seals, 83. 

Sea squirts, 81. 

Seeds, dissemination of, 65. 

Seeley, Mr., on pterodactyles, 71. 

Segmentation of skull, 172. 

Segmentation of spine, 171. 

Segments, similar, 160. 

Self-existence, 252. 

Semnopithecus, 139. 

Sense, organ of, 51, 69, 74, 76. 

Sensitiveness of generative system, 

235. 

Sepia, 77. t 
Serpents, poisonous, OU. 
Sexual characters of apes, 49. 
Sexual selection, 48. 



Sharks, 83. 

Shell-fish, beauty of, 54. 
Shells of oysters, 88, 98. 
Shielded grasshopper, 89. 
Silurian strata, 140, 142. 
Simultaneous modifications, 57. 

Sirenia, 42. 

Sir John Lubbock, 198, 204. 

Sir William Thomson, 1 36. 

Sitaris, 46. 

Six-shafted bird of Paradise, 90. 

Skull bones, 153. 

Skull segments, 172. 

Sloth, windpipe of, 82. 

^mithfield, wife-selling in, 198. 

Snow, crystals of, 186. 

Sole, 37. 

Solenodon, 148. 

Species, meaning of word, 2. 

Spelerpes, 165. 

Spencer, see Herbert Spencer. 

Spider orchid, 55. 

Spiders, flight of, 65. 

Spine of Glyptodon, 110. - 

Spine, segmentation of, 172. 

Squajidae, 38. 

Squilla, 160. 

Sterility of hybrids, 125. 

Stings, Q6. 

Straining action of baleen, 41. 

Struthious birds, 70, 151. 

Sturgeon, 171. 
Suarez, 18, 263. 
Substantial forms, 186, 272. 
Sufferings of beasts, 260. 
Supernatural action, 252. 
Supernatural action not to be looked 

for in nature, 15. 
Supernumerary digits, 122, 181. 

Syllis, 169, 211. 
Symbolic conceptions, 251. 
Symmetrical diseases, 182. 
Syphilitic deposits, 183. 

T. 
Tadpole's beak, 83. 

Tails of butterflies, 85. 

Tapir, 123, 134. 

Tarsal bones, 159, 198. 

Teeth of Cetacea, 83. 

Teeth of Insectivora, 68. 

Teeth of kangaroo and Macros c elides, 

69. 
Teeth of seals, 83. 
Teeth of sharks, 83. 












■ I 















296 



INDEX. 



Teleology and evolution compatible, 

273. 

Tendrils of climbing plants, 107, 

Tenia echinococcus, 170. 

Teratology, 173. 

Tetragon opterina, 146. ' 

Thomson, Sir William, 136. 

Thoracic fishes, 39. 

Thorax of crustaceans, 79. 

Thylacine, 67. 

Tierra del Fuego, 192. 

Tiger, sabre-toothed, 110. 

Time required for evolution, 128. 

Tope, 172. 

Trabecule cranny 172. 

Transitional forms, 128. 

Transmutationism, 242. 

Trevelyan, Sir J. Peacock, 100. 

Trilobites, 135, 141, 171. 
Tunicaries, 81. 

Turbot, 37. 

Turkey, effects of climate on, 100. 
Turkish dog, 45. 
Two-gilled cephalopods, 76. 
Type, conformity to, 241. 



U. 



Umbilical vesicle, 82. 

Ungulata, 25, 109. 

Ungulata eocene, 110. 

Units, physiological, 168, 218. 

Unknowable, the, 245. 

Upper Silurian strata, 140, 142. 

Urotrichus, 68. 

■ 

V. 

Variability, different degrees of, 
119. 

Vermiform appendix, 83. 
Vertebrse of skull, 172. 
Vertebral column, 162, 171. 
Vertebrate limbs, 38, 163. 
Vertical homology, 165. 
Vesicle, umbilical, 82. 
" Vestiges of Creation," 3. 
View here advocated, 5. 



Vitreous humour, 76. 
Vogt, Professor, 12, 273, 
Voice of man, 54. 
Voltaire, 230. 



W. 

Wagner, J. A., 13. 

Wagner, Nicholas, 170. 
Walking leaf, 35. 

Walking-stick insect, 33. 

Wallace, Mr. Alfred, 2, 10, 26, 29, 30, 
32, 35, 36, 54, 83, 84, 87, 89, 90, 
103, 117, 191, 197,' 226, 274, 
281—283. 

Weaver fishes,. 39. 

Weitbrecht, 179. 

Whale, foetal teeth of, 7. 

Whale, mouth of, 40. 

Whalebone, 40. 

Whales, 78. 

White silk fowls, 122. 

Wife selling, 198. 

Wild animals, their variability, 120. 

Wilder, Professor Burt, 180, 184. 

Windpipe, 82. 

Wings of bats, birds, and pterodac- 
tyls, 64, 130. 

Wings of birds, origin of, 106. 

Wings of butterflies, outline of, 86. 

Wings of flying-dragon, 64, 158. 

Wings of humming-bird, 157. 

Wings of humming-bird hawk moth, 
157. 

Wings of insects, 65. 

Wombat, 83. 

Women, old Fuegian, 192. 

Worms undergoing fission, 169, 211 

Wyman, Dr. Jeffries. 185. 



Y. 

York Minster, a Fuegian, 197. 



Z. 

Zebras, 134. 

Zoological Gardens, 
of, 126. 



Superintendent 



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usually renders history uninteresting ; the latter is unsatisfactory, because 
it is not sufficiently compreJie7isive. To remedy this difficulty, selections, 
continuous and chronological, Jiave in the present volume been taken from 
the larger works of Freeman, Milman, Palgrave, and otJiers, which may 
serve as distinct landmarks of historical reading, " We know of scarcely 
anything," says ///^Guardian, of this volume, u which is so likely to raise, 
to a higher level the average standard of English education ." 

Fairfax. — A LIFE OF THE GREAT LORD FAIRFAX, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Parliament of England. 

By Clements R. Markham, F.S.A. With Portraits, Maps, 

Plans, and Illustrations. Demy 8vo. i6j. 

No full Life of the great Parliamentary Commander has appeared ; 
arid it is here sought to produce one — based upon careful research in con- 
temporary records and upon family and other documents. 



Hi 



Probably as a 



Mar 



of the most full and accurate that we possess about the Civil War. 

Fortnightly Review. 



7) 



. BW ■ 



■^> 




.. . . ■ 







HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, &* TRAVELS. 



7 



Forbes. — LIFE OF PROFESSOR EDWARD FORBES, 
F.R.S. By George Wilson, M.D., F.R.S.E., and Archibald 

Geikie, F.R.S. 8vo. with Portrait, 14s. 



"From the first page to the last the book claims careful reading, as being 
a full but not overcrowded rehearsal of a most instructive life, and the true 
picture of a mind that zvas rare in strength and beauty?— Examiner. 



reem 



HISTORY OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 
from the Foundation of the Achaian League to the Disruption of 
the United States. By Edward A. Freeman, M.A. Vol. I. 

General Introduction. History of the Greek Federations. 8vo. 

2 1 S. 

" The task Mr. Freeman has undertaken is one of great magnitude and 
importance. It is also a task of an almost entirely novel character. No 
other work professing to give the history of a political principle occurs io 
us, except the slight contributions to the history of representative, govern- 
ment that is contained in a course of M. Guizot's lectures .... The 
history of the development of a principle is at least as important as the 

listory of a dynasty, or of a race." —Saturday Review. 

OLD ENGLISH HISTORY FOR YOUNGER STUDENTS. By 
Edward A. Freeman, M.A., late Fellow of Trinity College, 
Oxford. With Five Coloured Maps. Extra fcap. 8vo., half- 
bound. 6s. 
" Its object is to show that clear, accurate, and scientific views of history, 
or indeed of any subject, may be easily given to children from the very 
first. . . I have, I hope, shown that it is perfectly easy to leach children, from 
the very first, to distinguish true history alike from legend and from wilful 
invention, and also to understand the nature of historical authorities, and 

to weigh one statement against another. / have throughout striven to 

connect the history of England with the general history of civilized Europe, 
and I have especially tried to make the book serve as an incentive to a more 
accurate study of historical geography."— Preface. 

HISTORY OF THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF WELLS, 
as illustrating the History of the Cathedral Churches of the Old 
Foundation. By Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L., formerly Fellow 



of Trinity College, Oxford. Crown 8vo. y. 6d. 



Well 



tribution to the general history of the Church and Kingdom of England, 












\ I 









































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8 



GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



and specially to the history of Cathedra? Churches of the Old Foundation. 

. . . I wish to point out the general principles of the original founders as 
the model to which the Old Foundations should be brought back, aitd the 
New Foundations reformed after their pattern." — Preface. 



Russell). — SHAKSPEAREAN A 
8vo. cloth extra, i$s. Uniform with the 
Cambridge Shakespeare." 

Part I. — Identification of the dramatis persons in the historical plays, 



French (George 

GENEALOGICA. 



Henry 



Wa? 



Part II — The Shakspeare and Arden families and their connexions, with ' 
Tables of descent. The present is the first attempt to give a detailed de- 
scription, in consecutive order, of each of the dramatis personse in Shak- 
speare 's immortal chronicle- histories, and some of the characters have been, 
it is believed, herein identified for the first time A clue is furnished zv hie h, 
follozved up with ordinary diligence, may enable any one, with a taste for 
the pursuit, to trace a distinguished Shakspearean worthy to his lineal 
representative in the present day. 

Galileo.— the private life of galileo. Compiled 

principally from his Correspondence and that of his eldest 
daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, Nun in the Franciscan Convent of 
S. Matthew in Arcetri. With Portrait. Crown 8vo. *js. bd. 

It has been the endeavour of the compiler to place before the reader a 
plain, ungarbled statement of facts ; and as a means to this end, to allow 
Galileo, his f -lends, and his judges to speak for themselves as far as possible. 



W. E., M 



JUVENTUS 



MUNDI. The Gods and Men of the Heroic Age. Crown 8vo. 
cloth extra. With Map. 10s. 6d. Second Edition. 



new work of M? 
in Homer. ext>oun 



Hoi?iei 



It starts, after 



the introductory chapter, with a discussion of the several races then existing 
in Hellas, including the influence of the Phoenicians and Egyptians. It 
contains chapters on the Olympian system, with its several deities ; on the 
Ethics and the Polity of the Heroic age; on the geography of Homer ; on 



a view 
Home? 



To this New 



Edition various additions have been made. 






■ 








HIS TORY, B10G RA PHY, &* TRA VEL S. 



9 



"GLOBE" ATLAS OF EUROPE. Uniform in size with Mac- 
millan's Globe Series, containing 45 Coloured Maps, on a uniform 
scale and projection ; with Plans of London and Paris, and a 
copious Index. Strongly bound in half- morocco, with flexible 
back, gs. 

This Atlas includes all the countries of Europe in a series of 48 Maps, 
drawn on the same scale, with an Alphabetical Index to the situation of 
more than ten thousand places, and the relation of the various maps and 
countries to each other is defined in a general Key-map. All the maps 
being on a uniform scale facilitates the comparison of extent and distance, 
and conveys a just impression of the relative magnitude of different countries. 

The size suffices to show the provincial divisions, the railways and main 
roads, the principal rivers and mountain ranges. "This atlas, " writes the 
British Quarterly, " will be an invaluable boon for the school, the desk, or 

the traveller's portmanteau.'''' 

sV— THE LAND WAR IN IRELAND. A 



Godkin (James). - 

History for the Times. By James Godkin, Author of "Ireland 
and her Churches/ 7 late Irish Correspondent of the Times. 8vo. 12s. 

A History of the Irish Land Question. 

Guizot.— (Author of "John Halifax, Gentleman.")— M. -DE 

BARiVNTE, a Memoir, Biographical and Autobiographical. By 



M. Guizot. 
Gentleman. 



?) 



Translated by the Author of 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 6d. 



John Halifax 



" The highest purposes of both history and biography are answered by a 
memoir so lifelike, so faithful, and so philosophical:'' 

British Quarterly Review. 

Hole.— A GENEALOGICAL STEMMA OF THE KINGS OF 

ENGLAND AND FRANCE. By the Rev. C. Hole, M.A., 

Trinity College, Cambridge. On Sheet, I*. 
The different families are printed in distinguishing colours, thus facili- 
tating reference. 
A BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. Compiled and 

Arranged by the Rev. Charles Hole, M.A. Second Edition. 

i8mo. neatly and strongly bound in cloth. 4s. 6d. 
One of the most comprehensive and accurate Biographical Dictionaries 
in the world, containing more than 18,000 persons of all countries, with 
dates of birth and death, and what they were distinguished for. Extreme 



\ 






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GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



care has been bestowed on the verification of the elates ; and thus numerous 
errors, current in Previous works, have been corrected. Its size adapts it 
for the desk, portmanteau, or pocket, 

"An invaluable addition to our manuals of reference, and, from its 
moderate price, cannot fail to become as popular as it is useful.' 1 — 



1IMES. 



Hozier.— THE SEVEN WEEKS' WAR: Its Antecedents and 
its Incidents. By H. M. Hozier. With Maps and Plans. Two 

Vols. 8vO. 2%S. 

This work is based upon letters reprinted by permission from " The 
Times. " For the most part it is a product of a personal eye-witness of sonie 
of the most interesting incidents of a war which, for ra dity and decisive 
results, may claim an almost unrivalled position in history. 

THE BRITISH EXPEDITION TO ABYSSINIA. Compiled from 
Authentic Documents. By Captain Henry M. Hozier, late 

Assistant Military Secretary to Lord Napier of Magdala. 8vo. gs. 

Several accounts of the British Expedition have been published. .... 
They have, however, been written by those who have not had access to those 
authentic documents, which cannot be collected directly after the termination 

of a campaign The endeavour of the author of this sketch has been to 

present to readers a succinct and impartial account of an enterprise which 
has rarely been equalled n the amials of war P — Preface. 



Irving.— THE ANNALS OF OUR TIME. A Diurnal of Events, 
Social and Political, which have happened in or had relation to 
the Kingdom of Great Britain, from the Accession of Queen 
Victoria to the Opening of the present Parliament. By Joseph 



Irving. 8vo. half-bound. 

We havp. hpfnrp ii.s n. tnuetM , 



l8s. 






thirty years, available equally for the statesman, the politician, the public 
writer^ and the general reader. If Mr. Irving } s object has been to bring 
before the reader all the most noteworthy occurrences which have happened 
since the beginning of Her Majesty's reign,, he may justly claim the credit 
of heaving done so most briefly, succinctly, and simply, and in such a 
manner, too, as to furnish him with the details necessary in each case to 
comprehend the event of which he is in search in an intelligent manner. 
Reflection will se7've to show the great value of such a work as this to the 
journalist and statesman^ and indeed to every one who feels an interest in 



. - \ - 








HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, &> TRAVELS. 



ii 



the progress of the age ; and we may add that its 
increased by the addition of that most important 
accurate and instructive index.' 1 — Times. 



value is considerably 
of all appendices, an 



Kingsley (Canon).— ON THE ANCIEN REGIME as it 

existed on the Continent before the French Revolution. 
Three Lectures delivered at the Royal Institution. By the Rev. 
C. Kingsley, M.A., formerly Professor of Modern History 
in the University of Cambridge. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

These three lectures discuss severally (i) Caste, (2) Centralization, (3) 
The Explosive Forces by which the Revolution was superinduced. The 
ce deals at some length with certain political questions of the present 




lay. 



THE ROMAN AND THE TEUTON. A Series of Lectures 



delivered before the University of Cambridge. 
Kingsley, M.A. 8vo. 12s. 



By Rev. C. 



CONTENTS -.-Inaugural Lecture ; The Forest Children; The Dying 
Empire- The Human Deluge ; The Gothic Civilizer; Dietrich's End; The 
Nemesis of the Goths ; Paulus Diaconus ; The Clergy and the Heathen ; 
The Monk a Civilizer; The Lombard Laws ; The Popes and the Lombards ; 
The Strategy of Providence. 

Kingsley (Henry, F.R.G.S.).— TALES OF OLD 

TRAVEL. Re-narrated by Henry Kingsley, F.R.G.S. With 

Eight Illustrations by Huard. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 6.. 
Contents -.-Marco Polo ; The Shipwreck ofPelsart; The Wonderful 

Adventures of Andrew Battel; The Wanderings of a Capuchin; Peter 
Carder - The Preservation of the "Terra Nova;" Spitzbergen; D'Erme- 

nonvUlis Acclimatization Adventure; The Old Slave Trade; Miles Philips ; 
The Sufferings of Robert Everard ; John Fox ; Alvaro Nunez; The Foun- 
dation of an Empire. 



am 



BLACK AND WHITE : A Journal of a Three Months' 

Tour in the United States. By Henry Latham, M.A., Barrister- 
at-Law. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 







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GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



Mi 



America is commendable in high degree." ■ — Athenaeum. 



Lav/.— THE ALPS OF HANNIBAL. By William John Law, 

M.A., formerly. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Two vols.' 
8vo. 2 1 j. 

" No one can read the work and not acquire a conviction that, in 
addition to a thorough grasp of a particular topic, its writer has at 
command a large store of reading and thought upon many cognate points 

of ancient history and geography."— Quarterly Review. 






Liverpool.— THE LIFE and administration of 

ROBERT BANKS, SECOND EARL OF LIVERPOOL, K.G. 
Compiled from Original Family Documents by Charles Duke 
Yonge, Regius Professor of History and English Literature in 
Queen's College, Belfast • and Author of " The History of the 
British Navy," "The Iiistory of France under the Bourbons," etc. 
Three vols. 8vo. 42^. 

Since the time of Lord Burleigh no one, except the second Pitt, ruer 
enjoyed so long a tenure of power ; with the same exception, no one ever 
held office at so critical a time .... Lord Liverpool is the very last 
■minister ivho has been able fully to carry out his own political views ; who 
has been so strong that in matters of general policy the Opposition could 
extort no concessions from him which were not sanctioned by his own 
deliberate judgment. The present work is founded almost entirely on the 
correspondence left behind him by Lord Liverpool, and now in the possession 
of Colonel and Lady Catherine Harcourt. 



iC 



Full of information and instruction" — Fortnightly Review. 



Macmillan (Rev. Hugh). — holidays ON high 

LANDS ; or, Rambles and Incidents in search of Alpine Plants. 



By the Rev. Hugh Macmillan, Author of " Bible Teachin 
Nature," etc. Crown 8vo. cloth. 6s. 



gs in 



" Botanical knowledge is blended with a love of nature, a pious en- 
thusiasm, and a rich felicity of diction not to be met with in any works 



of kindred character, if we except those of Hi 

Telegraph. 



Daily 














. "* 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, 6- TRAVELS. 



13 



Macmillan (Rev. Hugh), (continued) 

FOOT-NOTES FROM THE PAGE OF NATURE. 

numerous Illustrations. Fcap. 8vo. $s. 



With 



" Those who have derived pleasure and profit from the study of flowers 
and ferns— subjects, it is pleasing to find, now everywhere popular— by 
descending lower into the arcana of the vegetable kingdom, will find a still 
more interesting and delightful field of research in the objects brought under 
review in the following pages! 



Preface. 



BIBLE TEACHINGS IN NATURE 



Fourth. Edition. Fcap 



8vo. 6s. 



Martin 



TPIE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK : 



A Statistical and Historical Account of the States of the Civilized 
World. Manual for Politicians and Merchants for the year 1870. 
By Frederick Martin. Seventh Annual Publication. Crown 

8vo. \os. 6d. 

The new issue has been entirely re-written, revised, and corrected, on the 
basis of official reports received direct from the heads of the leading Govern- 
ments of the World, in reply to letters sent to them by the Editor. 

* 

"Everybody who knows this work is aware that it is a book that is indis- 
pensable to writers, financiers, politicians, statesmen, and all who are 
directly or indirectly interested in the political, social, industrial, com- 
mercial, and financial condition of their fell ozv- creatures at home and 
abroad. Mr. Martin deserves warm commendation for the care he takes 
in making ' The Statesman's Year Book' co??iplete and correct ! ." 

Standard. 






HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. By 
Frederick Martin, Author of "The Statesman's Year-Book." 

Extra fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

' This volume is an attempt to produce a book of reference, furnishing in 
a condensed form some biograpliical particulars of notable living men. 
The leading idea has been to give only facts, and those in the briefest form, 
and to exclude opinions. 






































; 









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GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



Martineau.— biographical sketches, 1852-1868. 

By Harriet Martineau. Third Edition, and cheaper, with 
New Preface. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

A Collection of Memoirs under these several sections :— (i) Royal, (2) 
Politicians, (3) Professional, (4) Scientific, (5) Social, (6) Literary. These 
Memoirs appeared originally in the columns of the " Daily News." 



MiltOIl.— LIFE OF JOHN MILTON. Narrated in connexion 
with the Political, Ecclesiastical, and Literary History of his 



Time. By David Masson, M.A., LL.D., Professor of Rhet 



one 



at Edinburgh, 
the Press. 



Vol. I. with Portraits. 8vo. i&r. Vol. II. in 



It is intended to exhibit Milton s life in its connexions with all the more 
notable phenomena of the period of British history in which it was cast- 
its state politics, its ecclesiastical variations, its literature and speculative 

Commencing in 1608, the Life of Milton proceeds through the 



thought. 



last sixteen years of the reign of James L , includes the whole of the reign 
of Charles L and the subsequent years of the Commonwealth and )he 
Protectorate, and then, passing the Restoration, extends itself to 1674, or 
through fourteen years of the new state of things under Charles II. The 
first volume deals with the life of Milton as extending from 1608 to 1640, 
which was the period of his education and of his minor poems. 









Morison.— THE LIFE AND TIMES OF SAINT BERNARD, 

Abbot of Clairvaux. By James Cotter Morison, M.A. New 

Edition, revised. Crown 8vo. Js. 6d. 

" One of the best contributions in our literature towards a vivid, intel- 
ligent, and worthy knowledge of European interests and thoughts and 
feelings during the twelfth century. A delightful and instructive volume, 
and one of the best pi-oducts of the modern historic spirit." 



Pall Mall Gazette. 



Morley (Joh 



EDMUND BURKE, a Historical Study By 



JohxN Morley, B.A. Oxon. Crown 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

" The style is terse and incisive, and brilliant with epigram and point. 
It contains pithy aphoristic sentences which Burke himself would not have 











HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, &» TRAVELS. 



15 



disowned. But these are not its best features : its sustained poiver of 
reasoning, its wide sweep of observation and reflection, its elroated ethical 
and social tone, stamp it as a work of high excellence, and as such we 
cordially recommend it to our readers"— Saturday Review. 



Mullin 



vi • 



-CAMBRIDGE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. By J. B. Mullinger, B.A. 
Crown 8vo. ds. 6d. 



Saturday Review. 



" It is a very entertaining and readable book"- 

" The chapters on the Cartesian Philosophy and the Cambridge Platonists 



are admirable. 



•}•) 



Athenaeum. 



Palgrave.— HISTORY OF NORMANDY AND OF ENG- 
LAND. By Sir Francis Palgrave, Deputy Keeper of Her 
Majesty's Public Records. Completing the History to the Death 
of William Rufus. Four vols. 8vo. £4 4s. 

Volume I. General Relations of Mediceval Europe— The Carlovingian 
Empire— The Danish Expeditions in the Gauls— And the Establishment 
of Rollo. Volume II. The Three First Dukes of Normandy ; Rollo, 



The Carlovingian 



Guillaume Longue-Epee, and Richard Sans-Pem 

line supplanted by the Capets. Volume III. Richard Sans-Peui 

Richard Le- Bon— Richard III.— Robert Le Diable— William the C 



queror. 



Volume IV. William Rufus— Accession of Henry Beauclerc. 



Palgrave (W. G.)-— A NARRATIVE OF A YEAR'S 
TOURNEY THROUGH CENTRAL AND EASTERN^ 
ARABIA, 1862-3. By William Gifford Palgrave, late of ■ 

the Eighth Regiment Bombay N. I. Fifth and cheaper Edition. 



W 



Jeens. 



Crown 8vo. 6s. 



" Considering the extent of our frevious ignorance, the amount of his 
achievements, and the importune, of his contributions to our knowledge, we 
cannot say less of him than was once said of a far greater discoverer. 
Mr Palgrave has indeed given a new world to Europe." 

' Pall Mall Gazette. 












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GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



Parkes (Henry).— AUSTRALIAN VIEWS OF ENGLAND. 
By Henry Parkes. Crown 8vo. cloth, y. 6d. 

66 The following letters were written during a residence in England, in 
the years 1 86 1 and 1862, and zv ere published in the "Sydney Moraine 
Herald" on the arrival of the monthly mails .... On re-perusal these 
letters appear to contain views of English life and impressions of English 
notabilities which, as the views and impressions of an Englishman on his 
return to his native country after an absence of twenty years, may not be 
without interest to the English reader. The writer had opportunities of 
mixing zvith different classes of the British people, and of hearing opinions 

on passing events from opposite standpoints of observation. 11 — Author's 

Preface. 






Prichard.— THE ADMINISTRATION OF INDIA. From 
1859 to 1868. The First Ten Years of Administration under the 

Crown. By Iltudus Thomas Prichard, Barrister-at-Law. 

Two vols. Demy 8vo. "With Map. 21s. 

. In these volumes the author has aimed to supply a full, impartial, ana 
independent account of British India between 1859 and 1868 — which \ 
in many respects the most important epoch in the history of that country 
which the present century lias seen. 













Ralegh.— THE LIFE OF SIR WALTER RALEGH, based 
upon Contemporary Documents. By Edward Edwards. To- 
gether with Ralegh's Letters, now first collected. With Portrait. 
Two vols. 8vo. 32^. 

* 

"Mr. Edwards has certainly written the life of Ralegh from fuller 
information than any previous biographer. He is intelligent, industrious, 
sympathetic : and the world has in his two volumes larger means afforded 
it of knowing Ralegh than it ever possessed before. The new letters and 
the newly -edited old letters are in themselves a boon." — Pall Mall 

Gazette. 






Robinson (Crabb). —DIARY, REMINISCENCES, AND 
CORRESPONDENCE OF HENRY CRABB ROBINSON. 
Selected and Edited by Dr. Sadler. With Portrait. Second 



Edition. Three vols. 8vo. cloth. 



36^. 







n 






HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, &* TRAVELS. 






Mr, 



quarters oj a century. It contains personal reminiscences of some of the 



Wielan 



Quincey, Wordsworth (with whom Mr. Crabb Robinson zvas on terms of 
great intimacy), Madame de Stael, Lafayette, Coleridge, Lamb, Milman, 
&>c. &c. : and includes a vast variety of subjects, political, literary, ecclesi- 
astical, and miscellaneous. 



(Jame 



Old). — HISTORICAL GLEAN- 
INGS : A Series of Sketches. Montague, Walpole, Adam Smith, 
Cobbett. By Professor Rogers. Crown 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

Professor Rogers's object hi the following sketches is to present a set of 
historical facts, grouped round a principal figure. The essays are in the 
form of lectures. 

HISTORICAL GLEANINGS. Second Series. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

A companion volume to the First Series recently published. Lt contains 



Ho? 



In these lectures the 



papers on Wiklifi Laud, Wilkes 

author has aimed to state the social facts of the time in which the individual 

whose history is handled took part in public business. 



Smith (Professor Goldwin). — three ENGLISH 

STATESMEN : PYM, CROMWELL, PITT. A Course of 
Lectures on the Political History of England. By Goldwin 
Smith, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. New and Cheaper Edition. 5^. 

u A work which neither historian nor politician can safely afford to 

neglect^— Saturday Review. 



SYSTEMS OF LAND TENURE IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES. 

A Series of Essays published under the sanction of the Cobden 
Club. Demy 8vo. Second Edition. 12s. 

The subjects treated are: — 1. Tenure of Land in Ireland; 2. La7id 
Laws of England; 3. Tenure of Land in India; 4. Land System of 
Belgium and Holland ; 5. Agrarian Legislation of Prussia during the 
Present Century; 6. Land System of France ; 7. Russian Agrarian 
Legislation &f 1 86 1 ; 8. Farm Land and Land Laws of the United 



St a tes. 



B 






I 









K ^M 



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GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



TacitUS. — THE HISTORY OF TACITUS, translated into 
English. By A. J. Church, M.A. and W. J. Brodribb, M.A. 
With a Map and Notes. 8vo. iar. 6d. 

The translators have endeavoured to adhere as closely to the original as 
was thought consistent with a proper observance of English idiom. At 
the same time it has bee7i their aim to reproduce the precise expressions of 
the author. This work is characterised by the Spectator as u a scholarly 
and faithful translation. 



j? 



THE AGRICOLA AND GERMANIA. Translated into English by 

A. J. Church, M.A. and W. J. Brodribb, M.A. With Maps 

and Notes. Extra fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

The translators have sought to produce such a version as may satisfy 
scholars who demand a faithful rendering of the original, and English 
readers wko are of ended by the baldness and frigidity which commo?tly 
disfigure translatio?is. The treatises are accompanied by introductions, 
notes, maps, and a chronological summary. The Athenaeum says of 
this work that it is " a version at once readable and exact, which may be 
perused with pleasure by all, and consulted with advantage by the classical 
student" 



Taylor (Rev. Isaac). — WORDS AND PLACES; or 

Etymological Illustrations of History, Etymology, and Geography. 
By the Rev. Isaac Taylor. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 

1 2 j. 6d. 



a -n/r 



Mr. Taylor has produced a really useful book, and one which stands 



ilone in our language. 



ii 



Saturday Review. 



Trench (Archbishop).— GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS : Social 

Aspects of the Thirty Years' War. By R. Chenevix Trench, 
D.D., Archbishop of Dublin. Fcap. 8vo. zs. 6d. 

" Clear and lucid in style, these lectures will be a treasure to many to 
whom the subject is unfamiliar:''— -DUBLIN EVENING Mail. 



Trench (Mrs. R.).— Remains of the late Mrs. RICHARD 

TRENCH. Being Selections from her Journals, Letters, and 
other Papers. Edited by Archbishop Trench. New and 
Cheaper Issue, with Portrait, 8vo. 6s. - m 



> 










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19 



Contains notices and anecdotes illustrating the social life of the period 
— extending over a quarter of a century (1799 — 1827). // includes also 
poems and other miscellaneous pieces by Mrs. Trench. 

Trench (Capt. F., F.R.G.S.). — THE RUSSO-INDIAN 

QUESTION, Historically, Strategically, and Politically con- 
sidered. By Capt. Trench, F.R.G.S. With a Sketch of Central 
Asiatic Politics and Map of Central Asia. Crown 8vo. Js. 6d. 

u The Russo-Indian, or Central Asian question has for several obvious 
reasons been attracting much public attention in England, in Russia, and 
also on the Continent, within ihe last year or two. . . . I have thought 
that the present volume, giving a short sketch of the history of this question 
from its earliest origin, and co?idensing much of the most recent and inte- 
resting information on the subject, and on its collateral phases, might 
perhaps be acceptable to those who take an interest in it" — Author's 

Preface. 

Trevelyan (G.O., M.P.). — CAWNPORE. Illustrated with 
Plan. By G. O. Trevelyan, M.P., Author of "The Com- 



petition Wallah. 



")) 



Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 



u In this book we are not spared one fact of the sad story ; but our 
feelings are not harrowed by the recital of imaginary outrages. It is 
good for us at home that we have one who tells his tale so zvell as does 

Mr. Trevelyan." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

THE COMPETITION WALLAH. New Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' ' The earlier letters are especially interesting for their racy descriptions 

of Ewopean life hi India Those that follow are of more serious 

import, seeking to tell the truth about the Hindoo character and English 
influences, good and bad, upon it, as zvell as to suggest some better course of 
treatment than that hitherto adopted." — Examiner. 

Vaughan (late Rev. Dr. Robert, of the British 

Quarterly). — MEMOIR OF ROBERT A. VAUGHAN. 
Author of "Hours with the Mystics." By Robert Vaughan, 

D.D. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. Extra fcap. 8vo. $s. 

u It deserves a place on the same shelf with Stanleys i Life of A?mold, 7 
and CarlyWs 'Stirling? Dr. Vaughan has performed his painful but 
not all unpleasing task with exquisite good taste and feeling" — NONCON- 
FORMIST. 

B 2 







I 
I 









\ 










Wagner.— MEMOIR OF THE REV. GEORGE WAGNER, 

M.A., late Incumbent of St. Stephen's Church, Brighton. By the 
Rev. J. N. Simpkinson, M.A. Third and Cheaper Edition, cor- 
rected and abridged. $s. 

"A more edifying biography zue have rarely met withy — LITERARY 

Churchman. 






20 



GENERAL CATALOGUE, 






ii 












"Wallace.— THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO : the Land of the 
Orang Utan and the Bird of Paradise. A Narrative of Travel 
with Studies of Man and Nature. By Alfred Russel Wallace. 

With Maps and Illustrations. Second Edition. Two vols, crown 



8 



vo. 24J. 



ii A carefully and deliberately composed narrative. . . . We advise 
our readers to do as zve have done, read his book through? — TIMES. 

■ 

Ward (Professor).— THE HOUSE OF AUSTRIA IN THE 

THIRTY YEARS' WAR. Two Lectures, with Notes and Illus- 
trations. By Adolphus W. Ward, M. A., Professor of History 
in Owens College, Manchester. Extra fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 



<( 



w 



Very compact and instructive."— Fortnightly Review. 



AN ESSAY ON GREEK FEDERAL COINAGE 



By the Hon. J. Leicester Warren, M.A. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 



6 ' The present essay is an attempt to illustrate Mr. Freeman s Federal 
Government by evidence deduced from the coinage of the times and countries 
therein treated of"' — PREFACE. 












Wedgwood.— JOHN WESLEY AND THE EVANGELICAL 
REACTION of the Eighteenth Century. By Julia Wedgwood. 

Crown 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

This book is an attempt to delineate the influence of a particular man 
Upon his age. 

Wilson. — A MEMOIR OF GEORGE WILSON, M. D., 

F.R. S.E., Regius Professor of Technology in the University of 



Edinburgh. By his Sister. New Edition. 



Crown 8vo. 6s. 



" An exquisite and touching portrait of a rare and beautiful spirit. 

Guardian. 



?? 




■M k 



"-*» 







HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, &* TRAVELS. 



21 



Wilson (Daniel, LL.D.).— PREHISTORIC ANNALS 

OF SCOTLAND. By Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Professor of 
History and English Literature in University College, Toronto. 
New Edition, with numerous Illustrations. Two vols, demy 
8vo. 36^. 

This elaborate and learned work is divided into four Parts. Part I 
deals with The Primeval or Stone Period : Aboriginal Traces, Sepulchral 
Memorials, Dwellings, and Catacombs, Temples, Weapons, &-v. <5rv.; 
Part H, The Bronze Period : The Metallurgic Transition, Primitive 
Bronze, Personal Ornaments, Religion, Arts, and Domestic Habits, with 
other topics; Part III, The Iron Period : The Introduction of Iron, The 
Roman Invasion, Strongholds, &*c. &c; Part IV., The Christian Period : 
Historical Data, the Norriis law Relics, Primitive and Medieval 
Ecclesiology, Ecclesiastical and Miscellaneous Antiquities. The work is 
furnished with an elaborate Index. 

PREHISTORIC MAN. New Edition, revised and partly re- written, 
with numerous Illustrations. One vol. 8vo. 21s. 

This work, which carries out the principle of the preceding one, but with 
a wider scope, aims to " view Man, as far as possible, unaffected by those 
modifying influences which accompany the development of nations and the 
maturity of a true historic period, in order thereby to ascertain the sources 
from whence such development and maturity proceed:'' It contains, for 
example, chapters on the Primeval Transition; Speech; Metals; the 
Mound- Builders ; Primitive Architecture ; the American Type; the Red 

Rlnndnfthe West &*c. &c. 



CHATTERTON : A Biographical Study. By Daniel Wilson, 
LL.D., Professor of History and English Literature in University 
College, Toronto. Crown 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

The Author here regards Chatterton as a Poet, not as a " mere resetter 
and defacer of stolen literary treasures. " Reviewed in this light, he has 
found much in the old materials capable of being turned to new account : 
and to these materials research in various directions has enabled him to 
make some additions. 





















1 




























1 


1 




1 











SECTION II 












; I 















l 













POETRY AND BELLES LETTRES. 



am 



—LAURENCE BLOOMFIELD IN IRELAND; 
or, the New Landlord. By William Allingham. New and 
Cheaper Issue, with a Preface. Fcap. 8vo. cloth, 4s. 6d. 



new 



Church measure, is discussed. 

" It is vital with the national character . . . . It has something of Pope" s 
point and Goldsmith's simplicity, touched to a more modern issue" 
Athen^um. 



Arnold (Matthew).— POEMS. By Matthew Arnold. 

Two vols. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth. 12s. Also sold separately at 6s. 
each. 

Volume I. contains Narrative and Elegiac Poems; Volume II. Dra- 
matic and lyric Poems. The two volumes comprehend the First and 
Second Series of the Poems, and the New Poems. 

NEW POEMS. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

In this volume will be found " ' Empedocles on Etna ; " " Thyrsis " (written 
n commemoration of the late Professor Clough); " Epilogue to Lessin^s 
Laocoon;" "Heine's Grave f " Obermann once more" All these 
poems are also included in the Edition (two vols. ) above-mentioned. 

1 SSAYS IN CRITICISM. New Edition, with Additions. Extra 
fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

Contents -.—Preface ; The Function of Criticism at the present time ; 
The Literary Influence of Academies ; Maurice de Guerin ; Eugenie 
de Guerin ; Heinrich Heine ; Pagan and Mediaeval Religious Sentiment; 
Joubert ; Spinoza and the Bible ; Marcus Aurelius. 






I 






POETRY &> BELLES LE TTRES. 



23 



Arnold (Matthew) {continued)- 

t 

ASPROMONTE, AND OTHER POEMS. Fcap. 8vo. cloth 
extra. 4s. 6d. 
Contents: — Poems for Italy ; Dramatic lyrics ; Miscellaneous. 



i i 



Uncommon lyrical power and deep poetic feeling. 



?> 



Literary 



Churchman. 



W 



POEMS OF RURAL LIFE IN COM- 



MON ENGLISH. By the Rev. W. Barnes, Author of 
" Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect.'' Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 
" In a high degree pleasant and novel. The book is by no means one 
which the lovers of descriptive poetry can afford to lose."— Athenaeum. 

Bell.— ROMANCES AND MINOR POEMS. By Henry 
Glassford Bell. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

" Full of life and genius. 



?> 



Court Circular. 











Besant.— STUDIES IN EARLY FRENCH POETRY. By 
Walter Besant, M.A. Crown. 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

A sort of impression rests on most minds that French literature begins 
with the "siecle de Louis Quatorze ;" any previous literature being for 
the most part unknown or ignored. Few know anything of the enormous 
literary activity that began in the thirteenth century, -was carried on by 
Rulebeuf Marie de France, Gaston de Foix, Thibault de Champagne, 
and Lorris ; was fostered by Charles of Orleans, by Margaret of Valois, 
by Francis the First; that gave a crowd of versifiers to France, enriched, 
strengthened, developed, and fixed the French language, and prepared the 
way* for Corneille and for Racine. The present work aims to afford 
information and direction touching the early efforts of France in poetical 

literature. 

" In one moderately sized volume he has contrived to introduce us to th 
>ery best, if not to all of the early French poets. "-Athenaeum. 

Bradshaw.— AN ATTEMPT TO ASCERTAIN THE STATE 
OF CHAUCER'S WORKS, AS THEY WERE LEFT AT 
HIS DEATH. With some Notes of their Subsequent History. 
By Henry Bradshaw, of King's College, and the University 
Library, Cambridge. In the Press. 



t 



I 






1 






I 
















i 

1 



24 



GENERAL CATALOGUE, 



mley 



ESSAYS BY THE LATE GEORGE BRIMLEY, 



M. A. Edited by the Rev. W. G. Clark, M.A. With Portrait. 
Cheaper Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Essays on literary topics, such as Tennyson s "Poems,'" Carlyle ' s 



"Life of Stirling, ' "Bleak House," &>c. } reprinted from Fraser, the 
S p ec tator, and like periodicals. 














om 



V.— THE STRANGER OF SERIPHOS. A Dramatic 

Poem. By Frederick Napier Broome. Fcap. 8vo. 5^ 

Founded on the Greek legend of Danae and Perseus. 

' ' Grace and beauty of expression are Mr. Broome s characteristics ; 
and these qualities are displayed in many passages.''' — Athenaeum. 



J 



■HORiE TENNYSONIAN.E, Sive Eclogse 



e 



Tennysono Latine redditse. Cura A. J. Church, A.M. 
Extra fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

Latin versions of Selections from Tennyson. Among the authors a?'e 
the Editor, the late Professor Coningion, Professor Seeley, Dr. Hessey, 
Mr. Kebbel, and other gentlemen. 













































Clough (Arthur Hugh). 



THE POEMS AND PROSE 



REMAINS OF ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH. With a 
Selection from his Letters and a Memoir. Edited by his Wife. 
With Portrait. Two vols, crown 8vo. 11s. Or Poems sepa- 
rately, as below. 

The late Professor Clough is well known as a graceful, tender poet, 
and as the scholarly translator of Pluta?xh. 77ie letters possess high 
interest, not biographical only, but literary — discussing, as they do, the 
most important questions of the time, ahvays in a genial spirit. The 
"Remains" include papers on " Retrenchment at Oxford ;" on Professor 
F. W. Newman's book " The Soul;" on Wordsworth; on the Formation 
of Classical English ; on some Modern Poems {Matthew Arnold and the 
late Alexander Smith), &>c. &c. 

THE POEMS OF ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH, sometime Fellow 
of Oriel College, Oxford. With, a Memoir by F. T. Palgrave. 
Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 6s< 













POETRY &- BELLES LE TERES. 



2 5 



" From the higher mind of cultivated, all- questioning, but still conser- 
vative England, in this our puzzled generation, we do not know of any 
utterance in literature so characteristic as the poems of Arthur Hugh 
dough ."- 



Eraser's Magazine. 



Dante. — DANTE'S COMEDY, THE HELL. Translated by 
"W. M. Rossetti. Fcap. 8vo. cloth. 5^. 

The aim of this translation of Dante may be summed up in one zuord 

To follow Dante sentence for sentence, line for line, 

-has been my strenuous endeavour." 



a 



Literality. 



word for word— neither more nor less- 

— Author's Preface. 



De Vere. — THE INFANT BRIDAL, and other Poems. By 
Aubrey De Vere. Fcap. 8vo. js. 6d. 

"Mr. De Vere has taken his place among the poets of the day. 
and tender feeling, and that polished restraint of style which is 
classical, are the charms of the volume" — Spectator. 



Pure 

called 



H 



■Works by Sir Francis Hastings Doyle, 



Professor of Poetry in the University of Oxford :— 

THE RETURN OF THE GUARDS, AND OTHER POEMS. 
Fcap. 8vo. Js. 
" Good wine needs no bush, nor good verse a preface ; and Sir Francis 
Doyle's verses run bright and clear, and smack of a classic vintage. . . . 
His chief characteristic, as it is his greatest charm, is the siinple ?nanliness 
which gives force to all he writes. It is a characteristic in these days rare 
enough. " — EXAMINER. 

LECTURES ON POETRY, delivered before the University of 
Oxford in 1868. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Three Lectures : — (1) Inaugural ; (2) Provincial Poetry ; (3) Dr 
Newman's u Dream of Gerontius!' 

"Full of thoughtful discrimmation and fine insight: the lecture on 
' Provincial Poetry' seems to us singularly true, eloquent, and instructive^ 

—Spectator. 

Evans. — BROTHER FABIAN'S MANUSCRIPT, AND 
OTHER POEMS. By Sebastian Evans. Fcap. 8vo. cloth. 

■ 

6s. 







1 

t 



m 



■ 



1 



j 














I 






26 



GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



a 



In this volume we have full assurance that he has < the vision and the 



faculty divine '.' . . . Clever and full of kindly hmnour."— Globe. 



He 



Furnivall. __.., 

M.S. 2252, in the British Museum. By F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 
With Essay by the late Herbert Coleridge. Fcap. 8vo. ' *]s'.6d. 

Looking to the interest shown by so many thousands in Mr. Tennyson's 
Arthurian poems, the editor and publishers have thought that the old 
version would possess considerable interest. It is a reprint of the celebrated 
Harleiait copy ; and is accompanied by index and glossary. 



1 



i 


















: 






Garnett.— IDYLLS AND EPIGRAMS. Chiefly from the Greek 
Anthology. By Richard Garnett. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 



a 



A charming little book. For English readers. Mr, 



lations will open a new world of thought." — Westminster Review. 



GUESSES AT TRUTH. By Two Brothers. With Vignette, 

Title, and Frontispiece. New Edition, with Memoir. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

" The following year was memorable for the commencement of the 
' Gtiesses at Truth. ' He and his Oxford brother, living as they did in 
constant and free interchange of thought on questions of philosophy and 
literature and art ; delighting, each of them, in the epigrammatic terseness 
which is the charm of the ' Pensees ' of Pascal, and the ' Caracteres ' of La 
Br uy ere— agreed to utter themselves in this form, and the book appeared, 
anonymously, in two volu?nes, in 1827." — Memoir. 



Hamerton 



A PAINTER'S CAMP. 



By Philip Gilbert 



Hamerton. Second Edition, revised. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

Book I. In England; Book II. In Scotland; Book III. In France. 
This is the story of an Artisfs encampments and adventures. The 
headings of a few chapters may serve to convey a notion of the character 
of the book : A Walk on the Lancashire Moors ; the Author his own 
Housekeeper and Cook ; Tents and Boats for the Highlands ; The Author 
encamps on an uninhabited Island ; A Lake Voyage ; A Gipsy Journey 



to Glen Coe ; Concerning Moonlight and Old Castles ; A little French 
City ; A Far 771 i7i the Autu7iois, &c. &c. 

L 




POETRY & BELLES LETT RES. 



V 



" His pages sparkle with happy turns of expression, not a few well-told 
anecdotes, and many observations which are the fruit of attentive study and 
wise reflection on the complicated phenomena of human life, as well as of 
uncojiscious nature" — Westminster Review. 









ETCHING AND ETCHERS. A Treatise Critical and Practical. 
By P. G. Hamerton. With Original Plates by Rembrandt, 
Callot, Dujardin, Paul Potter, &c. Royal 8vo. Half 

morocco. 31^. 6d. 

u It is a work of which author, printer, and publisher may alike feel 
p7vud. It is a work, too, of which none but a genuine artist could by 

possibility have been the author."— Saturday Review. 



Herschel. — THE ILIAD OF HOMER. Translated into English 
Hexameters. By Sir John Herschel, Bart. 8vo. 18^. 

A version of the Iliad in English Hexameters. The question of Homeric 
translation is fully discussed in the Preface. 

" It is admirable, not only for many intrinsic merits, but as a great 



man's tribute to Genius. 



•>•> 



•Illustrated London News. 



HIATUS : the Void in Modern Education. Its Cause and Antidote. 
By Outis. 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

The main object of this Essay is to point out how the e7notional element 
which underlies the Fine Arts is disregarded and undeveloped at this time 
so far as [despite a pretence at filling it up) to constitute an Educational 

Hiatus. 



Huxley (Professor).— LAY SERMONS, ADDRESSES, 

AND REVIEWS. By T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

» 

10s. 6d. 

Fourteen discourses on the following subjects :—On the Advisableness of 
Improving Natural Knowledge Emancipation 



White 



Liberal Education, ana where 10 find it ; Scientific Education; on the 
Educational Value of the Natural History Sciences ; on the Study of 
Zoology; on the Physical Basis of Life ; the Scientific Aspects of Posi- 
tivism ; on a Piece of Chalk ; Geological Contemporaneity and Persistent 
Types 'of Life ; Geological Reform ; the Origin of Species ; Criticisms on 
the " Origin of 'Species ;" on Descartes' " Discourse touching the Method 
of using one's Reason rightly and of seeking Scientific Truth." 









I 







P* H 































28 



GENERAL CATALOGUE, 



Kennedy. — legendary fictions of the irish 

CELTS. Collected and Narrated by Patrick Kennedy. Crown 
8vo. With Two Illustrations. Js. 6d. 

"A very admirable popular selection of the Irish fairy stories and legends, 
in which those who are familiar with Mr. Croker's, and other selections 
of the same kind, will find much that is fresh, and full of the peculiar 
vivacity and humour, and sometimes even of the ideal beauty, of the ti ue 
Celtic Legend! 1 — SPECTATOR. 



Kingsley (Canon). — See also "Historic Section," "Works 

of Fiction," and "Philosophy;" also "Juvenile Books," 

^"Theology." 

THE SAINTS' TRAGEDY : or, The True Story of Elizabeth 01 
Hungary. By the Rev. Charles Kingsley. With a Preface by 
the Rev. F. D. Maurice. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo. $s. 

ANDROMEDA, AND OTHER POEMS. Third Edition. Fcap. 
8vo. $s. 

PHAETHON; or, Loose Thoughts for Loose Thinkers. Third 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 2s. 


















we 



1 (Professor).— AMONG MY BOOKS. Six Essays. 
By James Russell Lowell, M.A., Professor of Belles Lettres 

in Harvard College. 

Six Essays : Dry den ; Witchcraft ; Shakespeare Once More ; New 
England Two Centuries ago; Lessing ; Rousseau and the Senti- 
mentalists. 



Crown 8vo. Js. 6d. 



UNDER THE WILLOWS, AND OTHER POEMS. By James 
Russell Lowell. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

1 Under the Willows is one of the most admirable bits of idyllic ivork, 
short as it is, or perhaps because it is short, that have been done in our gene- 
ration!'' — Saturday Review. 






M 



.SSOn (Professor).— ESSAYS, BIOGRAPHICAL AND 
CRITICAL. Chiefly on the British Poets. By David Masson, 
LL.D., Professor of Rhetoric in the University of Edinburgh. 
8vo. \2s. 6d. 







POETRY &> BELLES LETTRES. 



29 



"Distinguished by a remarkable power of analysis, a clear statement 

• of the actual facts on which speculation is based, and an appropriate 

beauty of language. These essays should be popular with serious men. " 

Athen/eum. 

i 

BRITISH NOVELISTS AND THEIR STYLES. Being a Critical 
Sketch of the History of British Prose Fiction. Crown 8vo. Js. 6d. 

" Valuable for its lucid analysis of fundamental principles •, its breadth 
of view, and sustained animation of style:'— Spectator. 

MRS. JERNINGHAM'S JOURNAL. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 
8vo. 3s. 6d. A Poem of the boudoir or domestic class, purporting 
to be the journal of a newly -married lady. 

" One quality in the piece, sufficient of itself to claim a moment's atten- 
tion, is that it is unique— original, indeed, is not too strong a word—in 
the manner of its conception and execution:''— Pall Mall Gazette. 



Mistral (F.). — MIRE LLE: a Pastoral Epic of Provence. Trans- 
lated by H. Crichton. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

" This is a capital translation of the elegant and richly-coloured pastoral 
epic poem of M. Mistral which, in 1859, he dedicated in enthusiastic 

terms to Lamartine. It would be hard to overpraise the 

sweetness and pleasing freshness of this charming epic?— Athenaeum. 



•THE PURITANS. By Ernest Myers. 



Myers (Ernest).- 

Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth. 2s. 6d. 
" It is not too much to call it a really grand foem, stately and dignified, 
and showing not only a high poetic mind, but also great power over poetic 



expression 



I? 



Literary Churchman. 



Myers (F. W. H.).— Poems. By F. W. H. Myers. Extra 



fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d. Containing " ST. PAUL, 



» a 



St. JOHN, 7 ' and 



other Poems. 



i 



^ettleship 



ESSAYS ON ROBERT 



BROWNING'S 



POETRY. By John T. Nettleship. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6s. 6d. 






.■ ■ ■ 



















3o 



GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



Noel.— BEATRICE, AND OTHER POEMS. 
Roden Noel. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

■ 



By the Hon. 



i c 



B 



eatrice is in many respects a noble poem; it displays a splendour 



r7 7 * , . ,. jrw*) u, uMjsuty* a splendour 

of landscape painting, a strong definite precision of highly-coloured descrip- 
tion, which has not often been surpassed."— Pail Mall Gazette 

Norton.-THE LADY OF LA GARAYE. By the Hon Mrs 

Norton. With Vignette and Frontispiece. Sixth Edition" 
Fcap. 8vo. 4-r. 6d. 

" There is no lack of vigour, no faltering of power, plenty of passion 
much bright description, much musical verse. . . . Full of thoughts zv ell- 
expressed, and may be classed among her best works."— Times. 






._ 




































Orwell 



THE BISHOPS WALK AND THE BISHOP'S 
TIMES. Poems on the days of Archbishop Leighton and the 
Scottish Covenant. By Orwell. Fcap. 8vo. Ks. 

" Pure taste and faultless precision of language, the fruits of deep thought 

insight into human nature, and lively sympathy. "—Nonconformist. ' 

Palgrave (Francis T.).— ESSAYS ON art. By Francis 

Turner Palgrave, M.A., late Fellow of Exeter College, 

Oxford. Extra fcap. Svo. 6s. 

Midready—Dyce—Holman Hunt— Herbert—Poetry, Prose, and Sen- 
sationalism in Art— Sculpture in England— The Albert Cross 

SHAKESPEARE'S SONNETS AND SONGS. Edited by F. T. 
Palgrave. Gem Edition. With Vignette Title by Jeens. $s.6d. 

"For minute elegance no volume could possibly excel the 'Gem 
Edition' " — SCOTSMAN. 



&>c. 



Patmore. 



Works by Coventry Patmore • 



THE ANGEL IN THE HOUSE. 



■ 

Book I. The Betrothal; Book II. The Espousals; Book III 

Faithful for Ever. With Tamerton Church Tower. Two vols. Fca<> 
Svo. I2s. % r- 



* * 



* A Nezv and Cheap Edition in one vol. iSmo., beautifully printed 
on toned paper, price 2s. 6d. 






-.♦* 



POETRY & BELLES LETT RES. 



3i 



THE VICTORIES OF LOVE. Fcap. 8vo. 4^. 6d. 

The intrinsic merit of his poem will secure it a permanent place in 
literature. . . . Mr. Patmore has fully earned a place in the catalogue 
of poets by the finished idealizalioit of domestic life" — Saturday 



Review, 



A 



Pember (E. H.).— THE TRAGEDY OF LESBOS 
Dramatic Poem. By E. H Pember. Fcap. 8vo. 4^. 6d. 

Founded upon the story of Sappho. 



Richardson.— THE ILIAD OF THE EAST. A Selection 
of Legends drawn from Valmiki's Sanskrit Poem " The Ram- 
ayana." By Frederika Richardson. Crown 8vo. 7* 6d. 

>)• — POEMS. By James Rhoades. Fcap. 



Rhoades (James).- 

8vo. 4.S. 6d. 
Poems and Sonnets. Contents :—Ode to Harmony ; To the Spirit 
of Unrest; Ode to Winter; The Tunnel; To the Spirit of Beauty, 
Song of a Leaf ; By the Botha ; An Old Orchard ; Love and Rest ; The 



Wc 



Ma isie 









Rossetti. — Works by Christina Rossetti : 

GOBLIN MARKET, AND OTHER POEMS. With two Designs 

Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 



by D. G. Rossetti. 



5* 



"She handles her little marvel with that rare poetic discrimination which 
neither exhausts it of its simple wonders by pushing symbolism too far, nor 
keeps those wonders in the merely fabulous and capricious stage. Bifact 
she has produced a true children's poem, which is far more delightful to 
the mature than to children, though it would be delightful to all."— 



Spectator. 



THE PRINCE'S "PROGRESS, AND OTHER POEMS. With 
two Designs by D. G. Rossetti. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

" Miss Rossetti 1 s poems are of the kind which recalls Shelley's definition 
of Boetry as the record of the best and happiest moments of the best and 



happiest minds. 



They are like the piping of a bird on the spray in 



the sunshine, or the quaint singing with which a child amuses itself when 
it forgets that anybody is listening:'— Saturday Review. 






























1 




































32 



GENERAL CATALOGUE, 



(W. M 



DANTE'S HELL. See "Dante." 



■ 

FINE ART, chiefly Contemporary. By William M. Rossetti. 
Crown 8vo. xos. 6d. 

This volume consists of Criticism on Contemporary Art reprinted 
from Fraser, The Saturday Review, The Pall Mall Gazette ' and other 

publications. ' 

Roby.— STORY OF A HOUSEHOLD, AND OTHER POEMS 
By Mary K. Roby. Fcap. 8vo. $s. 



Seeley (Professor). 



LECTURES AND ESSAYS. By 



J. R Seeley, M.A. Professor of Modern History in the 
University of Cambridge. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Contents -.-Roman Imperialism : 1. The Great Roman Revolution • 
2. The Proximate cause of the Fall of the Roman Empire; 3. The Later 
Empire. -Milton's Political Opinions — Milton's Poetry— Elementary 
Principles in Art— Liberal Education in Universities- English in 
Schools— The Church as a Teacher of Morality— The Teaching of 
Politics : an Inaugural Lecture delivered at Cambridge. * 

Shairp (Principal).-KILMAHOE, a Highland Pastoral, with 



other Poems. By John Campbell Shairp. Fcap. 8vo. 



5* 



" Kilmahoe is a Highland Pastoral, 
the Western Lochs and Moors, sketched 

pictnresqueness. " — Saturday Review. 



Smith. 



Works by Alexander Smith : 



A LIFE DRAMA, AND OTHER POEMS. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 
CITY POEMS. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 

EDWIN' OF DEIRA. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 5* 
"A poem which is marked by the strength, sustained sweetness 

compact texture of real life:'— -North British Review. 



and 



Smith.— POEMS. By Catherine Barnard Smith. 



8vo. $s. 



Fcap. 



" Wealthy in feeling, meaning, finish, and grace ; not without passion, 
which is suppressed, but the keener for that. " — Athenaeum. 










POETRY &* BELLES LETTRES. 



33 



Smith (Rev. Walte 



—HYMNS OF CHRIST AND THE 



CHRISTIAN LIFE. By the Rev. Walter C. Smith, M.A. 

■ 

Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 
< < These are amon? the sweetest sacred poems we have read for et long 



lime. With 



expression by no means uncommon^ they aw truejnd elevated, and their 
pathos is profound and simple.'' 



Nonconformist. 



Stratford de Redcliffe (Viscount).— shadows of 

THE PAST, in Verse. By Viscount Stratford de Red- 

CLIFFE. Crown 8vo. io*. 6d. 
< < The vigorous words of one who has acted vigorously. They combine 
the fervour "of politician and poet."- -Guardian. 

■ 

Trench.— Works by R Chenevix Trench, D.D., Archbishop 
of Dublin. See also Sections "Philosophy," " Theology," &c. 

POEMS. Collected and arranged anew. Fcap. 8vo. Js. 6d. 
ELEGIAC POEMS. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

CALDERON'S LIFE'S A DREAM : The Great Theatre of the 
World. With an Essay on his Life and Genims. Fcap. 8vo. 

4^. 6d. 

HOUSEHOLD BOOK OF ENGLISH POETRY. Selected and 
arranged, with Notes, by R. C. Trench, D.D., Archbishop of 
Dublin. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 5*. 6d. 

This volume is called a " Household Book" by this name implying that 
it is a book for ail-that there is nothing in it to prevent it from being 



confidently placid in the hands of every member of the household. Speci- 
mens of all classes of poetry are given, including selections from living 
authors The Editor has aimed to produce a book < < which the emigrant, 
findin" room for little not absolutely necessary, might yet find room for 
in his trunk, and the traveller in his knapsack, and that on some narrow 
shelves where there are few books this might be one. ' ' 

" The Archbishop has conferred in this delightful volume an important 
gift on the whole English-speaking population of the world.' '-Pall 



Mall Gazette. 



c 



























,■ 



■^^ 




» 1 









I 























34 



GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



Trench (continued) 

SACRED LATIN POETRY, Chiefly Lyrical. Selected and arranged 

for Use. Second Edition, Corrected and Improved. Fcap. 8vo. 
7s. 

4 ' The aim of the present volume is to offer to members of our English 
Church a collection of the best sacred Latin poetry, such as thev shall be 
able entirely and heartily to accept and approve— a collection, that is, in which 
they shall not be evermore liable to be offended, and to have the current of 
their sympathies checked, by coming upon that which, however beautiful as 
poetry, out of higher respects they must reject and condemn — in which, too, 
they shall not fear that snares are being laid for them, to enta7tgle them 
unawares in admiration for aught which is inconsistent with their faith 
and fealty to their own spiritual mother" — Preface. 



Turner.— sonnets. 



By the Rev. Charles Tennyson 



Turner. Dedicated to his brother, the Poet Laureate. Fcap. 
8vo. 4j. 6d. 



a 



Mr 



independently of their merits, an interest of association. They both love to 
write in simple expressive Saxon; both love to touch their imagery in 
epithets rather than in formal similes ; both have a delicate perception 
of rhythmical movement, and thus Mr. Turner has occasional lines which, 
for phrase and music, might be ascribed to his brother. . . He knows the 
haunts of the wild rose, the shady nooks where light quivers through the 
leaves, the ruralities, in short, of the land of imagination." — Athenaeum. 

SMALL TABLEAUX. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d 

" These brief poems have not only a peculiar kind of interest for the 
student of English poetry , but are intrinsically delightful, and will reward 
a careful and frequent perusal. Lull of naivete, piety, love, and knowledge 
of 7iatural objects, and each expressing a single and generally a simple 
subject by means of minute and original pictorial touches, these sonnets 

have a place of their own"— Pall Mall Gazette. 










11 



Vittoria Colonna. 



Roscoe. Crown 8vo. 9^ 



LIFE AND POEMS. E>y 



Marchesa 



received but cursory notice from any English writer, though in every 
history of Italy her name is mentioned with great honour among the poets 












POETRY fr BELLES LETTRES. 



35 



of the sixteenth century. "In three hundred and fifty years," says her 
biographer, Visconti, " there has been no other Italian lady who can be 

compared to her." 

"It is written with good taste, with quick and intelligent sympathy, 
occasionally with a real freshness and charm of style? '— F 'ALL MALL 

Gazette. 










Webster.— Works by Augusta Webster 

' ' If Mrs Webster only remains true to herself, she will assurec 
take a higher rank as a poet than any woman has yet done. 

Westminster Review. 

DRAMATIC STUDIES. Extra fcap. 8vo. 5 J. 

"A volume as strongly marked by perfect taste as by poetic power." 

Nonconformist. 

PROMETHEUS BOUND OF AESCHYLUS. Literally translated 
into English Verse. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

«' Closeness and simplicity combined with literary skill." -Atkwmvu. 

< ' Mrs Webster's ' Dramatic Studies ' and < Translation of Prome- 
theus ' have won for her an honourable place among our female poets. 
She writes with remarkable vigour and dramatic realization, and bids fair 



?fM 



British 



Quarterly Review. 

MEDEA OF EURIPIDES. Literally translated into English Verse. 



Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 
Mrs. Webster s translatior 



It is a 



photogr 



accompanies a photograph."- Westminster Review. 

A WOMAN SOLD, AND OTHER POEMS. Crown 8vo. 7*. &*• 



Mrs. Webster 



observations 



me lire; ww j " & «-""«• *"">*' "*• ~ •" . , , 

with delicacy ; that she can impersonate complex conceptions, and venture 

r* 7 7 ._ 7_ ... 99 PTTA-nnTAM 



l ew 



Guardian. 



PORTRAITS. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. y. 6d. 



Mi 



Webster's 



her 



taste is perfect . . . This simplicity is combined with a subtlety of thought 

feelim and observation which demand that attention which only real 

lovers of poetry are apt to bestow If she only remains true to herself 






I 






J 









■ 

A 



















»l \ 



I 















36 



GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



she will most assuredly take a higher rank as a poet than any woman has 

yet done" — Westminster Review. 

" With this volume before us it would be hard to deny her the proud 
position of the first living English poetess.' '—Examiner. 

Woodward (B. B., P.S.A.).— specimens of the 

DRAWINGS OF TEN MASTERS, from the Royal Collection 
at Windsor Castle. With Descriptive Text by the late B. B. Wood- 
ward, B.A., F.S.A., Librarian to the Queen, and Keeper of 
Prints and Drawings. Illustrated by Twenty Autotypes by 
Edwards and Kidd. In 410. handsomely bound, price 25^. 

This volume contains facsimiles oj the works of Michael An^elo , Perugino, 
Raphael, Julio Romano, Leonardo da Vinci, Giorgione, Paul Veronese, 
Poussin, Albert Diirer, Holbein, executed by the Autotype [Carbon) process, 
which may be accepted as, so far, perfect representations of the originals. In 
most cases some reduction in size was necessary, and then the dimensions 
of the drawing itself have been given. Brief biographical memoranda of 
the life of each master are inserted, solely to prevent the need of reference 
to other works. 



Woolner.— MY BEAUTIFUL LADY. By Thomas Woolner. 
With a Vignette by Arthur Hughes. Third Edition. Fcap. 
8vo. 5-r. 

" // is clearly the product of no idle hour, but a highly-conceived and 
faithfully-executed task, self-imposed, and prompted by that inward yearn- 
ing to titter great thoughts, and a wealth of passionate feeling which is 
poetic genius. No man can read this poem without being struck by the 
fitness and finish of the workmanship, so to speak, as well as by the chas- 
tened and unpretending loftiness of thought which Pervades the whole?' 

Globe. 



WORDS 



FROM THE POETS. Selected by the Editor of " Rays ot 
Sunlight" With a Vignette and Frontispiece. i8rao. Extra 
cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. Cheaper Edition, i8mo. limp., is. 



Wyatt (Sir M 



FINE ART 



a Sketch of its 



History, Theory, Practice, and application to Industry. A Course 

of Lectures delivered before the University of Cambridge. By 

Sk M. Digby Wyatt, M. A. Slade Professor of Fine Art. 
8vo. Kxr. 6d. 




































GLOBE 



EDITIONS. 






Under the title GLOBE EDITIONS, the Publishers are 
issuing a uniform Series ot Standard English Authors, 
carefully edited, clearly and elegantly printed on toned 
paper, strongly bound, and at a small cost. The names of 
the Editors whom they have been fortunate enough to 
secure constitute an indisputable guarantee as to the 
character of the Series. The greatest care has been taken 
to ensure accuracy of text; adequate notes, elucidating 
historical, literary, and philological points, have been sup- 
plied j and, to the older Authors, glossaries are appended. 
The series is especially adapted to Students of our national 
Literature ; while the small price places good editions of 
certain books, hitherto popularly inaccessible, within the 
reach of all. The Saturday Review says : "The Globe 
Editions of our English Poets are admirable for their 
scholarly editing, their typographical excellence, their com- 
pendious form, and their cheapness." 

■ 

Shakespeare.— THE COMPLETE WORKS OF WILLIAM 
SHAKESPEARE. Edited by W. G. Clark and W. Aldis 
Wright. Ninety-first Thousand. Globe 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

' ' A marvel of beauty, cheapness, and compactness. The whole works 
plays poems, and sonnets— are contained in one small volume : yet the 
page 'is perfectly clear and readable. . . . For the busy man, above all 



>f 



Shakespeare books"— Athen/eum. 















H 




























38 



GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



Morte 



D'Arthur.— SIR THOMAS MALORY'S BOOK OF 
KING ARTHUR AND OF HIS NOBLE KNIGHTS OF 
THE ROUND TABLE. The Edition of Caxton, revised for 
Modern Use. With an Introduction by Sir Edward Strachey, 
Bart. Globe 8vo. 3^. 6d. 

"It is with the most perfect confidence that we recommend this edition oj 

the old ro?nance to every class of readers." — Pall Mall Gazette. 
Scott.— THE POETICAL WORKS OF SIR WALTER 



SCOTT. 



With Biographical Essay by F. T. Palgrave. 



(C 



JJ 



Globe 8vo. 3s. 6d. New Edition. 

As a popular edition it leaves nothing to be desired. The want of 
such an one has loiig been felt, combining real excellence with cheapness. 

— Spectator. 

Burns. — the poetical works and letters of 

ROBERT BURNS. Edited, with Life, by Alexander Smith. 

Globe 8vo. 3^. 6d. New Edition. 
" The works of the bard have never been offered in such a complete form 

in a single volume." — Glasgow Daily Herald. 



6C 



Admirable in all respects? — Spectator, 



Robinson Crusoe.— the adventures of robinson 

CRUSOE. By Defoe. Edited, from the Original Edition, by 
J. W. Clark, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
With Introduction by Henry Kingsley. Globe 8vo. 3^. 6d. 

c< The Globe Edition of Robinson Crusoe is a book to have and to keep. 
It is printed after the original editions, with the quaint old spelling, and 
is published in admirable style as regards type, paper, and binding. A 
well-written and ge7iial biographical introduction, by Mr. Heitry Kingsley, 
is likewise an attractive feature of this edition." — Morning Star. 



Goldsm 



WORKS 



With Biographical Essay by Professor Masson. Globe 8vo. 

3^. 6d. 
This edition includes the whole of Goldsmith's Miscellaneous Works- 
the Vicar of Wakefield, Plays, Poems, &>c. Of the memoir the Scotsman 
newspaper W7"ites : i i Such an admirable compendium of the facts of 
Goldsmith! s life, and so careful and minute a delineation of the mixed 
traits of his peculiar character, as to be a very model of a literary 
biography." 































GLOBE EDITIONS. 



39 



Pope.— THE POETICAL WORKS OF ALEXANDER POPE 



Edited, with Memoir and Notes, by Professor Ward. 
8vo. 3s. 6d. 



Globe 



« The book is handsome and handy. . . . The notes are many, and 
the matter of them is rich in interest."— Athenaeum. 



Spenser. 



THE COMPLETE WORKS OF EDMUND 



SPENSER. Edited from the Original Editions and Manuscripts, 
by R Morris, Member of the Council of the Philological Society. 
With a Memoir by J. W. Hales, M.A., late Fellow of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, Member of the Council of the Philological 
Society. Globe 8vo. 3^. 6d. 
* ' A complete and clearly printed edition of the whole works of Spenser, 
carefully collated with the originals, with copious glossary, worthy-and 
higher praise it needs not-of the beautiful Globe Series. The work is 
edited with all the care so noble a poet deserves."— DAILY News. 

- 

Dryden. 



WORKS 



Edited, with a Revised Text, Memoir, and Notes, 

Christie. Globe 8vo. y. 6d. 



DRYDEN 
hv W. D 



« The work of the Editor has been done with much fulness, care, and 
knowledge ; a well-written and exhaustive memoir is prefixed, and the notes 
and text together have been so well treated as to make the volume a fitting 
companion for those which have preceded it— which is saying not a 

little."— Daily Telegraph. 

THE POETICAL WORKS OF WILLIAM COW- 

... . . t^- i_:„„1 T^fv^nf-Hnn iinrl "Notes, bv W. 



Cowper, 

PER. 

Benham. 

< * Mr Benham 's edition of Cowper is one of permanent value. The 
biographical introduction is excellent, full of information singularly 
neat and readable, and modest-too modest, indeed-m its comments 
The notes seem concise and accurate, and the -editor -has been .ablate 
discover and introduce some hitherto unpnnted matter. -Saturday 

Review. 



« * 
* 



Other Standard Works are in the Press 



* * 

V 



The Volumes of this Series may also be had in a variety of morocco 

and calf bindings at very moderate prices. 















. 



I 












GOLDEN TREASURY SERIES 













Uniformly printed in i8mo., with Vignette Titles by Sir 
Noel Paton, T. Woolner, W. Holman Hunt, J. E. 
Millais, Arthur Hughes, &c. Engraved on Steel by 
Jeens. Bound in extra cloth, 4s. 6d. each volume. Also 
kept in morocco. 

' ' Messrs. Macmillan have, in their Golden Treasury Series especially ; 
Provided editions of standard works, volumes of selected poetry, and 
original compositions, which entitle this series to be called classical. 
Nothing can be better than the literary execution, nothing more elegant 
than the material workmanship:'— -British Quarterly Review. 









1 

I 












THE GOLDEN TREASURY OF THE BEST SONGS AND 
LYRICAL POEMS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 
Selected and arranged, with Notes, by Francis Turner 
Palgrave. 

" This delightful little volume, the Golden Treasury, which contains 
many of the best original lyrical pieces and songs in our language, grouped 
with care and skill, so as to illustrate each other like the pictures in a 

well-arranged gallery:' — Quarterly Review. 






THE CHILDREN'S GARLAND FROM THE BEST POETS. 

Selected and arranged by Coventry Patmore. 

"It includes specimens of all the great masters in the art of poetry, 
selected with the matured judgment of a man concentrated on obtaining 
insight into the feelings and tastes of childhood, and desirous to awaken its 

finest impulses, to cultivate its keenest sensibilities"— Morning Post. 











GOLDEN TREASURY SERIES. 



41 



THE BOOK OF PRAISE. From the Best English Hymn Writers. 
Selected and arranged by Sir Roundeli Palmer. A New and 
Enlarged Edition. 

" All previous compilations of this kind must undeniably for the present 
%ive place to the Book of Praise. . . . The selection has been made 
throughout with sound judgment and critical taste. . M& pains involved 
in this compilation must have been immense, embracing, as it does, every 
ivriter of note in this special province of English literature, and ranging 
over the most widely divergent tracks of religious thought.''' 



Saturday 



Review. 



THE FAIRY BOOK ; the Best Popular Fairy Stories. Selected and 

rendered anew by the Author of "John Halifax, Gentleman." 

"A delightful selection, in a delightful external form ; full of the 
Physical splendour and vast opulence of proper fairy tales"— SPECTATOR. 



THE BALLAD BOOK. A Selection of the Choicest British Ballads. 
Edited by William Allingham. 

" His taste as a judge of old poetry will be found, by all acquainted with 
the various readings of old English ballads, true enough to justify his 
undertaking so critical a task"— Saturday Review. 



THE JEST BOOK. The Choicest Anecdotes and Sayings. Selected 
and arranged by Mark Lemon. 



a 



The fullest and best jest book that has yet appeared." — Saturday 



Review. 



BACON'S ESSAYS AND COLOURS OF GOOD AND EVIL 
With Notes and Glossarial Index. By W. Aldis Wright, M.A. 

" The beautiful little edition of Bacon' f s Essays, now before tts, does 
credit to the taste and scholarship of Mr. Aldis Wright. . . . It puts the 
reader in possession of all the essential literary facts and chronology 
necessary for reading the Essays in connexion with Bacon J s life and 

times. " — S PECTATOR. 

" By far the most complete as well as the most elegant edition we 



possess. 



v 



Westminster Review. 



d 



. I • I 




1 . 







I 












42 



GENERAL CATALOGUE. 



' 






























THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS from this World to that which is to 

come. By John Bunyan. 

"A beautiful and scholarly reprint" — SPECTATOR. 

THE SUNDAY BOOK OF POETRY FOR THE YOUNG. 
Selected and arranged by C. F. Alexander. 



tc 



A well-seleded volume of Sacred Poetry." — Spectator. 



A BOOK OF GOLDEN DEEDS of all Times and all Countries. 

Gathered and narrated anew. By the Author of "THE Heir of 

Redclyffe." 
". . . To the young, for whom it is especially intended, as a most interesting 
collection of thrilling tales well told ; and to their elders, as a useful hand- 
book of reference, a?td a pleasant one to take up when their wish is to while 
away a weary half hour. We have seen no prettier gift-book for a long 



time. 



»» 



Athenteum, 



THE POETICAL WORKS OF ROBERT BURNS. Edited, with 
Biographical Memoir, Notes and Glossary, by Alexander 
Smith. Two Vols. 

' ' Beyond all question this is the most beautiful edition of Burns 



yet out. 



■>■> 



Edinburgh Daily Review. 



THE ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. Edited from 
the Original Edition by J. W. Clark, M.A. , Fellow of Trinity 
' College, Cambridge. 

" Mutilated and modified editions of this English classic are so muck 
the rule, that a cheap and pretty copy of it, rigidly exact to the original, 
will be a prize to many book-buyers." — Examiner. 

THE REPUBLIC OF PLATO. Translated into English, with 
Notes by J. LI. Davies, M.A. and D. J. Vaughan, M.A. 
" A dainty and cheap little edition." — EXAMINER. 

THE SONG BOOK. Words and Tunes from the best Poets and 
Musicians. Selected and arranged by John Hullah, Professor 
of Vocal Music in King's College, London. 

" A choice collection of the sterling songs of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, with the music of each prefixed to the words. How much true 
zaholesome pleasure such a book can diffuse, and will diffuse, we trust, 
through many thousand families." — Examiner. 












































t* ■ 




T 






GOLDEN TREASURY SERIES. 



43 



l? * 't tm 









LA LYRE FRANCAISE. Selected and arranged, with Notes, b> 
Gustave Masson, PYench Master in Harrow School. 

A selection of the best French songs and lyrical pieces. 



• 












TOM BROWN'S SCHOOL DAYS. By arr Old Boy. 



> 



* ' A perfect gem of a book. The best and most healthy book about boy 
for boys that ever was written. " — Illustrated TimKS. > 



A BOOK OF WORTHIES. Gathered from the Old Histories and 
written anew by the Author of "The Heir of Redclyffe." 
With Vignette. 
"An admirable additio?i to an admirable series" — WESTMINSTER 

Review. 



A BOOK OF GOLDEN THOUGHTS. By Henry Attwell, 
Knight of the Order of the Oak Crown. 







I