THE DRAMATISTS OF NATURALISM 33 She goes mad. She resembles the murdered girl, and Lord Archie thinks she is the ghost of the girl he has stabbed: there are ghastly love-scenes between the crazy girl and the conscience-stricken laird; Elsalil drives her teeth into Lord Archie's wrist, and clings - it is the bite of a vampire from which he goes mad (occultism is in vogue at this period). The clergyman's son has challenged Lord Archie to a duel, but when he sees that the murderer is crazy he considers himself avenged by the hand of the Lord. With Der weisse Heiland (1920) the scene shifts to Mexico: Montezuma wel- comes Cortes as the 'White Saviour' promised by old legend, but he himself is the Saviour, who is tortured and put to death by the Spaniards for greed of gold and in the name of religion. The undertone is poignant: in the almost sick denunciation of atro- cities perpetrated in the name of fanatic patriotism and religion is to be heard Hauptmann's own disgust in the war years.1 Schluck und ]au (1900) had transferred the main idea (life is a dream) of Christopher Sly's lordship to Silesia; Indipobdi (1920) is closely modelled on The Tempest-. Prospero, dethroned by his son, has been wrecked on a Pacific island, where he is hailed by the Indians as the long-promised White Saviour. With him is his daughter (red-haired), who has grown up on the island; hunting an eagle on the mountains she meets a youth who turns out to be her own brother, wrecked in his turn; she falls in love with him, and pro- claims her intention of living with him, even when she learns the relationship. (Incest2 becomes a favourite theme at this period; it occurs, e.g., in Leonhard Frank's Cruder und Scbwester, Hesse's Demian, Bierbaum's Samalio Pardulus, Thomas Mann's Walsungen- Uut, Herbert Eulenberg's Anna Walemka, Fritz von Unruh's Bin Geschlecbt, Max Brod's Lord Byron kommt aus der Mode, Kasimir Edschmid's Lord Byron.} The old magician, rather than sanction human sacrifices, which he has abolished, ascends a volcano, and (like Holderlin's Empedocles) descends into the crater: his son and daughter are to rule united. 1 The source is more or less Eduard Stucken's novel Die missen Goiter (pp. 273-4); Kotzebue's Die Spanier in 'Peru (1796; adapted by Sheridan as Pi%- arro) and Wolfgang Kirchbach's (1857-1906; one of Conrad*'s Munich circle) Des Sonnenreicbes Untergang (1891) were also probably read. 2 The motif had been handled before World War I, but the difference in treatment can be seen by comparing (e.g.) Anzengruber's Schandflecky where sexual love fades when the rektionship is discovered, with the consummation justified by the example of Byron.