34 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE Veland1 (1925), in which the legend of Wayland the Smith is dramatized, is another study of sadism, and thus to some extent it repeats Griselda: here Veland enslaves Bodwild by twisting her hair round his fists and raping her, and the measure of her de- basement by the (at first) forced exercise of the sex function is that of her passion for this man who 'bends her like a bow'. Veland can hardly be given dramatic value unless it is classed as a Mdrchen- drama^ but - though Veland is a god and though the finale sym- bolizes the self-liberation by rebellion of all oppressed workers - the general spirit is not that of the Mdrchendrama^ nor could it well be so as a study of sadism. Veland can work magic, but he can only free himself from bondage by constructing wings to fly with. Hauptmann has de-humanized an old tale which has its own satis- fying symbol of patient human endeavour. Masochism is again the theme of Hauptmann's next play, Dorothea Angermann (1926); the heroine is a parson's daughter who is seduced by a cook; he drags her through the mud, but does not destroy her devotion to him. The very title ofSpttk (192.9) hints at Hauptmann's progressive obsession by demonism; there are two plays in the volume, Die schwar^e Maske and Hexenritt; in the former there is a gigantic nigger who blackmails his former mistress, now the wife of a burgomaster; the second is a Swedish scene with Satanism and a vampire. The title of Vor Sonnenuntergang (1932) seemed to hold forth a promise of cessation. It is one more study of senile eroti- cism, but this time an old man's right to the love and possession of a girl is defended as perfectly natural. The hero, a septuagenarian business man who has made his pile, infuriates his family by insist- ing on marrying a young Kindergarten teacher, and they attempt to foil his plan by suing for the application of legal restraint, which in Germany means immediate deprivation of rights of administra- tion till the case is decided. His son-in-law is appointed curator, with tragic effects. That the play was galvanized into life by the distinguished actor Werner Krauss does not prove the thesis pro- pounded by the drama that neither mind nor sex necessarily decay in advanced age. It might be charitable not to mention three plays of Hauptmann 1 Wagner's unfinished opera Wieland der Schmied was followed by Franz Held's We/and der Schmied, Eberhard Konig's Wielant der Schmied (1911), and Fritz Lienhard's Wieland der Schmied (K)Q<fi. Karl Gustav Vollmoller's Wieland (1911) is a cynical travesty of the legend: Wieland is a German aviator, whose first flight is financed by Lord Northwick, proprietor of the Evening Mail.