THE NOVEL OF NATURALISM AND DECADENCE 79 naturalism is confined to depictions of Munich in the loose sketches of M. G. Conrad's Was die Isar rauscht and to a very comprehensive series of Berlin novels. The latter, indeed, take in novels by writers of the previous generation: PAUL LINDAU'S (1839-1917) trilogy Der Zug nach dem Westen (1886), Arme Madchen (1887), and Spitmen (1888); FRITZ MAUTHNER'S (1849-1923)Berlin W. (1886), HERMANN HEIBERG'S (1840-1910) Dunst aus der Tiefe1 (1890). Novels such as Karl Bleibtreu's Schlechte Gesellschaft fall under the heading ofKelt- mrinmnromam\ these unroll unedifying pictures of the Bohemian life of the capital (Strindberg's Koda Kumwet is the prototype of the genre) with mighty-bosomed waitresses or barmaids towering over quailing poets. Actually the Berliner 'Koman reaches its height in two nostalgic descriptions of the Jewish life in the capital in the days of crinolines: Jettchen Gebert (1906) and its sequel Henriette Jacoby (1908) by Georg Herrmann; but since these novels are Charakterromane rather than Milieuromane they belong to a later chapter. The naturalistic Kunstlerroman begins with Conrad Alberti's Die Alien und die Jungen - a gifted artist, submerged by mediocrity, dies by his own hand - and Bleibtreu's Grossenwahn* The latter novel, grotesquely formless, satirizes the members of the Verem Durch: the Hart brothers appear as 'die idealen Waffenbruder* (an obvious hit at their Kritische Waffengange). These rambling novels were not, however, Ktinstlerromane in the more exclusive sense of the type created by WALTER SIEGFRIED (1858-1947), a Swiss mer- chant, with his Tino Moralt (1890), which is clearly influenced by Zola's UCEuvre. It is a study of frustration: the hero, an artist, foiled in his relentless battle for perfection, loses his reason and commits suicide. Tino Moralt, like Hermann Bahr's Die gute Schule, reflects the author's experiences in the artistic world of Paris. Clearly autobiographical too is CASAR FLAISCHLEN'S (1864-1920) Jost Seyfried (1905), a novel in epistolary and diary form; it relates the development (Werdegang) of a poet otfatJungstdeutscheBewegung (another name given to their movement by the naturalists to show their affinities to the revolutionary Jung Deutschland school of 1830-48). The spirit of the book is plaintively pessimistic: both naturalism and symbolism are represented as having degenerated from the soaring aims with which they began to a mechanical 1 Heiberg's novel Apotbeker Heinricb (1885) was praised by the naturalists, but his matter-of-fact style earned him the title of V0r Rea/lsf der Nuchternheit*'.