80 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE turning out of mass matter. The style, in a kind of Whitmanesque prose, runs parallel with that of Johannes Schlaf in the sketches of his rural divagations; and it is indeed as an experimenter in free rhythms that Casar Flaischlen has historical interest as a lyrical poet1: wistful moods he renders admirably in his seemingly artless verse. His dramas (Tom Sturmer•, 1891, and Martin Lehnhar*//, 1895) are in their reflection of the poet's own ripening of mood and character complementary to Jost Seyfried; Martin l^ehnhardt counts also (say, with Max Dreyer's Der Probekandidat and Hermann Stehr's Drei Nachte) in the literature of religious anguish and revolt: a theological student, after a poignant argument with a clergyman, abjures the faith he was to have preached; here Flaisch- len is trying to fashion (like Johannes Schlaf in his trilogies and like Kurt Martens) a kind of healed decadent (gesundeter Dekadenf), one who has won his way to a moral Nietzscheanism. The hero is levelled rather than raised in those novels of the period which stand for the social doctrines of the extreme political left. The typical Communistic novel, John Henry Mackay's Die Anarchistm^ is less literature than programme; the typical Socialist novels are Hans Land's Der neue Gott and Felix Hollander's Jesus und Judas. The symptomatic feature of these tales, the abnegation of his 'higher' class and conventional faith by an aristocrat or theologian, who becomes one of the people, is of course common to the European life of the day; in Germany there were Socialist theologians such as Bruno Wille; and one clergyman, Paul Gohre, actually worked as a factory hand for three months and described his experiences in Drei Monate Fabrikarbeiter (1891) and Denkwiir- digkeiten mdErinnerungen eines Arbeiters. An aristocrat had espoused the people's cause in fiction in George Sand's Le Compagnon du Tour de France; in German life an officer did so in the person of Morite von Egidy, and in German fiction there is Fedor in Omp- teda's Deutscher Adelum 1900, who refuses to be any longer 'noble by love of self (em Adeliger des Egoismus) and seeks to be 'noble by love of others' (fin Adeliger des Altruismus). The millionaire's son who gives up his wealth and turns Communist we get later in Jakob Wassermann's novel Christian Wahnschaffe and Georg Kaiser's dramas Koralle and Gas, The hero of HANS LAND'S (1861- 92) Derneue Goltis a count and lieutenant in the Hussars who lives in a garret and serves the Socialist party; he fails to adapt himself, 1 Von AlltagundSonne (1898), Zmschenklange (1909).