FROM BAHR TO DEHMEL 95 process of becoming man he was wrenched from synthesis with the eternal. Music is the echo thrilled with pain of a lost divine harmony. And therefore the nearer to music, the more divine is verse. It follows that lyric verse is next in beauty to music; though by the very nature of lyric verse the lyric poet sings of self, he sings his intoxication with self, and is therefore Dionysiac. (In illustration one might say that Burns's poem To Mary in Heaven would be merely local gossip if it were not an echo in music of the Urschmer^} The Volkslied clings in close imitation to music, and is thus the ideal of a poem, which merely expresses what in music is not expressed. The epic poet, on the other hand, is lost in contemplation of images or shapes. Music symbolizes the universe (Musik ist WeltsymboliK). As Wagner said, civilization is eclipsed by music as lamplight is by the sun's radiance. Art saves man from Buddha's denial of life; in utter disgust with life man is rescued from the horrible by the sublime and from the absurd by comic laughter. Greek art was saved by the chorus of satyrs. To the Greek the bearded satyr was nature; and whereas the flute-playing shepherd of modern pastorals was a pretence of nature, the Greek satyr was true man; not in Gessner's Salonschdfer but in Haupt- mann's Waldschrat, Nietzsche might have urged if he had read Die versunkene Glockey is nature real and redolent. The regeneration of myth which was the inspiration of Greek tragedy was killed by Euripides, with his explanatory prologues, and by Socrates, that spinner of theories; stripped by logic (or rationalism) of music and mysticism, tragedy dies. But in German music (Wagner is meant) there is an awakening of the Dionysiac spirit, and a rebirth of (German) myth. Nietzsche next, in 1873, launched an attack on David Friedrich Strauss1 (1808-74) (David Strauss, derBekenner undder Schriftstelhr\ whom he angrily dismisses as a ^Eildungsphilosoph''\ that is, a scholar who does not seek truth, because he thinks truth has akeady been found by the mighty dead, a slave of barren learning, not a creator. His next work, Vom Nut^en und Nachteil der Htstorieftir das *Leben (1874), continues the attack on contemporary ideals of culture. The study of history, he proclaims, is useless unless it is a fertiliz- ing process creating the future: history studied on the principle ''fiat veritas, pereat vita* makes man passive, retrospective, a living 1 His Der alte und der mm Glaube> which has been called DteBibeldesBHdungs- pM/isters, had appeared in 1872.