100 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE the nineteenth century built its appalling barracks for workmen. The ruling element in Christianity is altruism. It makes virtues of weaknesses and brands the strong, glad man as a criminal. It glorifies all those qualities by means of which it can maintain itself in the struggle for existence: charity, pity, self-sacrifice. An ascetic ideal which is hostile to life! 'Bad conscience' is merely the sup- pressed striving for freedom of an enslaved race; the instincts they exercised when free they must now, as slaves, resist and brand as evil. This race of "conscience'-stricken slaves devised religious conceptions of sin against God; they conceive God as the extreme contrast of their suppressed but still stirring instincts; these in- stincts they interpret as sin against God, their sufferings they interpret as punishment for the sins with which they identify 'bad conscience'. It was religion's most eventful tour deforce-, it was the will against life, against the body, against the world, against beauty and happiness. And therefore away with 'bad conscience' and pity and ascetic ideas! We must be 'good Europeans', who have out- grown Christianity. Let us return to the clear-cut distinction of good (or strong) and bad (or weak). By the will to truth we shall find the way to the other side of good and evil, till the first-born of the new time come, the new Zarathustra, the blond beast1 -like the dawn over the sea. Then, in the new Dionysiac age of gladness, with truth realized, the division into lords and slaves will be no more, for we shall all have crossed the bridges from ape to man and from man to superman. Equality will have been reached, not by depressing the strong and proud, but by elevating the weak and humble. Not to be happy in Heaven, to be happy on earth is the watchword of the new culture. Got^enddmmerung oder me man mit dem Hammer philosophiert (printed 1888, published 1895) dates the decay of German culture from the foundation of the new Reich in 1871; of Socialists Nietzsche says here that, since the base of their creed is Christian feeling, their ideal of free men is illusory. The fevered megalo- mania otEcce homo (written 1888, published 1908) is but a logical climax, heightened by disease and the lack of response, of what, after all, is Nietzsche's most vital idea: to leave all and magnify self (^sich *%u sich selbst verfuhrer?}. The quintessence of Nietzsche's thinking is thus seen to be the permanent elevation of the type man. But this fiery optimism, 1 'die prachtvolk) nacb Betite und Sieg lustern schweifende, blonde J$estie?