104 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE Barr£s (three of his novels have the collective title of Le cuke du moi], who was himself influenced by Nietzsche. Barres is definitely decadent in his doctrine that the full life is achieved by the stimu- lation of the senses1: love of self, he teaches, leads to the perfec- tion of all our faculties of sensation, by which we comprehend and possess the universe; man is the sum of his sensations, and the more intense these are the more complete is the man.2 3. The theory of TiLauschkunst, which is the base of expres- sionism. The Renaissance dramas begin already in the naturalistic period, with Carl Bleibtreu's Der Damon (1887), of which Caesar Borgia is the hero. Schnitzler's Der SMeier derBeatrice transfigures the hectic loving of the cinquecento\ Rudolf Herzog's Die Condottieri (1905) was the greatest stage success among such plays. The Tatenmensch does his damnedest in a cycle of dramas, including a Casar Borgia, by WILHELM WEIGAND (1862-1949), who groups them under the title of Renaissance (1897-1909). Weigand is influenced by Gobi- neau's dialogues La Renaissance (1877) and by Stendhal. In his Savonarola he contrasts - as does Thomas Mann in Fioren^a - Christian and Renaissance ideals. [Lenau's long poem Savonarola (1837) remains the classical depiction, in spite of its Christian morality.] Lorenzo is too much of a copy of de Musset's Loren- %accio. Weigand is too saturated with French culture to be a true impressionist; he strives for perfection of form, as in his verse (Gedichte, Auswahl, 1904) and for clarity, as in his Essays (1891) and Das Elendder Kritik (1895). His Friedrich Nietzsche (1893) was one of the first appreciations of the master. His best-known novel, Die Frankentaler (1889), reproduces with gentle irony the life of a small town in his native Franconia; in the humour of his short 1 'Je veux accueillir tons les frissons de runners* [Un homme libre (1889), which Hermann Bahr hailed as *das grosste Euch des Jahrhunderts']. 2 Nietzsche's idea of the superman may of course be interpreted, as may Conrad Ferdinand Meyer's cult of the R*enaissancemenscby as the worship of contraries. Arthur Moeller-Bruck (Die moderne Literatur> p. 46), though he appreciates Nietzsche, ranks him as a decadent: 'Niet^scbes ganger Individualis- mus ist scbliesslicb nur die Kebrseite seiner personlicben Hilflosigkeit dem Leben gegen- iiber., .. Das Gefiibl des Allem-Seins, der Vereinsamungsteigertesich mehrundmehr %u dem 'Bewusstsein^ ein Ausgestossener %u sein .. . Immer war Nietzsche der Kranke, dem die eigene Schwacbe die Eefriedigung seiner Geluste verbot; wie keine andere Personlicbkeit unserer Zeit illustriert er uns den Begriff: Dekadent? This is pretty much Thomas Mann's picture of the artist. Dehmel, on the other hand, who had the physical strength to do what C. F. Meyer and Nietzsche could not do - and who escaped syphilis - was not a decadent.