STEFAN GEORGE AND HIS CIRCLE 151 feet pass like a regiment of grenadiers doing the goose-step. Mar- vellous, too, is the way the cold breath of his pride or the wither- ing hiss of his scorn chills his lines, particularly his blank verse: it is a commonplace to refer to his eisige Blankverse. His stanzas have generally the insulation of his individual lines, though over- flow of stanza into stanza (StrophenversMingung) does occur (e.g. in the first poem of Der Teppicb des Lebens). Every stanza is as a rule a separate entity; if for instance we examine Wirschreiten auf und ab im reichen flitter we can, as Schaeffer shows, transpose the first and last stanzas without changing the effect of the poem. Of the Georgeans (die Georgeaner] it might be said that, with the exception of Gundolf perhaps, only those who moved away from the Circle achieved a permanent place in literature. KARL WOLFSKEHL (1869-1948), a Jew, hailed from George's Gymnasium at Darmstadt; he devoted himself at the University to Germanic philology; his Alteste deutsche Dichtung (edited in conjunction with Friedrich von der Leyen), and his epics (Wolfdietrich, Tbors Hammer] are evidence of these studies.1 LUDWIG KLAGES (1872-1956) philo- sophized and (like Ernst Bertram) went Nordic; his Diepsjcbologi- schen ILrrungenschaften Niet^sches is important. FRIEDRICH WOLTERS (1876-1930) specialized as an adapter of old hymns, psalms, and sequences, but counts most for his monumental work on George and the Circle. ERNST BERTRAM (1884-1957), Professor of German literature at Cologne, is the only one of the Circle who found favour with Nazi critics; and this because of his racial correctness. George's own racial attitude was, as we have seen, suspected: he had said that he had fled from the claws of the damp dragons of the North to drink in the sun of the South (Dort sog icb sonne \ Nach einer fiucht am feuchter drachen krallen) and in EJseintafeln he had bidden his Germans talk of the New Empire only when his own fiery blood,, his Roman breath ^mein romischer hauch*} coursed through their obtuse and obstinate souls; it is pretty clear that he himself as a Rhinelander dreamed of bringing the mellow culture of the Romance races to his benighted brethren. Ernst Bertram defected from this sunny doctrine and discovered the stars of hope in Nordic night and mist: in the poetry of his Das Nornenbuch (1925) he bodies forth the qualities of Teutonic culture, and seeks to renew Nordic myth. In his book of essays Deutsche Gestalten (1934) he brilliantly interprets Stifter, Nietzsche, and Kleist. But 1 Gesammdte Dichtungen (1903).