266 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE
Paul Ernst and Wilhelm Schafer as a revivalist of the short, con-
cise Novelle; but whereas these two writers keep to a plain psy-
chology Scholz explores the world beyond the senses, somnam-
bulism, second sight, subconscious impulses, particularly in Das
Zwischenreich (1919), tales of the world between sense and infinity.
His Novellen are collected in Er^ahlungen (2 vols., 1919) and Die
Gefahrten (1937). His two long novels, Perpetua (1926) and Der Weg
nach Ilok (1929) also belong to literary occultism. The period of
Perpetua is the sixteenth century, and the action turns round the
life of two twin sisters, a witch and a nun whose souls interchange.
Der Weg nach Ilok is a tale of Silesia in the fifteenth century; the
hero is a fanatical Catholic, a papal legate who roots out heretics
in Breslau, conquers Belgrade in the Turkish campaign, and dies
in a monastery by the Danube. Scholz's miscellaneous writings are
voluminous, and range from books of travel (Stddte und SMosser,
1918; Der Bodensee, 1920) to a collection of aphorisms (Lebens-
deutung> 1924) and an edition of German ballads.
SAMUEL LUBLINSKI (1868-1910), a distinguished critic (Literatur
und Gesellschaft im i$ten Jahrhundert, 1899, and the two volumes on
die Moderne referred to above), began as a dramatist with natural-
istic plays (Hannibal, 1902; Peter von Russland, 1906), and made his
first experiment in neo-classicism with Gunther und Brunhild (1908).
This play was written (before Ernst's own two Nibelungen plays)
on the lines indicated in Der Weg%urJ?orm\ Gunther is a physically
weak intellectual who prefers diplomacy to war (i.e. his weakness
is his strength); Hagen is eliminated as unnecessary to the action,
and Siegfried is stabbed in the back by Gunther. Kaiser undKan^ler
(1910) has Frederick II and his chancellor Petrus von Vinea for
While Paul Ernst and Lublinski are non-lyrical dramatists the
other neo-classics are distinctly lyrical. HANS FRANCK (1879- ), a
Mecklenburger with the brooding nature of the northern German,
has been brought to the fore as a racial and cultural influence.
There can be no comprehension of his work without the realiza-
tion that he is in the line of Hebbel, concerned mainly with the
embodiment in art of ideas, and that these ideas continue Hegel
The very form of his sonnets (Siderische Sonette, 1920; Tellurische
Sonette, 1931) is Hegelian, with Sat% and Gegensat^ in the octet and
Losmg or tiberwindmg in the sextet; and this triple formula is
indeed the key to all his work All his thinking is dualistic, not of