THE NOVEL OF IMPRESSIONISM 281 discipline is sheer idiocy. Life, not school, forms character, is the moral of Strauss's work generally. As a contrast to Heiner - the German dreamer in the cruel grip of life - there is the figure of an active rebel, a boy poet who has read Darwin; he has been ex- pelled from one school, and scamps the dull routine of the second simply because it is too slow and pedantic for his quick and practical mind. This boy will surmount his fate. In Kreu^ungen (1904) the way to a true life is opened out; the hero throws up his post to live, without marrying her, with a girl who is pregnant by him. But passion fades; and when the girl realizes that merely a sense of duty is chaining the man to her she makes way, with cool determination, for another woman. Love is a hard test of character; what matters is not the wrong sort of experience, but the will to get over it. Der nackte Mann (1912) is a historical novel of Strauss's native town of Pforzheim; the theme is the struggle, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, between Calvinists and Lutherans. Das Riesenspiefyeug (1935), with its anti-Socialist and anti-Marxist virus, belongs to Nazi Blut- und Eodenliteratur. The 'giant toy' is a farm in the Black Forest, and the hero turns from the culture of the schools to the nation-serving life of farm and field. Strauss's Novellen have readability (Menschenwege, 1898; Hans und Crete, 1910; Der Schhier - by common consent a master- piece - 1931). It is customary to pair Emil Strauss with HERMANN HESSE (1877- ). Both are Swabians - Hesse from Calw in Wiirttemberg; and both are vagabonds in sunny climes - Hesse is almost as Italianate as Paul Heyse or Isolde Kurz. He also to begin with shows the impress of pre-naturalistic models (e.g. of Gottfried Keller in the irony of Peter Camen^ind and the first two collections of Novellen); here, however, the radical difference between Strauss and Hesse emerges - whereas Strauss hammers his characters out of hard dramatic experience Hesse, who has the morbidity of the true neo-romantics, dreams his characters into soft lyric moods and leads them gently through pain and pleasure to the peace of death. Moreover, Hesse develops - his later novels are finely philo- sophical and psycho-analytical; while Strauss remains the preacher of salvation by hard knocks. Strauss ends as a purveyor of Nazi doctrine; Hesse in later years was treated, somewhat gently, as a diseased and spineless Nordic who uses that Jewish infamy of psycho-analysis to undermine the sanity of his race.