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320                   MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE

(in spite of an occasional false note due to Dickens worship, to
which German novelists are prone1) a Jewish classic, and certainly
the one Berliner Roman of the period which is likely to live. The
Berlin novels of the naturalists failed because, as Milieuromam, the?
subordinated character to milieu; Jettchen Gebert succeeds because,
over and above its masterly and detailed presentation of the mllim
of a given period, it creates vividly individualized characters and
handles racial and social problems with inner knowledge and keen
insight. Georg Hermann's other works show him still a master of
irony, but he does not again find a theme of so simple an appeal
as Jettchen Gebert In Heinrich Schonjunior (1915) he again shows his
knowledge of art matters; the theme - that of Don Carlos - is a
young man's love for his stepmother in the Potsdam of 1844,
Kubinke (1911) is yet another Berlin novel, but of our own days:
Emil Kubinke is a barber's assistant who, meshed in the toils of
three calculating females, hangs himself to avoid marriage with
\usfiancee while faced with two affiliation orders.

Animal symbolism as an interpretation of human character by
implied comparison reaches its high-water mark in Kipling's Jungk
'Book. In German literature there is nothing nearly so good. Bol-
sche's Das Liebtsleben in der Natur is3 as a start, too scientific for
pure literature, while Hermann Lons's Mtimmelmann and Walde-
mar Bonsels' Die Biem Maja undihre Abentemr (1912), Himmelsvolk
(1915), and Mario und die Tiere (1927) play about the surface.
WALDEMAR BONSELS (1881-1952) is a Holstein man and has that
love of sea-faring and far lands that Holstein men often have, His
Indiwfahrt (1916) is too peacefully dream-like for exotic thrills, the
radiant vagabond of his numerous stories is never more than a
hero for happy people, and the theosophical doctrine he pro-
pounds has no tangibility*

1 The influence is most marked in the novels of Wilhelm Raabe (1831-1910)
and Max Kretzet. Stefan Zweig deals with Dickens in Dm Meister.